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Full text of "Byte Magazine Volume 15 Number 13: State of the Art Advanced Graphics"

When a Laser Printer Just Won't Do: 27 Laser Alternatives 



PAGE 156 



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DECEMBER 1990 



A McGRAW-HILL PUBLICATI< 



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PAGE 140 



STATE OF THE ART IN 

COMPUTE 




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on Your Desktop 



'Laptop on a Chip" designs 



Understanding X.400 



'Real" Relational Databases 
vs. the Pretenders 



Sony NeWS vs. MIPS Magnum 
Tl's New TravelMate 3000 
Norton Utilities for Unix, Mac 
DR DOS 5.0 
Dell Station 425E 



(0) 





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Unix|pr the Amiga 



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o 440235 o 



$3.50 U.S.A./$4.50 IN CANADA 
0360-5280 




THE NEW DELL SYSTEM 433TE 

33MHzElSAi486. ,M 

• Intel 80486 microprocessor running ar 

33 MH2 with 128 KB external cache. 
**CommerciaI Lease Plan. Lease for 
a.s loiv as $377/month. 
330 MR Super VGA Color System 

(800x600) $10,499 

Price listed includes 4 MB of RAM* 
80, 100, 190, 330 and 650 MR hard drive 
configurations available. 




THE NEW DELL SYSTEM 425TE 

25 MHz EISA i486. 

• Intel 80486 microprocessor running at 

25 MHz. 
Commercial Lease Plan. Lease for as 
low as $278/month. 
190 MR Super VGA Color System 

(800x600) $7,499 

Price listed includes 4 MB of RAM* 
80, 100, 190, 330 and 650 MB hard drive 
configurations available. 




THE DELL SYSTEM 43 3E 
33MH:ElSAi4S6. 
• i486 microprocessor running at 
33 MHz. 
Commercial Lease Plan. Lease for as 
loiv as $307/month. 
100 MB SuperVGA Color System 

(800x600) $8,499 

Price listed includes 4 MB of RAM* 
80, 100, 190, 330 and 650 MB hard drive 
configurations available. 




THE DELL SYSTEM 42 5E ,W 
25 MH: EISA i486. 
• i486 microprocessor running at 

25 MHz. 
Commercial Lease Plan. Lease for as 
low as $235/month. 
100 M B Super VGA Color System 

(800x600) $6,499 

Price listed includes 4MB of" RAM .* 
80, 100, 190, 3 30 and 650 MB hard drive 
configurations available. 




THE NEW DELL SYSTEM 32 5D 

25MHz386. ,M 

• Intel 80386 microprocessor n inning at 

25 MH: with 32 KR external cache. 
Commercial Lease Plan. Lease for as 
low as $U2hn<mth. 

40 MR VGA Color Plus System $2,999 
Price listed includes 1 MR or' RAM* 
40, 80, 100, 190, 330 and 650 MB hard 
drive configurations available. 




THE DELL SYSTEM 3 16SX 

16 MHz 386SX. 

• Intel 80386SX microprocessor running 

at 16 MHz. 
Commercial Lease Plan. Lease for as 
low as $79/month. 

40 MR VGA Color Plus System $2,099 
Price listed includes 1 MB of RAM * 
20, 40, 80, 100 and 190 MB hard drive 
configurations available. 




THE DELL SYSTEM 320LX 

20MH:3S6SX. 

• Intel 80386SX microprocessor running 

at 20 MHz. 
Commercial Lease Plan. Lease for as 
loiv as $W4hnonth. 
40 MB VGA Color Plus System $2, 799 
Price listed includes 1 MR of'RAM .* 
40, 80, 100, 190, 330 and 650 MB hard 
drive configurations available. 




THE DELL SYSTEM 210 
12.5 MH: 286. 
• Intel 80286 microprocessor running 

at 12.5 MHz. 
Conmiercial Lease Plan. Lease for as 
low as $59/month. 
20 MB VGA Monochrome 

System $1,549 

Price listed includes 1 MB of RAM* 
20, 40, SO and 100 MR hard drive 
configurations available. 




THE NEW DELL SYSTEM 320LT 

20 MHz 386SX. 

• Intel 80386SX microprocessor ninning 

at 20 MHz. 
Commercial Lease Plan. Lease for as 
low as $l4lhnonth. 
40 MR, 2 MR RAM * $3,899 

20 MR hard drive configurations also 
available. 




THE DELL SYSTEM 3 16LT 

16 MHz 386SX. 

• Intel 80386SX microprocessor ninning 

at 16 MHz. 
Cojjmierci'al Lease Plan. Lease for as 
low as $H2/moi\th. 
20 MR, 1 MR RAM* $2,999 

40 MR hard drive configurations also 
available. 



The Dell System 433TE and 425TE ore class A devices sold for use in commercial environments only. •PetfomTonce Enhoncemenh: Wiihin iho first megabyte of memory, 126 K8 (316SX.320LT, 316LTand 210), 96 KB (333D and 325D) or 384 KB (320LX. 425E. 433E. 425TE 
and 433TE) of memory Is reserved for use by the system ta enhonte peifonnonce. Con be optionally disabled on 333D, 325D, 316SXond 210. AD systems ore photographed with optional e/tros All prices and spec ificotions ore subject toe ho nge wiihou: notice Dell cannot be lespansibe for 
errors m typography or photography tSource. From Compaq September 11, 1990 press ieleose ttSource; From Compaq July 23, 19W press release. ' "Payment based on36-monlh open end lease leosmg arranged by Leasing Group. InC In Canada, configurations ond prices may 
vary DULL SYSTEM is a registered trademark, Dell, 425E and SmortVu ore trademarks of Dell Computer Corporation. Intel is a regrslered trademark and 366, <l86, and i486 ore trademarks of Intel Cor porOti on. Other trademarks and trode names are used to identify the entities claiming 
the marks and names or their products Dell Computer Corporation disclaims any proprietary interest in trademarks and trade names other than its own On. site service may not beavoilob'e >ncertom remote locations. Shipping, handling and oppkab'e soles tax not included in the pnee. 
For information on ando Copy of Dell's 30-day Total Satisfaction Guarantee, limited woiranfy, and Xerox's Service Contract, p'eose write to Dell USA Corporation. 9505 Arbare'um Boulevard, Aust.n. Texas 78759-7299, ATfN. Warranty $ 1990 Dell Computer Corporation All rights reserved. 



TOP OF THE MARK. 



So what do you get by 
paying the extra mark-up 
for a Compaq? 

Not a better computer. 
Dell s new 386" systems are 
as fast, expandable and 
compatible as Compaq's. 

Not better service. In 
8 straight PC Week polls of 
corporate cutsomers, Dells 
service rated much higher 
than everyone else's. 

Not better personal attention. From the 

moment you first call 




TO ORDER, CALL 

800-388-3355 



HOURS:6AM-9PMCTM-F 8 AM-4 PM CTSAT. yOU OWfl yOUr 



us, and for as long as 



The new Dell 33 MHz and 25 MHz 386 computers. 



system board and a 32 KB cache designed into a 
compact footprint. 

The new Dell 333D is as good as a 386 PC 



In Canada 800-387-5752. In the U.K. 0SC0 414535. In France ,. . , 

(l)30.60.68.00.lnGcrmanv06l03/70l-0.lnSvveden0760.7l350. COmpUtCT Well WOTK 

with you custom configuring your computer and 
answering any questions— no matter how small 
—whether it be technical, sales or service 
related. 

In fact, the only thing extra you get from 
Compaq is, well, mark-up. 

Our new 386's pull a fast one on pricier 
computers. Both the 33 MHz Dell System® 
333D and 25 MHz Dell System 325D are faster 
and more expandable than most higher priced 
systems. 

The new Dell™325D is a fast, reliable 
machine with up to 16 MB of RAM on the 



can get. Not only is it 33% faster than the Dell 
325D, it has a 64 KB cache for an extra kick in 
performance. 

We design every machine to our specs, then 
build it to yours.We design our computers; we 
know them inside out. So when you call us, we 
can talk to you about what you need a computer 



THE NEW DELL SYSTEM 333D 33 MHz 386 AND THE 
NEW DELL SYSTEM 325D 25 MHz 386. 



STANDARD FEATURES: 

• Intel® 80386 microprocessor running at 
33 MH: (333D)or 25 MH: (325D). 

• Page mode interleaved memory archir.ecn.ire. 

• Standard 1 MB of RAM * optional 2 MB or 

4 MB of RAM expandable to 16 MB on system 
board. 

• Integrated VGA controller with 1024 x 768 
support. 

• Integrated hard drive and diskette drive 
interface. 



• 6 industrystandard expansion slots (five 16-bit, 
one 8-bit). 

• High-performance IDE (40 MB, 80 MB, 100 
MB,190MB)and ESDI (330 MB, 650 MB) 
hard disk drives. 

• 1 parallel port, 2 serial ports, PS/2 compatible 
mouse port, all integrated. 

• 177 watt power supply. 

• 12-month Xerox On-Site Service Contract. 



333D 325D 



40 MB VGA Color Plus 
64 KB (333D) or 32 KB (325D) SRAM cache. System 



$3,599 52,999 

• SmartVu- Advanced System Diagnostic Display. Prices listed include 1 MB of RAM.* 80, 100, 

• Socket for Intel 80387 or WE1TEK 3167 math 19 °- 33 °- 65 ° MB hard drive configurations 
coprocessor. ava.lable. 

• 5.25" 1.2 MB or 3.5" 1.44 MB diskette drive. I ADCODE11EM0 | 



TOP OF THE MARK-UPS. 



But, for the sake of 



$10,699 



$3699 




Compaq's 33 MH? and 25 MHz 386 computers 



for, and then put together the most efficient, 
economical package for you. We take you 
through all the choices you have in memory sizes, 
monitors, storage devices, high performance 
controllers and accessories. Once you agree about 
exactly what you need, we immediately begin 
custom configuring your computer, perform a 
completed system test, then send it off. 

Then you get 30 days to use it. If you arerft 
satisfied, send it back. Well return your money, 
no questions asked. 

Even if something goes wrong, it won't 
wreck your day. Actually, one of the nice things 
about our service is that you'll rarely need it. 
Another PC Week poll category we dominate is 
the one called "reliability — due in no small 
measure to our extensive burn-in testing on each 
computer before it goes out the door. 



argument, let's suppose 
something does go wrong 
with your Dell computer. 
Both the Dell 333D and 
325D come with our 
SmartVu; M the built-in 
diagnostic display that 
ingeniously identifies 
problems even if the 
monitor goes down. 
If you still need help, 
our Dell toll-free technical support hotline solves 
90% of all problems over the phone, often within 
4 or 5 minutes. Or, if you use our new Dell 
TechFax line at 1-800-950-1329, we'llfax back 
technical information immediately. 

If we still haven't solved the problem, we'll 
send trained technicians from the Xerox 
Corporation* to your desk the next business day 
with the solution in hand. 

For sale, for lease? for less. Call us. Talk to 
a computer expert whose only job is to give you 
exactly what you want in computers, service, 
software, printers and financing. 

You'll get solid information that could save 
you time and money on computers with high 
marks, not high mark-ups. 



DELL 

COMPUTER 



CORPORATION 



Circle 86 on Reader Service Card 



HERE'S OUR NEW STORE, 

SO YOU'LL NEVER HAVE TO GO 

TO THEIR STORE AGAIN. 



When you buy from a traditional 
computer store, here's what you get: 

A beefy retail mark-up. 

Pressure to buy something you don't 
want. 

That crummy feeling of not knowing 
what you're getting, because the salesman 
isn't sure what he's selling. 

And, when there's a problem, some 
guy with a screwdriver taking your 
computer apart. 

When you call Dell, on the other 
hand, here's what you get: 

A frank talk with experts about what 
you need, and a recommendation about 
the best overall package for you. 

Custom configuration, with options 
including monitors, memory sizes, 

accessories, 




TO ORDER, CALL 

800-388-3355 

1 10URS: 6 AM-9 PM CT M-F 8 AM-4 PM CT SAT 



software and 
peripherals. 



THE NEW DELL SYSTEM® 333D 33 MHz 386. 

STANDARD FEATURES: 

! Inn-J*' 80386 microprocessor running at 3) MH:. • Page mode interleaved memory architecture. • Standard I MR of RAM*, 
optional 2 M B or 4 MB of RAM expandable to 16 MR on system board. • Integrated VGA controller with 1024 x 768 support. 
» 64 KB high-speed SRAM, t Socket for Intel 80387 or WEITEk.' 3167 math coprocessor. • 5.25" 1.2 MB or 3. 5" 1.44 MB 
diskette drive. » 6 industry standard expansion slots (rive 16-bit, one 8-bit). • High-pet formance IDE (40 MB. 80 MB. 100 MB, 
190MB) and ESDI ( 330MB, 650MB) hard disk drives. • 1 parallel port, 2 serial ports, PS/2 compatible mouse port, all integrated. 
t Smart Vi/" -Advanced System Diagnostic Display. • 12-month On-Site Service Contract provided by Xerox. 

•|0 MB VGA Color Plus System $3,599 

Price listed includes I MB ot RAM* 40. 80, 100, 190, 330. and 650 hard drive configurations available. 

I ADCODE11EM0 I 



In CnnaJa 800-387-5752. In the UK. 0800 414535. In France 
(1) 30.60.68. 0Ci.lnCurmnny06l03/70i-0.1nSwL'den0760-713 50 



Service— often 
voted the best in the industry— by computer 
experts who know our computers inside and out. 

A variety of financing and leasing options. 

A firm promise to build your computers, a 
configured systems test, and shipment by two-day 



air standard. 

A 30-day, no questions asked, money back 
guarantee. 

A one -year limited warranty. 

And a great price, with no retail mark-up. 

Call us now. Why waste a trip when everything 
you need is right in front of you? 






■ ^r ■* if 

Rip Your Competition 

Shreds. 











v 



* ■ -41 






w^ IW'-ii^'i^l' 






F < ! 



- <r-« 




33-MHz 386DX-, 
EISA...&1995 




The ALR 
BusinessVEISA 



Its What You Need 
to Thrive in Today's 
Hostile Business World 




It's a sink or swim world out 
there, and if you don't take 
advantage of the latest in today's 
technology, your competition will. 
To survive in a sea of reduced 
budgets and accelerated time 
schedules, you need a computer 
that's both inexpensive and fast. 
You need a system that will 
exploit the best of today's and 
tomorrow's technology without 
exploiting your budget. You 
need the ALR BusinessVEISA. 

One of the easiest ways for your 
company to remain competitive 
is to reduce its spending; that's 
why we've priced the 
BusinessVEISA Model 101 at 
just $1995. With its 33-MHz 
386-processor and its advanced 
32-bit EISA bus, the 
BusinessVEISA gives you all the 
power you'll need to devour 
today's most advanced business 
applications. 



Designed to survive the chang- 
ing tides of your business envi- 
ronment, the BusinessVEISA 
can take advantage of both 
standard 8- and 16-bit add-on 
boards and advanced 32-bit 
EISA enhancement products. 
This powerful system can feast 
on the latest in today's and 
tomorrow's high-speed I/O and 
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As you conquer new territories, 
your BusinessVEISA can 
expand its jaws to accommo- 
date i486 power. Just Upgrade 
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formance up to 270%. Then 
watch your competition scatter. 

Don't ignore your killer instinct. 
Call ALR today. 

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Hunt for the Real 32-bit System 




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386/33-101 386SX/16-5V 


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CPU Speed 


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Data Path 


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Memory 


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List Price 


$1995 $2495 


Price of 25-MH; 




i486 Upgrade 


$1995 $4895 



Just Upgrade the CPU! ™ 

AI-R VEISA 25-MHz i486 CPU Module 
ALR VEISA 33-MHz 386 CPU Module j^ 33-MHv. i486 CPU Module 




MM VEISA System Board 



9401 Jeronimo, Irvine. CA 92718 
(714) 581-6770 FAX: (714) 581-9240 



Available at these selected resellers, 
Connecting Point Ml ^fflB^ 



COMPUTER CENTERS 



Prices and configurations subject to change without notice. Prices based on U.S. dollars. System shown with optional monitor/graphics adapter and 3.5" floppy. VEISA, 
BusinessVEISA, and Just Upgrade the CPU! are trademarks and ALR is a registered trademark of Advanced Logic Research, Inc. All other brand and product names are 
trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners. Shark photo: Ron Taylor/ Tom Stack & Assoc. ©1990 by Advanced Logic Research. 
AST, we saw your mailer. Would you like some of our product literature so you can get your information right next time? 

Circle 19 on Reader Service Card (RESELLERS: 20) 



BVTE 



Contents 



December 1990 
Volume 15, Number 13 



COVER STORY 

STATE OF THE ART 

Advanced Graphics 

PAGE 250 



From wire-frame models 

to photo-realism: 

Advanced graphics put 

workstation-quality 

graphics on your desktop. 




19 



44 



132 



140 



142 



144 



NEWS 

MICROBYTES 

Near-ultrasonic noise produced 

by some computer monitors 

can have negative effects on end users. 

WHAT'S NEW 

HP launches the latest LaserJet, 
the Mac II gets a 386 processor, 
AutoCAD goes to release 1 1 , and more. 



FIRST 
IMPRESSIONS 



SHORT TAKES 

Step 486/50, a technological 
showpiece from Ever ex and Velox 



Muse, Occam 's natural-language 
interface program 



Proline Backup System, Tecmar's 
tape backup solution for a NetWare LAN 



Amiga 3000UX, a Unix graphics 
workstation from Commodore 



Hardcard IIXL, Plus Development 
provides easy storage 

SonofSPARCstation 

Sun Microsystems ups the midrange 
workstation ante. 



CompuAdd Delivers a Low-Cost 
SPARCstation 

The SSI is a faithful clone. 



SolbourneS4000 Outguns 
SPARCstation 1 + 

The S4000 uses Solbourne's own 
integrated, 64-bit CPU. 



151 Suddenly, Everything's Smaller 
in Texas 

TI's 5.7-pound 386SX notebook. 



REVIEW S 

156 When Laser Printers Can't Cut It 

A look at 27 alternatives 
to the popular laser printer. 

172 Sony NeWS and MIPS Magnum: 
A Double Shot of RISC 
Two RISC workstations join 
the low-end Unix market. 

178 The Norton Utilities for System V 

179 The Norton Utilities for the Mac 

More than just warmed-over versions 
of the Norton Utilities for DOS. 

182 CAD and NetWare 386 Join Forces 

IsiCAD's CAD Vance 4.0 makes good 
on the promise of multiuser 
CAD applications. 

191 NCR's S486/MC33 Has Unique 
Approach to Reliability 
NCR's new 33-MHz 486 Micro Channel 
system is among the fastest. 

197 DR DOS Offers Hope 
for the RAM-Crammed 

Digital Research's new MS-DOS 
competitor promises to make more 
memory available for applications. 

201 On Becoming a Clock Wise Scheduler 

Phase II Software's Clockwise 
helps manage your time. 

206 Battle for the Best Unix V/386 

New releases from Interactive Systems 
and The Santa Cruz Operation. 



209 Microsoft Word Brings PC-Style 
Word Processing to Unix 

Unix word processing takes 
a turn for the better. 

213 Plug-and-Play Unix Machine 

Dell's Intel-based Unix workstation. 

221 LAN Manager 2.0: A Force 
to Be Reckoned With 

Microsoft's network flagship proves 
it is a viable alternative to NetWare. 

229 A Digital "Quill" 

for Mac Video Displays 

Data Translation's VideoQuill 
combines text, graphics, and video. 

233 Unix and 1-2-3 

Now you can run Lotus 1-2-3 
under Unix. 

237 A "More Filling" Generation 
of Tape Backup 

Tape drives from Colorado Memory 
Systems and Core International. 

246 Reviewer's Notebook 

Dolch adds a color screen to an 
impressive luggable, and Ashton-Tate 
addresses dBASE IV problems. 



STAT E OF THE ART 

250 ADVANCED GRAPHICS 
Introduction 

253 Graphics Go 3-D 

Creating photo-realistic 

3-D images is a real challenge. 

263 Ray Tracing for Realism 

Simulating light rays in a 3-D scene. 



4 BYTE • DECEMBER 1990 



COVER ILLUSTRATION: DOUG STRUTHERS © 1990/DALLAS, TX 



REGIONAL SECTION 
begins after page 72 



Portable Chips/312 



275 Color WYSIWYG Comes of Age 

Matching the colors you see on-screen 
with your printed output. 

281 True Color for Windows 

Windows 3.0 makes 24-bit color 
a realistic option. 

289 Putting the Squeeze on Graphics 

Compression technologies for full- 
color graphics and full-motion video. 

297 HDTV Sparks a Digital Revolution 

In the 1990s, the shift will be to 
high-definition and digital pictures. 

307 Graphics Engines 

A manufacturers roundup. 



FEATURES 

312 Portable Chips 

When it comes to chips, small 
can mean powerful. 

321 Relational Databases: The Real Story 

Is that a relational database 
manager or not? 

327 Concurrent C 

An AT&T language for programming 
multiprocessor systems. 

337 Strength (and Safety) in Numbers 

RAID systems may boost PC 
performance and reliability. 

341 X.400: Standardizing E-Mail 

E-mail is ready to live up 
to its promise. 

345 Alternative Operating 
Systems, Part 5: 
Unix with a Microscope 

Minix, a low-cost Unix, runs 
on ordinary personal computers. 

349 Easier Strings for the Mac 

C++ routines simplify 
Macintosh string-handling. 



HANDS ON 

355 UNDER THE HOOD 
VGA to the Max 

A new set of extensions breathes 
life into Super VGA hardware. 

361 SOME ASSEMBLY REQUIRED 
More Than Just Fast 

A look at programming SCSI devices 
on Macs and MS-DOS machines. 




DEPARTMENTS 

Spotlight 

Our Print Queue columnist 
has a long history with BYTE 
and computers. 



10 



33 



Editorial: 

A Laptop on a Chip . 



.Almost 



Letters, Ask BYTE, and Fixes 

BYTE readers join in the 15th 
anniversary commemoration. 



PERSPECTIVES 

417 CHAOS MANOR MAIL 

418 PRINT QUEUE 

A Fairy-Tale Future 

High-tech prophet Raymond Kurzweil's 
latest work is a masterful look 
at the present and future 
of intelligent machines. 

420 STOP BIT 

A Plea for Software That Works 

It's time developers started 
concentrating on software integrity. 



READER SERVICE 

406 Editorial Index by Company 
408 A lphabetical Index to Advertisers 
410 Index to Advertisers 
by Product Category 
Inquiry Reply Cards: after 412 

PROGRAM LISTINGS 

From BIX: Call (800) 227-2985 
From BYTEnet: Call (617) 861-9764 
On disk: See card after 344 



EXPERT ADVICE 

73 

COMPUTING 

AT CHAOS MANOR 

Working Smart 

by Jerry Pournelle 

Jerry looks at portable computers 

and an outlining program. 



93 

DOWN TO BUSINESS 

Getting Bigger Groupware 

by Wayne Rash Jr. 
With groupware, you can 
communicate with almost 
anyone, almost anywhere. 



101 

BETOND DOS: 

WINDOWS AND OS/2 

I've Got DIBs 

by Martin Heller 

Martin presents an overview 

of Windows and OS/2 color 

capabilities. 



105 
MACINATIONS 

Inspiration at the Year's End 

by Don Crabb 

A look at what Apple has 

accomplished over the year, and 

an inspirational new product. 



119 

THE UNIX /bin 

Back to the Workstations II 

by David Fiedler 

Unix workstations and personal 

computers completely merge. 



125 

NETWORKS 

Kicking and Screaming 

into the Present 

by Mark L. Van Name 

and Bill Catchings 

DEC slowly embraces PC 

networking standards. 



BYTE (ISSN 0360-5280/90) is published monthly with an additional issue 
tn October by McGraw-Hill. Inc. U.S. subscriber rate $29.95 per year. In 
Canada and Mexico, $34.95 per year. Single copies $3.50 in the U.S., 
$4.50 in. Canada. Executive, Editorial. Circulation, and Advertising Of- 
fices. One Phoenix Mill Lane, Peterborough, NH 03458. Second-class 
postage paid at Peterborough, NH, and additional mailing offices. Post- 
age paid at Winnipeg, Manitoba. Registration number 9321. Printed in the 
United States of America. Postmaster: Send address changes. USPS 
Form 3579, and fulfillment questions to BYTE Subscriptions, P.O. Box 
551, Hightstown, NJ 08520. 



INTEL 386SL CHIP COURTESY OF INTEL CORP. 



DECEMBER 1990 -BYTE 5 



Circle 48 on Reader Service Card 




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Trademarks are 

property of their 

respective holders. 



H 




Hugh Knows Books 
(and Computers) 



Our Print Queue author 
has a distinguished career 
outside the computer world 



BYTE readers know Print Queue 
columnist Hugh Kenner as our 
thought-provoking reviewer of 
books. But some of you may 
also know him as a noted literary critic 
and James Joyce scholar. His interest in 
computers dates back to 1973 and was 
sparked by a long-standing interest in 
math. 

"I got one of the very first HP-35 
units, having written a book about Bucky 
Fuller and being interested in the math 
behind his geodesic domes. The HP-35 
was followed by the programmable HP- 
65, then by the HP-41C. By the late 
1970s, I was well into programming; my 
book Geodesic Math [University of Cali- 
fornia Press, 1976] exhibits examples," 
says Kenner. 

In fact, Kenner had to choose between 
mathematics and physics or English lan- 
guage and literature when he started at 
the University of Toronto in 1941. "I 
have never regretted the latter decision— 
I'd have been a merely competent math- 
ematician, but I'm better than that at 
what I elected instead— but the former 
has always stayed available," Kenner 
explains. 



Built His First PC 

A charter BYTE subscriber, Kenner did 
not immediately jump onto the personal 
computer bandwagon. "The HP [calcu- 
lator] I could hold in my hand could do as 
much [as the early personal computers] 
more simply. I got interested, though, 
about the time disk drives were an- 
nounced. What I wanted was a way to re- 
vise my writing without retyping. 

"A longtime Heathkit builder, I got an 
H-89 kit, which my 1 1 -year-old daughter 
helped me assemble. (No connection 
Lisa soldered has ever failed. Same apti- 
tude as 1 1 -year-olds once displayed with 
needlepoint.) When the 16-bit Z-100 was 
announced, someone at Brady Books 
thought to ask me to write a user 's guide. 
The Z-100 has since been joined by a Ze- 
nith Super sPort and a Kay pro 386. All 
four machines are still in use." 

First BYTE Article a Travesty 

Kenner' s first BYTE article was a collab- 
orative effort with computer scientist Jo- 
seph O'Rourke— a language statistics 
program called Travesty. "It drew as 
much reader response as any program 
BYTE had ever run," he recalls. That led 
to Kenner writing reviews of computer 
books, which led to Print Queue. 

Although Print Queue resides in the 
back of BYTE, it generates more mail 
each month than any other column, ex- 
cept for Jerry Pournelle's Computing at 
Chaos Manor. Pro or con, Kenner makes 
his readers think and respond. ■ 



6 BYTE- DECEMBER 1990 



PHOTOGRAPHY: GREG PEASE © 1990 



XEROX 



Ventura Publisher introduces the Gold Series. 
It simply does more, any way you look at it. 



And now there are several new ways to 
look at it. Because the desktop publisher 
that does more for you now does it all in 
the three leading PC environments. 

The Gold Series introduces new Ventura 
Publisher* editions for DOS/GEM, 
Windows 3.0, and OS/2 Presentation 
Manager. That means new ease of use and 
learning as well as compatibility with 
hundreds more software applications. All 
three new editions can use documents 
from Ventura Publisher 1.1 and 2.0. 

It does even more than before. 

The Gold Series gives you much more than 
a choice of environments. At no extra 
cost,each edition includes our Professional 



Extension and Network Server. So you 
also get such advanced DTP features as 
interactive table creation and scientific 
equation editing, cross referencing, and 
vertical justification. 

And you get networking. So several users 
can edit and proofread simultaneously 
as well as share stylesheets and network 
resources. On Novell, IBM, 3COM, and 
other Windows- and OS/2 Presentation 
Manager-compatible networks. 

Whether youVe designing a newsletter or 
publishing a directory, you'll do it faster and 
more effectively with Ventura Publisher. 
Unique features give you more flexible and 
precise type contraband automate many 



steps other programs make you repeat 
over and over. Ventura Publisher is the one 
DTP program that can handle all your 
publishing and design projects. 

If you want to do more in desktop publish- 
ing, doesn't it make sense to use the 
program that does the most? Call today for 
more information about the new Ventura 
Publisher Gold Series. (800) 822-8221 
in USA; (800) 228-8579 in Canada. For 
training information, call (800) 445-5554. 
Ventura Software Inc., a Xerox company. 

Ventura Publisher 
Gold Series 

It simply does more. 




Ventura Publisher* is a trademark of Ventura Software Inc., a Xerox company. XEROX* is a trademark of XEROX CORPORATION-] 
All other product names or trademarks are property of their respective owners. © 1990, Ventura Software Inc. 

Circle 338 on Reader Service Card 






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For more information, call (800) 541-1261, Dept. M29 Outside the U.S. and Canada, call (206) 882-8661. In Canada, call (416) 673-7638. © 1990 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Microsoft 



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Microsoft logo are registered trademarks and Windows and Making it all make sense are trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. The Microsoft Mouse design is patented. (Design Patent #302, 426.) 




EDITORIAL ■ Fred Langa 



A Laptop on 
a Chip . . . Almost 



When they're not 
duking it out in the 
courtroom, companies 
like AMD and Intel 
are redefining 
laptop technology 



Last month, I wrote about the cur- 
rent crop of laptops— and they 
are indeed spectacular. But the 
game's not over yet, by a long 
shot. The best of current technology of- 
fers you a full spectrum of choices, from 
i486-based lunchbox luggables, to 386- 
based portables and notebooks, to fabu- 
lously lightweight and fast 286 note- 
books, to tiny hand-held 8086-based 
units. 

Soon, very soon, you can expect hand- 
held 286 machines— an AT in the palm of 
your hand— and a plethora of 386-based 
notebooks. 

The Hand-Helds 

In October, AMD (Austin, TX) an- 
nounced its "AT on a chip," a single chip 
that contains an AMD 286 microproces- 
sor and all the ancillary chips required to 
build a basic IBM AT. More accurately 
described as "most of an AT on a chip," 
the 286ZX and its low-power sibling, the 
286LX, need only a DRAM chip, a key- 
board controller, and a system bus to 
make a working computer. (This con- 
trasts with the 10 to 100+ chips some 
other designs use.) 

The286ZX chip is designed for desk- 
top machines, and the 286LX is designed 
for laptop and notebook computers. The 
286LX adds some battery-saving fea- 
tures to improve laptop performance, 
such as a CPU shutdown mode that turns 
off the 80C286 section of the chip. A 
standby mode shuts down all system 



clocks except those that are needed for 
DRAM refreshing. It barely sips power, 
which should stretch out battery life to 
the max. 

This compacting of elements reduces 
many of the engineering headaches that 
arise when cramming a 286-based VGA 
computer into a notebook form factor, so 
you can expect to see many more of these 
laptops and notebooks on the market. 
That, in turn, should help keep prices 
reasonable. 

It also augurs well for 286-based 
hand-helds. Now that's a machine I want 
to use— a full-blown go-anywhere AT 
that fits in a pocket. Don't laugh; they're 
being developed right now. 

The Notebooks 

Longtime readers may recall that I'm no 
big fan of the 386SX for desktop com- 
puters because it has a narrow bus that 
needlessly cripples I/O. {Needless is the 
key word. The SX was not designed to 
fill a consumer need, but purely for mar- 
keting reasons. By promoting the SX, 
which it alone manufactured, Intel hoped 
to kill off the perfectly adequate 286, 
which other companies— such as AMD, 
Harris, and Fujitsu— also sold.) 

In portables, bus width isn't much of 
an issue. For one thing, you tend not to 
stuff a portable full of plug-in cards. For 
another, now that there's a reasonable 
body of 386-specific software, a por- 
table SX gives you increased compatibil- 
ity with your desktop system's software, 
albeit with the performance hit of the 
SX's CPU-to-memory bottleneck. 

SX chips have been used in laptops for 
quite a while, and they are starting to 
show up in notebook computers in some 
numbers. 

From SX to SL 

Enter the 386SL. Intel describes it as a 
"386 processor expressly designed for 
the emerging notebook-size personal 
computer market . " 

The 386SL is a 20-MHz 386 core com- 



bined with a main-memory subsystem 
controller with a 32-megabyte address 
space, an EMS 4.0 memory controller, 
an AT/Industry Standard Architecture 
bus controller, a cache controller, and 
support for the 80387SX math copro- 
cessor. A companion chip, the 82360SL 
ISA peripheral and power management 
chip, supports CPU, memory, and pe- 
ripheral functions, as well as providing 
programmable features to manage power 
to prolong battery life. 

Intel also provides a family of low- 
power support logic chips for modems, 
keyboards, memory, network adapters, 
and the like. Intel is setting itself up as 
a virtual one-stop source for laptop sil- 
icon. 

We can't meaningfully test these new 
chips until they're installed in a real-life 
system, but Intel believes that the com- 
pact, highly integrated 386SL is about 20 
percent faster than an ordinary 20-MHz 
386SX. This means that the SL line can 
deliver "true" 386 performance levels 
even in low-power, compact systems. 
The SL may be the chip the SX should 
have been all along. 

How compact will SL systems be? The 
SL chips themselves come in several con- 
figurations, the smallest being an amaz- 
ingly dense 227-lead land grid array. The 
two main chips contain a total of 1 . 1 mil- 
lion transistors, and they are fabricated 
using 1 -micron technology. Intel says 
that a complete 386 AT can be built on a 
board measuring just 4 by 6 inches (about 
10 by 15 centimeters). Incidentally, 
that's about the size of a Sharp 
Wizard. . . . 

West Coast news editor Owen Linder- 
holm has been following these develop- 
ments all along. His report on the AMD 
ZX and LX chips appeared in October's 
Microbytes, and his excellent feature on 
what's new in laptop chip sets appears in 
this issue on page 3 12. Check it out. 

— Fred Langa 

Editor in Chief 

(BIX name "f langa") 



10 BYTE- DECEMBER 1990 



New Ifersion Now Available 





SPEED 
LIMIT 




Borland's Turbo Pascal 6.0 is the Fastest 
Way from Inspiration to Application 



Jump-Start Your Application 

When you're inspired to write a program, you want to spend your 
time developing code that solves your problems. Not hours and 
hours writing common routines for event handling, data manage- 
ment or user interface. 

Now, you can jump-start your applications development by pro- 
gramming with the latest release of the World's #1 Pascal Compiler, 
Turbo Pascal® 6.0 with Turbo Vision.™ 

Now with Turbo Vision 

With Turbo Vision, the first object-oriented application framework 
for DOS, you get a giant head start on creating better applications 
in far less time. Use a Turbo Vision object and your program auto- 
matically inherits a hot program architecture that includes overlap- 
ping windows, pull-down menus and mouse support. Turbo Vision 
makes it fast and easy-setting you free to develop the parts of your 
applications that solve your problem. 

And Turbo Pascal 6.0 comes loaded with Turbo Vision applica- 
tions including a calendar, a calculator, an editor, a clock, a direc- 
tory browser and forms. 

New Turbo-Charged Environment 

The new Turbo Integrated Development Environment (IDE) fea- 
tures a multi-file editor, overlapping windows and mouse support. 



And Turbo Help lets you copy, compile and run an example program 
for every standard Pascal library routine so you can use it in 
your code. 

Pro Version with Turbo Drive M 

Turbo Pascal® Professional 6.0 also includes: a professional 
version of the compiler with Turbo Drive,t for compiling big appli- 
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the toughest bugs; Turbo Profiler™ 1.0, for eliminating bottlenecks; 
and Turbo Assembler® 2.0, the world's fastest, 100% MASM- 
compatible assembler. 

An Inspiring Offer 

The suggested retail price for Turbo Pascal 6.0 is $149 95 , and $299 95 
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for only $99 95 * direct from 
Borland. 

To order, see your dealer 
To upgrade, call now: 1-800-331-0877 



TURBO PASCAL 

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(RESELLERS: 52) 



B OR LA N D 

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'Add $10 00 lor sloping and handing Otter expires February 28. 1991 Otter good in U S and Canada only Mai orders lo Borland International, inc. P Box 660001. Scotts Vjiiey. CA 95067-0001 Residents m CA CT. GA. II. MA. Ml. W. OH, PA TX. VA and WA pfease add appro- 
priate sales lax. For orders outside lhe U S . ca?l (408) 438-5300 tTurbo Drive con-oiler requires 1Mb extended memory. Hard disk recommended Copyright ©1990 Borland All Borland products are Irademarks oi Borland International, he Corpora* Headquarlers 1800 Green Hi* Road, 
PO Box 660001. Scotts Va!1ey. CA 95067-0001. (408) 438-5300 Offices In Australia. Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Sweden and he United Kingdom Porsche is a registered trademark of Porsche. Bl 1386 



The IBM RISC System/ 

Designing on any other workstation 




Whatever youYe creating, you'll sail into a whole 
new age with any of the four POWERstations in the 
RISC System/6000 
family. Because 
POWER (Perform- 
ance Optimization 
With Enhanced RISC) 
processing can give 
you performance 
you've probably only 
dreamed about: 




up to four instructions per machine cycle, 42 MIPS 
and 13 M FLOPS. Suddenly, complex designs don't 
take eons anymore. 

The four RISC System/6000 POWERstations 
feature a range of graphics processors from grayscale 
to Supergraphics to satisfy any grapliics demand. 
Great news for Power Seekers working on animation, 
scientific visualization, medical imaging and engi- 
neering solutions like CADAM T , M CAEDS™ and CATIA! 
And for electrical design automation, there's IBM's 
all new CBDS™ and an arsenal of over 60 EDA appli- 



IBM is a registered trademark and RISC System/6000 and CAEDS are trademarks of International Business Machines Corporation. CADAM is a trademark of CADAM INC. CATIA i s a 

trademark of Dassault Systemes. CBDS is atrademark of Bell Northern Research Corporation. 

H AGAR THE HORRIBLE Character® © 1990 King Features Syndicale. Inc. © IBM Corp.1990, all rights reserved. 



6000" family. 

will seem downright primitive. 




pimB&uiie 



cations from more than a dozen vendors. 

With every POWERstation, you can get an almost 
unimaginable palette of 16 million colors, which gives 
you 3D images so realistic, they fairly leap off the 
screen,with super sharp resolution of 1,280x1,024 pixels. 
And when it's time to call in the heavy artillery, the 
POWERstation 730 draws nearly one million 3D vec- 
tors per second. Like all POWERstations, it can come 
complete with its own graphics processor, freeing the 
POWER processor to rapidly create and analyze your 
designs. A 1 1 a t prices that won't sin k anybody's budget. 



So if you're tired of paddling upstream with 
yesterday's performance, call your IBM marketing 
representative or 
Business Partner to 
find out more about 
the RISC System/6000 
family. For literature, 
call 1 800 1BM-6676, 
cxt. 991. 

Civilization never 
looked so good. 



For the Power Seeker. 




Circle 139 on Reader Service Card 



BYTE 



EDITOR IN CHIEF 

Frederic S. Langa 



MANAGING EDITOR 

Anne Fischer Lent 

NEWS 

New York: Managing Editor: Rich Malloy 

Associate News Editor: Andrew Reinhardt 

Peterborough: Senior Editor, Microbytes: 

D. Barker, Senior Editor, New Products: 

Stan Miastkowski 

Associate News Editors, What's New: David 

Andrews, Martha Hicks 

Editorial Assistant: Amanda Waterfield 

San Francisco: News Editor: Owen 

Linderholm 

Associate News Editor: Jeffrey Bertolucci 

London: Senior Editor: Colin Barker 

BYTELAB 

Managing Editor: Michael Nadeau 
Technical Director: Rick Grehan 
Senior Editor: Dennis Allen 
Technical Editors: Alan Joch, Robert 
Mitchell, Tom Yager 

Testing Editors/Engineers: Stephen Apiki, 
Stanford Diehl, Howard Eglowstein, 
Stanley Wszola 

STATEOFTHE ART 

Senior Editor: Jane Morrill Tazelaar 
Technical Editor: Robert M. Ryan 

FEATURES 

Senior Editor: Kenneth M. Sheldon 
Technical Editors: Janet J. Barron, 
Ben Smith 

SENIOR EDITORS, AT LARGE 

Tom Thompson, Jon Udell 

SPECIAL PROJECTS 

Senior Editor: Gene Smarte 

SENIOR CONTRIBUTING EDITOR 

Jerry Pournelle 

CONTRIBUTING EDITORS 

Bill Catchings, Don Crabb, David Fiedler, 
Hugh Kenner, Mark J. Minasi, Wayne 
Rash Jr., Mark L. Van Name 

CONSULTING EDITORS 

Jonathan Amsterdam, Nick Baran, 
Laurence H. Loeb, Trevor Marshall, Stan 
Miastkowski, Dick Pountain, Phillip 
Robinson, Peter Wayner 

COPYEDITING 

Chief Copy Editor: Lauren A. Stickler 
Copy Administrator: Cathy Kingery 
Copy Editors: Susan Colwell, Jeff 
Edmonds, Judy Grehan, Nancy Hayes 
Margaret A. Richard, Warren Williamson 

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Of fice Manager: Peggy Dunham 
Assistants. Linda C. Ryan, June Sheldon 

ART 

Director: Nancy Rice 

Assistant Director: Joseph A. Gallagher 

Art Assistant: Jan Muller 

Technical Artist: Alan Easton 



PRODUCTION 

Director: David R. Anderson 

Senior Editorial Production Coordinator: 

Virginia Reardon 

Editorial Production Coordinators: 

Barbara Busenbark, Denise Chartrand 

TYPOGRAPHY 

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Applications Manager: Donna Sweeney 
Typesetter: Christa Patterson 

ADVERTISING SERVICES (603) 924-6448 

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Assistant: Christine W. Tourgee 
Customer Service Supervisor: Linda Fluhr 
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Quality Control Manager: Wai Chiu Li 
Production Coordinator: Rod Holden 

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Publisher's Assistant: Donna Nordlund 

MARKETING AND PLANNING 

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Business Manager: Kenneth A. King 
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Director: Glyn Standen 

Subscriptions Manager: Paul Ruess 

Assistant Manager, Subscriptions: 

Margaret Liszka 

Subscriptions Assistant: Holly Zilling 

Newsstand Manager: Vicki Weston 

Distribution Coordinator: Karen Desroches 

Back Issues: Louise Me negus 

Direct Accounts Coordinator: Ellen Dunbar 

Direct Accounts Telephone Sales 

Representative: Karen Carpenter 

BUILDING SERVICES 

Cliff Monkton, Gary Graham, 
EdCodman 

PERSONNEL 

Human Resources Administrator: Patricia 
Burke, Human Resources Assistant: Fran 
Wozniak, Receptionist: Beverly Goss 



PUBLISHER 

Ronald W. Evans 



BIX 



ADVERTISING SALES 

Associate Publisher, Vice President 
of Marketing: Steven M. Vito 

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Eastern Advertising Director: 
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Sales Assistant: Julie Watson 
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Sales Assistant: Mary Lynn Heinritz 

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INSIDE ADVERTISING SALES 

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NATIONAL ADVERTISING SALES 
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BYTE BITS (2x3) 

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THE BUYER'S MART (1x2) 
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CATALOG SHOWCASE/INT'L CARDS 

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REGIONAL ADVERTISING SECTIONS 

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BYTE DECK 

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INTERNATIONAL ADVERTISING SALES STAFF 

See listing on page 409. 



BYTE INFORMATION EXCHANGE 



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Pournelle, Telecommunications Exchange: 
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Secretary: Patricia Bausum, Marketing 
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fi'i J Copyright © 1990 by McGraw-Hill, 
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ft 



Member 

Audit Bureau of Circulation 



14 BYTE- DECEMBER 1990 




Times Change. 

The Need To Protect Doesn't 



SOFTWARE DEVELOPERS 

How To Manage 
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Every Day. 
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RAINBOW TECHNOLOGIES 



9292 Jeronimo Road, Irvine, CA 92718 
TEL: (714) 454-2100 • (800) 852-8569 
FAX: (714) 454-8557 • Apple Link: D3058 

Rainbow Technologies, Ltd., Shirley Lodge, 470 London Rd. 
Slough, Berkshire SL3 8QY, U.K. TEL: 0753-41512 • FAX: 0753-43610 



%, 



NetSentinel is a trademark of Rainbow Technologies, Inc. 
Copyright ©1990 Rainbow Technologies, Inc. 



.£_ 



Circle 261 on Reader Service Card (RESELLERS: 262) 



The IEF ™ can help you devel 
unprecedented quality, prod 




"The IEF is a superior tool for implement- 
ing Information Engineering because it 
integrates the entire process from planning 
through code generation. We're deploying 
the IEF throughout the corporation." 
David V. Evans 
Vice President 

Director, Information Systems 
J.C. Penney 




"The strengths of the IEF are clear-cut. 
One obvious quality advantage is that 
application changes are made to diagrams, 
not code. This ensures ongoing integrity 
—the specification always matches the 
executing system." 
Paul R. Hessinger 
Chief Technology Officer 
Computer Task Group 




S^ff^l 



"We are using the IEF to develop a new 
generation of manufacturing systems 
replacing over 300 existing systems. We 
estimate that IEF will increase our produc- 
tivity by between 2-to-1 and 3-to-1 for 
new systems development.." 
Wal Budzynski 

Head of Operations, Systems/Computing 
Rolls-Royce 




"Our On-line Banking system has been in 
production for more than 12 months— 
500,000 transactions a day— without a 
single code failure. And we had very few 
enchancements to do. Our users got what 
they needed the first time out." 
Mark Quinlan 

Senior Programmer/Analyst 
Huntington National Bank 




"I've seen other CASE tools fail, so I raised 

the bar high when we evaluated the IEF. It 

passed with flying colors. I could not be 

happier with my decision to adopt the 

IEF company-wide." 

John F. Matt 

President 

AMR Travel Services 




"We used the IEF to rebuild our aging 

Frequent Flight Bonus system. With DB2 

tables of up to 52 million rows, we needed 

high performance. And we got it...98% of 

our transactions complete in less than 

3 seconds." 

Cloene Goldsborough 

Director of Data Resource Management 

TWA 







mm 



"To meet the dramatically reduced time- 
to-market requirements for our products, 
we need high-quality systems that can be 
changed fast. That's why we've chosen 
the IEF as the CASE solution for our entire 
organization." 
John Pajak 

Executive Vice President 
Mass Mutual Life Insurance 




"Our users were extremely pleased when 
we finished our first project— a 60-trans- 
action system— in one-half the budgeted 
time. We had tried interfaced CASE tools 
without success. IEF integration makes 
the difference." 
Giorgio Sorani 
Division Head -MIS 
Lubrizol 




"Our first IEF system was completed 

faster, and with fewer errors, than any 

system I've ever seen. If l had to go back 

to the old ways, I'd find another 

job ...outside the DP world. It means that 

much to me." 

MogensSorensen 

Chief Consultant 

Nykredit (Denmark) 



op information systems with 
activity and maintainability* 

The success of Texas Instruments 
CASE product is proven — in the field. 



Major companies have used TI's 
CASE product, the Information 
Engineering Facility™ (IEF M ), for 
everything from rebuilding aging 
high-maintenance-cost systems to 
development of new enterprise- 
wide strategic systems. 

Study shows zero code defects. 

The quality of IEF-developed 
systems is remarkable. In recent 
CASE research by The Gartner 
Group, application developers 
were asked to report the number 
of abends they had experienced. 
(An "abend" is a system failure 
or "lock-up" caused by code 
defects.) IEF developers reported 
zero defects— not one abend had 
occurred in lEF-generated code. 

Maintenance productivity 
gains of up to 10-to-l. 

In this same study, developers 
were asked to compare IEF 
maintenance productivity with 
their former methods. Of those 
responding, more than 80 percent 
had experienced gains of from 2 -to- 1 
to 10-toA. (See chart.) 

Specifications always match 
the executing application. 

With the IEF, application 
changes are made to diagrams, 
not code. So, for the life of your 
system, specifications will always 
match the executing application. 
The Gartner Group research 
showed that all IEF users who 
reported making application 
changes made all changes at the 
diagram level. 



IEF Maintenance Productivity 
Compared to Traditional Techniques. 



100- 



&60 

09 

a: 
5 40 

BS 
OS 
O 

I 20 



0-u: 



(Source: Gartner Group, Inc., 8/9D) 



2-t0-1 

to 

10-t0-1 

Gains 



Less Same More 

Productivity Productivity Productivity 



Developers were asked to compare IEF maintenance to 
former methods. Of those responding, more than 80% 
reported productivity gains of from 2-to-l to 10-to-l. 



Mainframe applications can be 
developed and tested on a PC. 

With our new OS/2 toolset, you 
can develop mainframe applica- 
tions, from analysis through 
automatic code generation, on 
your PC. Then, using the IEF's 
TP monitor simulator and the 
diagram-level testing feature, you 
can also test these mainframe 
applications without ever leaving 
the PC. 

More environmental 
independence coming soon — 
develop on PC, generate for 
DEC/VMS, TANDEM ,UNIX. 

The IEF has generated applica- 
tions for IBM mainframe environ- 
ments (MVS/DB2 under TSO, 
IMS/DC, and CICS) since early 
1988. Soon you'll be able to 
develop systems in OS/2 and then 
automatically generate for other 
platforms. DEC/VMS, TANDEM 
and UNIX are scheduled for 
availability in 1991. More will 



follow. We are committed to 
increased environmental indepen- 
dence in support of the Open 
Systems concept. 

We are committed to standards. 

IEF tools and IEF-generated code 
will comply with standards as 
they emerge. We will adhere to 
CUA standards and to the prin- 
ciples of IBM's AD/Cycle and 
DEC's Cohesion— and we will 
support Open Systems environ- 
ments centering around UNIX. In 
any environment, the COBOL, C 
and SQL we generate adhere 
closely to ANSI standards. Our 
presence on standards committees 
helps us keep abreast of ANSI 
and ISO developments affecting 
the CASE world. 

Full-service support. 

Of course, our technical support, 
consultancy, training courses, 
satellite seminars, and other infor- 
mational assistance will continue 
apace. We also offer re-engineering 
and template services. This full- 
service support will remain an 
integral part of the IEF product. 

For more information, 

including a VHS video demo, 

call 800-527-3500 or 

214-575-4404. 

Or write Texas Instruments, 

6550 Chase Oaks Blvd., 

Piano, Texas 75023. 

Texas ^^ 
Instruments 



© 1990 Tl 

Information Engineering Facility and IEF are trademarks of Texas Instruments. Other product names listed are the trademarks of the companies indicated. 



The Right Decis 



o N 



E The 486 Champ 

"...THIS COMPUTER DESERVES YOUR ATTENTION." 




Sift. 11,1990 
Tri-Star 

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On the September 11, 1990, 24 of 
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Once again the choice is clear. If you 
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decision - it's the only decision. 



PC MAGAZINE - September 11, 1990 



"...probably has the best mix of support, 

service, and customer satisfaction policies of 

all the computers in this review. " 

PC MAGAZINE -July, 1990 

"Support Policies - Excellent. " 
INFOWORLD - MAY 7, 1990 

Flash Cache 

486/25 

$4995 

Complete with Intel's 80486 CPU, 64K RAM Cache, 

4MB RAM, 1.2MB Floppy, 1.44MB Floppy, 200MB Hard 

Drive, 1024 x 768 SVGA Color Combo, Parallel & 

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Flash Cache 
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Parallel & Serial Ports, and 1 01 Keyboard. 



CAD WORKSTATIONS 

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20" Hitachi Monitor 
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Circle 325 on Reader Service Card 

Alt prices and specifications subject to change without notice. Money Back guarantee does not 

include shipping charges. All systems have been verified or certified to comply with pan 1 5 of the 

FCC rules for a Class A or Class fi computing device. 



COMPUTER CORPORATION 

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Monday - Friday 7:00am-7:00pm MST 
Saturday 9:00am-4:00pm MST 



MlCROBYTES 



Research news and industry developments shaping the world of desktop computing 

Edited by D. Barker 



Monitor Noise Causes Stress, Researchers Say 



The near-ultrasonic noise produced 
by some computer monitors and 
VDTs can actually lower worker 
efficiency and might even cause health 
problems in women who use them, 
according to a new study. Researchers 
Caroline Dow and Douglas Covert, 
professors at the University of 
Evansville (Indiana), say they found 
that a 1 6-kHz pure-tone sound caused 
significant amounts of stress in the 
college-age women participating in the 
study. They say this tone is similar to 
sounds made by most of the commonly 
used computer monitors. 

"In these experiments we have made 
the link between stress and a specific 
attribute of the VDT," Dow says. In 
their controlled experiments, Dow and 
Covert demonstrated that the 16-kHz 
tone, which is at the top of the range of 
most human hearing, can cause a 
significant reduction in a worker's 
accuracy of intellectual performance 
and also spur short-term increases in 
speed. The two researchers say that 
lowered productivity and a brief 
increase in the speed of work are 
symptoms of high stress. 

Women appear most susceptible to 
the problem because they tend to hear 
better than men in higher-frequency 
ranges. As a result, the professors say, 
women can be aware of the tone while 
men aren't. Dow and Covert also say 
that women are especially affected by 
the sound at the peaks of their estrogen 
levels. High estrogen levels are typical 
of the first trimester of pregnancy. Even 
whisper-quiet sources of the tone appear 



to cause stress among women, they say. 
Dow says the tone could be a factor in 
some of the cases of gynecological 
problems, including miscarriages, that 
some people have associated with 
computerized workplaces. 

Industrial-environment researchers 
have generally discounted gender in 
considering the effects of the 1 6-kHz 
tone. Some previous studies, however, 
have shown that the sound could cause 
psychological distress in some men and 
a greater number of women when the 
sound was at high-volume levels. 

The two professors offer three sug- 
gestions. Try to use a high-definition 
monitor; they have scanning rates that 
are well above the range of human 
hearing. (Dow won't speculate on 
which resolution is best; the higher, the 
better, she says. She also points out that 
some monitor cases are designed so 
well that they muffle any sounds.) Ear 
plugs offer temporary relief, especially 
ones designed to reduce the intensity of 
high-pitched sounds. Another sugges- 
tion is to install an electronic circuit that 
produces the same 16-kHz pure tone but 
operates 1 80 degrees out of phase; the 
two sounds will cancel each other out. 
The two professors admit that some 
engineers are skeptical about this 
process, and there is no evidence yet 
that not hearing the sound actually 
eliminates the effects. 

Is your monitor stressing you out? 
Dow suggests turning your tube off for 
15 minutes and then seeing if you feel 
more relaxed. 

— David Reed 



New Hardware, Software Squeezing Graphics 



Graphics, especially color images, 
can strain the CPU capacity, bus 
bandwidth, and storage space of most 
personal computers. But new develop- 
ments in data compression will help 
facilitate the use of images on not-that- 
exotic desktop systems. 

C-Cube Microsystems (San Jose, CA) 
is putting its CL550 image processor 
chip, based on the Joint Photographic 
Experts Group (JPEG) compression al- 
gorithm, onto $995 add-in boards for 



Macs and IBM PC compatibles. These 
boards will be able to compress images 
by as much as 75 to 1, the company 
says. The new Compression Master 
boards can squeeze image files to one- 
twenty-fourth their original size with no 
visible loss of quality, C-Cube says. 

A 300-dpi 24-bit color scan of an 8'/2- 
by 1 1-inch page can take 28 MB of disk 
space — which means that it takes only a 
few such scans to fill an 80-MB disk — 
but after being fed through the Com- 



NANOBYTES 



Users apparently pushed the right 
buttons when protesting Apple's 

decision to disable the scripting 
capabilities in the standard Hyper- 
Card 2 package. Apple and Claris, 
now proprietor of the hypertext 
program, announced that the new 
HyperCard would be delivered to 
users in a run-time-only version; in 
other words, you couldn't develop 
your own stacks (programs). Those 
hyperscripting tools were going to 
come in an optional package. After a 
furor on several on-line services, 
including BIX's Macintosh Ex- 
change, the decision was nixed. 
HyperCard product manager Mike 
Holm says now that a full version of 
HyperCard will indeed be bundled 
with new Macs; however, it will not 
enter scripting or programming 
mode without the user making a 
minor change: removing an opaque 
button over the scripting choices on 
the Home stack. Claris plans to have 
a shrink-wrapped HyperCard 2.0 
upgrade available in the near future 
for a retail price of $49.95. 

Microsoft (Redmond, WA) has col- 
lected a set of device drivers for 

printers, displays, pointing devices, 
and other peripherals that work with 
Windows 3.0. The drivers were 
written by hardware developers and 
then certified by Microsoft. The 
Windows Supplemental Driver 
Library includes drivers for HP's 
LaserJet Series II and III printers 
that Microsoft says improve printing 
performance from within Windows. 
This first version of SDL also 
includes printer drivers from AMT, 
Bitstream, Brother, Canon, IBM, 
Kodak, Okidata, Olivetti, Seiko, and 
Star. The "enhanced" display 
drivers, including ones for Super 
VGA systems, come from ATI, 
Chips & Technologies, Compaq, 
Graphic Software Systems, Video 
Seven, and Western Digital. Novell 
has provided a network driver. You 
can order the SDL from Microsoft 
by calling (800) 426-9400; the cost 
is $20. 



DECEMBER 1990 -BYTE 19 



MICROBYTES 



NANOBYTES 



Interleaf (Cambridge, MA) says it 
will soon bring to market some 
desktop publishing products that 
implement its "active document" 

technology. Announced last March, 
active documents are electronic 
documents that can "access, evalu- 
ate, and act on information," 
Interleaf says. The first incarnation is 
in the new Interleaf 5 series, a set of 
six programs for specific job 
categories (e.g., writer, engineer, and 
illustrator). Active electronic docu- 
ments can evaluate and act on infor- 
mation they receive. For example, 
Interleaf and Lotus have created an 
"intelligent link" that lets Interleaf 
documents display information from 
Lotus 1-2-3 files as Interleaf auto- 
mated tables or charts. You activate 
the link by copying an icon repre- 
senting the spreadsheet and pasting 
the icon into an Interleaf document. 
Interleaf plans to offer a Lotus 
toolkit for creating intelligent links 
in a spreadsheet. The Interleaf 5 
products for Unix workstations are 
scheduled to begin shipping in 
limited numbers this month. 
Versions for DOS and VMS are 
scheduled to ship next spring; Mac 
versions will ship next summer. 

Motorola (Austin, TX) has pack- 
aged a new version of its 68030 for 
use as an embedded controller. The 
new 68EC030 performs comparably 
to the regular 68030, the heart of 
high-end Macs and workstations, and 
it's object code-compatible with its 
ancestors, the 68000 and the 68020. 
The 40-MHz chips cost $75 each in 
quantities of 1000. 

Quark (Denver) is taking XPress, 
one of the leading Macintosh 
desktop publishing programs, to 
OS/2. As part of its development 
agreement with IBM, Quark also is 
developing software to "enhance 
integration and connectivity of 
multiple vendor systems," the 
company said. These efforts include 
groupware and data-exchange 
software. Quark recently demon- 
strated a prototype of XPress running 
under Windows 3.0. However, 
company founder Tim Gill says that 
Windows lacks the connectivity and 
networking features needed for 
large-scale workgroup publishing, 
and hence the focus on OS/2. 



pression Master, the page would take up 
just a little more than 1 MB. This sort of 
file compression is especially important 
if images will be traveling across a 
network. 

C-Cube has also developed a pro- 
gramming interface, called the Image 
Compression Interface. ICI is a set of 
calls that can be written into Mac or PC 
applications to let them access transpar- 
ently a Compression Master board 
installed in the system or any other 
compression board that adheres to the 
ICI standard. If no board is present, the 
compression is done in software, 
through JPEG version 8.2 algorithms 
supplied with C-Cube' s Compression 
Workshop software. Because both the 
JPEG and ICI specifications are open, 
any software or hardware vendor can 
build to the standard. 

Several software companies have 
announced support for ICI, and some on 
the Macintosh side said ICI support has 
already been written into their applica- 
tions, including Adobe Photoshop, 
Quark XPress 3.0, Aladdin Systems' 
Stuffit DeLuxe, Studio/32 from 
Electronic Arts, and Salient DiskDou- 
blerPlus. Autodesk said it intends to 
support ICI in Animator. 

An early adopter of the C-Cube 
squeezing technology is Macintosh 
peripherals maker SuperMac Technol- 
ogy (Sunnyvale, CA), which announced 
at the recent Seybold Conference that, 
starting in January, it will include still- 



image compression software with all its 
color graphics cards and storage 
systems. The new SuperSqueeze 
software is based on JPEG algorithms 
obtained from C-Cube and will comply 
with C-Cube' s Image Compression 
Interface. People who purchase 
SuperMac products now will be eligible 
to receive the SuperSqueeze software 
for free. Others can buy it for $49. 

Radius (San Jose, CA) is also putting 
the squeeze on graphics. The company 
announced at Seybold a software 
implementation of the JPEG standard. 
The Radius software, for the Mac II 
platform, will compress still images 
only. The new software can compress a 
0.75-MB, 24-bit full-color image to 25K 
bytes in less than 6 seconds on a Mac 
Ilex and in less than 3 seconds on a Mac 
Ilf x, the company says. 

The Radius software will be priced at 
"around $300." The company's 
software approach is more flexible than 
hardware JPEG implementations like 
the C-Cube chip, Radius claims. The 
firm points out that an image-compres- 
sion board takes up a Mac II slot and 
costs $ 1 000 or more. Furthermore, 
revisions to the JPEG standard will be 
less painful for users of software-based 
compression products, Radius says; it is 
cheaper to buy a software upgrade than 
it is to buy a new add-in board. How- 
ever, the hardware solution is still the 
faster method of image compression. 

— Andy Reinhardt and Jeff Bertolucci 



AT&T Promises Multiprocessing Unix Next Year 



AT&T's Unix System Laboratories 
(USL) plans to start enhancing 
Unix System V release 4 next year, with 
the most significant change involving 
multiprocessing. AT&T is working with 
Sequent and other companies to develop 
a symmetrical multiprocessing version 
of Unix System V release 4 that can 
handle up to 10 processors. This release, 
called SVR4 MP, is slated for the first 
half of 1991, AT&T said. 

Although it will be developed on 
Intel processors (the i486 and the i860), 
versions also will be available for 
MIPS, SPARC, and Motorola (88000) 
CPUs. A later version (SVR4 ES/MP) 
will be able to handle up to 30 proces- 
sors. One of the companies that plan to 
use the multiprocessing Unix is NCR, 
which announced several multipro- 
cessing computer systems recently. 

A new version called SVR4 ES will 
be more secure, USL said, and will 
conform to the B2 level of security as 



outlined by the U.S. National Computer 
Security Center. This level is designed 
to be more resistant to computer viruses 
and to make it more difficult for 
operators to create security loopholes 
either accidentally or intentionally. This 
version is scheduled for the first half of 
1991. 

The new SVR4 will be better at disk 
management, AT&T says. USL 
developers are working to increase 
performance by storing parts of files on 
different physical hard disk drives. 

AT&T would not disclose pricing for 
these new versions of Unix, saying that 
price information usually precedes 
product availability by about 60 days. 
AT&T representatives would not 
commit to a single graphical user 
interface for the new Unix, and they 
offered only muted support for Open 
Look, the GUI that AT&T had origi- 
nally proposed for System V. Some 
people had expected AT&T to 



20 B YTE • DECEMBER 1990 



^Sii^l^H 



NOW YOUR SOFTWARE 
CAN TEST ITSELF. 



V0 



ma 




/our customers expect software that works. 
All the time. The key to software quality is 
exhaustive testing. It's also an engineer's 
worst nightmare. But it doesn't have to be. 
Because now you can automate your soft- 
ware testing. 
Introducing the Atron Evaluator. The first and 
only non-intrusive automated PC-based software 
testing tool. 

The Atron Evaluator automatically runs your soft- 
ware regression testing programs. All of them. All 
day. All night. Giving you thoroughly tested, higher 
quality software. 

The Atron Evaluator is hardware-based. And since 
it's non-intrusive, software behavior is tested with- 
out the risk of alteration. Once your tests have run, 
you can refer to automatically generated test reports 
to double-check test results. 

The Atron Evaluator saves time. And time makes 
you money. Development cycles are shortened, so 
your software gets to market sooner. And while your 
test programs are running, you can be more produc- 
tive. Start a new project. Or go home. 

For more information about the Atron Evaluator, 
call us at 1-800-733-6036. Andput an end to your 
worst nightmares. Automatically. 



CADRE 

Cadre Technologies, Inc. 
19545 N.W. Von Neumann Drive 
Beaverton, Oregon 97006 



PS/2 is a registered trademark of IBM. 



In Europe, contact: 

Elverex Limited, Enterprise House 
Ptassey Technology Park, Limerick, Ireland 
Phone:353-61-338177 
QATraining Limited, Cecily Hill Castle 
Cirencester, Gloucestershire, GL72EF, England 
Phone:(0285)655888 

Circle 62 on Reader Service Card 



When we sat down to 



Accurate color scanning seems a simple 
enough goal. Yet in a flash of engineering 
brilliance, Epson®designers have raised 
the standard by creating the 
ES-300C color scanner. 

Using three separate 
light bars, Epson's innova- 
tive True Pass" scanning 
system, does in one 
pass what most other : &J^ . 




1=^4 



mmmm 



all the lights 



color scanners require three passes to accomplish. 
The result is more precise images in less time. 
Gone are registration difficulties, poor fidelity and 
color dropout. 

The ES-300C is as im- 
pressive in black and white 
or grayscale as it is in color. 
256 shades of gray comple- 
^ ment 16.8 million colors. 
Resolution settings can be 



The new EPSON ES-300C 

is both MS-DOS and 
MACINTOSH compatible. 



( 



MS-DOS is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation. Macintosh is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.TruePassis a trademark ol Epson America, Inc. Epson is a registered 




design a better scanner, 
ime on at once. 



adjusted between 50 and 600 DPI to optimize With a price as attractive as its image would 

output from any printer, or to any monitor. suggest, the full color ES-300C costs about the same 

Compatibility is assured with a choice of as most black and white scanners, 
easily installed MS-DOS®or Macintosh® A demonstration of the Epson ES-300C will be 

interface kits, featuring the latest industry- an illuminating experience. Other scanners simply 

leading scanning and editing software. pale by comparison. 



Engineered For The Way You Work." 



EPSON 



trademark of Seiko Epson Corporation.© I «.)«)() Epson America, Inc., 2780 Lomitu lllvd., lorraiice.CA U0505. (800) 922-8911. 



MICROBYTES 



NANOBYTES 



Maxtor (San Jose, CA) has devel- 
oped a new 3 /2-inch hard disk drive 
that the company claims is the 
biggest in the business. The new 
LXT-535 can store 535 MB. The 
drive comes with a SCSI or an AT 
interface. Average seek time is 12 
ms, Maxtor says. The OEM price 
for the LXT-535 is $1450; for the 
LXT-437,$1250. 

IBM's M-Motion Video Adapter/ A 
board will soon work with Windows 
3.0. The Micro Channel device for 
converting video input to VGA 
images currently comes with 
software that runs only under OS/2 
and DOS. However, IBM recently 
introduced in Japan a Windows- 
based M-Motion board, and the U.S. 
market should see a similar product 
in the near future, IBM multimedia 
chief Peter Blakeney told BYTE. 

Qualitas (Bethesda, MD), the 
company that makes the 386Max 
high-memory manager for 386- 
based systems, has developed a new 
version of the product specifically 
for 386-based PS/2s. The new 
BlueMax ($155) addresses a particu- 
lar problem experienced by PS/2 
users: Because IBM uses 64K bytes 
of high memory for the BIOS to 
support OS/2 and other future 
capabilities, there's not enough high 
memory to hold network adapters, 
TSR programs, and an expanded- 
memory page frame. BlueMax 
removes those portions of the IBM 
BIOS that are used only by OS/2 
and reloads the BIOS to use only 
64K bytes of high memory instead 
of 1 28K. The result is that network 
interfaces and EMS drivers can be 
loaded into high memory, with room 
left over for a few TSR programs. 

Graphic Software Systems (Beav- 
erton, OR) has come out with a kit 
for writing 34010-based applications 
drivers to the Direct Graphics Inter- 
face Standard. The DGIS 3.0 
Software Development Kit comes 
with the DGIS firmware, C subrou- 
tine calls, sample programs, 
documentation, program utilities, 
and a 34010 board for testing the 
drivers. The kit costs $695. GSS 
also has the first graphical interface 
for 34010-based products working 
with OS/2 Presentation Manager. 



acknowledge support by now for Motif, 
the GUI used by the Open Software 
Foundation's Unix. Instead, AT&T is 
talking about establishing a common 
application programming interface for 



all GUIs. Theoretically, users who buy 
programs written to this generic API 
can choose for themselves which GUI 
they would like to use. 

— Rich M alloy 



No RISC: Multiprocessing Architecture Will 
Emulate 386, i486, Run Current Applications 



RISC technology has been promoted 
as a performance savior for 
desktop computing. But if users of non- 
RISC systems convert to RISC, they 
can't take their favorite applications 
software with them. Those programs 
would have to be left behind or rewrit- 
ten for RISC. 

NexGen (San Jose, CA) says that it 
can surpass RISC performance levels 
without making current software 
obsolete. The company is designing a 
new complex-instruction-set computer 
architecture that will be able to run most 
software now working on IBM 
PC-compatible computers. NexGen 
says the multichip processor at the heart 
of its multiprocessing architecture will 
be binary-compatible with DOS, OS/2, 
and The Santa Cruz Operation Unix. 

NexGen says that its systems archi- 
tecture is the first to support "true sym- 
metric, scalable multiprocessing in a 
personal computer environment." A 
machine built around the NexGen 
design will be able to have four CPUs. 
These machines will perform at speeds 
"greater than twice that of a 486, 
SPARC, or MIPS" system and compa- 
rable to that of an IBM RISC System/ 
6000, said Peter Janssen, vice president 
of NexGen. 

Although the company has been 
"thrown in the basket with" chip makers 
trying to clone Intel's 386, "we're doing 



a superscalar architectural design of a 
microprocessor," Janssen said. 
NexGen' s multiprocessing system will 
be based on a proprietary chip set that 
can emulate the 386/i486 instruction set. 
That VLSI chip set incorporates an 
instruction decoder, an integer executor, 
a numeric processor, a memory and 
cache controller, an address preparation 
unit, and instruction and data tag chips. 
The processor talks to the rest of the 
system with a 64-bit multiprocessor bus; 
the designers say that the bus can 
operate at 267 MBps. Integer and 
floating-point instructions can execute 
concurrently. Most integer instructions 
are handled in a single cycle, Janssen 
said. The memory system can feed the 
processor 8 bytes of instructions or data 
during every cycle. The instruction and 
data caches use ordinary static RAM. 

NexGen hopes to sell its design 
initially to OEMs. Resultant multipro- 
cessing server systems could show up 
early in 1991, Janssen said. Worksta- 
tions and servers built around the 
NexGen processor will be able to "swap 
disks and I/O boards with PS/2s and 
EISA machines," he said. Although 
computer makers Compaq and Olivetti 
have made equity investments in 
NexGen, there's no contractual obliga- 
tion to use the company's new technol- 
ogy, Janssen said. 

— D. Barker 



NCR's New Environment Built on Cooperation 



NCR has concocted a "general- 
purpose information processing 
environment" that's a model of coopera- 
tion. In fact, that's what NCR calls its 
ensemble of client/server-based 
workgroup software: Cooperation. 
Cooperation provides not only a 
graphical desktop interface, network 
support, and E-mail, but also sophisti- 
cated network file management, wide- 
area-network support, terminal emula- 
tion and host links, database engines 
and front ends, document conversion, 
work-flow automation, an executive 
information system (EIS) shell, and 
network management functions. Many 



of these things are available in compet- 
ing "office environments," but Coopera- 
tion, based on open standards and 
software from other companies, also 
includes open application programming 
interfaces, development tools, and a 
library of reusable objects to simplify 
custom programming. 

NCR's system, designed to run on 
386-based PCs, starts with DOS and 
then adds Windows 3.0 and Hewlett- 
Packard's New Wave 3.0, for an iconic 
workspace that can treat data files as 
objects and invoke "agents" to automate 
complex or repetitive tasks. The servers 
will be running OS/2 LAN Manager (or, 



24 BYTE • DECEMBER 1990 



h a world that 

changes economic 

systems craight, 

canweieaDy 

aflbrdpersonal 

romputersystems 

thattakeweeks 

to setup months 

tolearn,and 

years to deliver 

ontheir promises? 



NQBut,fortumtet^ 

aflhrcla 



In the 1980s, American companies invested nearly 
$90 billion in PCs, yet office productivity has shown dis- 
appointing gains. 

Not everybody was disappointed, however. According 
to a new independent study by Diagnostic Research, Inc.*, 
companies that invested in Macintosh 9 computers are 
enjoying dramatic results. Managers gave Macintosh pro- 
ductivity ratings that were 37% higher than for MS-DOS 
systems and 32% higher than for PCs running Windows. 
Which is like getting back 17 extra weeks a year. 

In a global economy of snowballing competition, 
the story behind those figures maybe of interest. 

In 1984, Apple introduced Macintosh on the simple 
premise that computers should work the way people do. 

Now, as others rush to market with Macintosh look- 
alikes, Apple turns out to have been the practical, de- 
pendable, results-oriented computer company all along. 

Intnoducinganew 

series of 

Macintosh computers 

fom«999r 

Our three new personal computers were designed 
to rectify the one flaw that still exists in Macintosh. 
Namely, some people still don't have one. 

So now, starting at $999, + there is a Macintosh at a 
price that almost everyone can afford. 

The Macintosh Classic 8 

This one has everything that makes a Macintosh a 
Macintosh. Built-in networking. A SuperDrive"' disk drive, 
which reads both Macintosh and MS-DOS files. And a 
$999 + price that includes the built-in monitor, 1MB of 




The new Macintosh Classic, Macintosh Hsi, am 

RAM, keyboard, mouse, and system software. A 40MB 
hard disk is optional. Its processor is an 8 MHz 68000 
chip. And it outperforms the popular Macintosh SE. 

TlieMadntoshLC. 

The new, low-cost Macintosh LC introduces exquisite 



* Tbe figures an included in a 1990 study conducted by Diagnostic Rtsearch, Inc. , among Fortune 1000 managers and business computer useis familiar talk Macintosh and MS-DOS or Windows systems. Call and we'll send you 
Macintosh, and "The pouter to beyour best" are registered trademarks, and SuperDriue is a trademark of Apple Computer. Inc. MS-DOS and Vfindous are registered trademarks o/Microsofi 



Qoweverybodycan 
Macintosn. 




Macintosh LC on stage together for the very first lime. 

Macintosh color and graphics to a wider world. 

With its 16 MHz 68020 processor, it runs all the thou- 
sands of Macintosh programs at impressive speed. 

And, with the optional Apple® lie Card, it will run 
thousands more Apple H applications as well. 



The Macintosh LC expands by adding a card to its 
slot. A 40MB internal hard drive is standard. A built-in 
video chip runs an Apple monochrome or low-cost 
color monitor— without adding a video card. And the 
Macintosh LC, like the Maxfllsi, lets you record yDur voice 
and other sounds into the computer. Which will make 
voice-annotated software a standard Macintosh feature. 

TheMadntDshM 

Running a 20 MHz 68030 microprocessor, the new 
Macintosh Ilsi delivers serious number-crunching at the 
most attractive possible price. 

Into its sleek package are compressed the powerful 
essentials of the Mac n line. Including an optional 32-bit 
NuBus""slot for high-performance graphics and acceler- 
ator cards. Along with advanced networking systems like 
Ethernet and Token-Ring. Plus a 40 or 80MB hard drive. 
Built-in video chips drive four different Apple monitors. 

Why the least 
expensive Macintosh is more 

powerful than the 
most expensive anythingelse. 

Every Macintosh, from the original to the latest, 
shares a compelling quality unavailable in any other 
PC at any cost: People really like using it What they like 
to do, they do. And so they get more done. 

Call us at 800-538-9696, ext. 350, for the name of 
your nearest authorized Apple reseller. 

You'll find an amazing thing happens when you 
give people the power to be their best. They'll be it. 



The power to be your best 



a summary. Fortune IOOO refers to Fortune 500 and Fortune Service $00. uhicb are trademarks of llx Time Inc. Magazine Company. * Manufacturer's suggested retail price. © 1990 Apple Computer Inc. fyplc, tix Afiple logo, Mac, 
Corporation. Nulius is a trademark of Texas Instruments. Inc. Ethernet is a registered trademark of Xerox Corporation. Clavric is a registered trademark used under license byfyple Compxder. Inc. 



MICROBYTES 



NANOBYTES 



New subsidiaries of Nakamichi 
Peripherals Corp. of Japan are 
gearing up to deliver their new Sc- 
inch rewritable optical disk drives to 
OEMs and end users. Mass Optical 
Storage Technologies (Cypress, 
CA) is the developer and manufac- 
turer of the 3 '/i-inch optical disk 
drive and will sell it on an OEM 
basis. Ocean Microsystems 
(Campbell, CA) will sell the drive to 
end users. MOST's RMD-5100 
drive offers a capacity of 1 28 MB on 
single-sided disk cartridges that are 
roughly the same size as familiar 
3'/2-inch magnetic media. MOST 
says that the drives have an average 
access time of 35 ms, comparable to 
many hard disk drives. The Ocean 
Vista 1 30 drive, slated to be 
available to users by the end of this 
year in limited stock, will cost $3395 
for XT/ATs and compatibles, $3595 
for PS/2s, $3 1 95 for Macs, and 
$3990 for AT-bus systems running 
Unix or Xenix. 

Trying to encourage software 
development for its i860 RISC 
microprocessor, Intel and five of its 
i860 customers have formed a 
support group for the 64-bit chip. 
The Mass860 group will offer 
software developers porting assis- 
tance as well as technical and 
marketing help. In addition to Intel's 
Microcomputer Components Group, 
founding members are Alliant 
Computer Systems, IBM, Oki, 
Olivetti, and Samsung. Mass860's 
new multilayer application binary 
interface (ABI) will enable third- 
party software to run unchanged 
across a variety of hardware 
platforms that support the i860, Intel 
said; for example, a program that 
runs on an i860 auxiliary processor 
on a PC will run in identical binary 
format on workstations from Oki, 
Olivetti, and Samsung, and will run 
under PAX on "supercomputer-class 
systems" from Alliant, Intel said. 

An old name in typewriters, Smith- 
Corona (New Canaan, CT), plans to 
introduce a line of personal comput- 
ers aimed at home and small 
business users. The new PCs will be 
developed by Taiwan-based Acer to 
specifications from Smith-Corona, 
and manufactured by Smith-Corona 
in Cortland, New York. 



someday, Unix System V release 4) and 
the Mezzanine network file manage- 
ment software from Saros. Cooperation 
comes with a set of applications from 
other companies: Gupta's SQLBase 
Server, FutureSoft's DynaComm 
terminal emulator, Mastersoft's Word 
for Word file-conversion utilities, 
Channel Computing's Forest & Trees 
EIS system, and Software Products 
International's Access SQL. 

The secret to Cooperation is that it is 
an amalgam of third-party applications. 
NCR has integrated them into a tightly 
coupled environment that can be 
installed on any IBM-compatible 
computer — both a technical and a 
political accomplishment. 

One drawback to Cooperation, com- 
pared with typical PC network configu- 
rations, is its cost; the software modules 
(which provide user and network 
services and applications) are expensive 
by PC standards and require expensive 
computers. But NCR officials maintain 



that the per-user cost is still less than 
that of minicomputer and mainframe 
software or the cost of hiring consult- 
ants to integrate complex PC applica- 
tions. 

Cooperation client machines must be 
286- or 386-based PCs with at least 6 
MB of RAM. Clients run DOS, 
Windows, NewWave, and whatever 
other client modules have been pur- 
chased. Servers have to be 386 or 486 
machines with 1 2 MB of RAM and at 
least 200 MB of disk storage. NCR said 
the servers have to be Micro Channel 
systems because they require the bus 
bandwidth, but the company couldn't 
explain why an EISA-bus machine 
wouldn't suffice. Servers run OS/2 and 
LAN Manager 2.0, in addition to the 
chosen modules of Cooperation. The 
cost ranges from $23,000 (for a 12-user 
system) to $58,000 (for 24 users). NCR 
expects Cooperation to be generally 
available in March. 

— Andy Reinhardt 



Motorola to Go Superscalar with Future Chip 



At the recent Microprocessor 
Forum, Motorola disclosed not a 
new product so much as its ambitious 
plans for a new product. This non- 
announcement concerned the Motorola 
881 10, which is a future member of the 
88000 family of RISC processors; if 
Motorola is right, the 881 10 chip will be 
one of the performance leaders of the 
decade. 

The 881 10 will be a superscalar 
design, meaning it will be able to 
execute more than one instruction per 
clock cycle. Motorola will put the CPU, 
FPU, graphics execution units, memory 
manager, and instruction and data cache 
all on the same chip. The 88 1 10 will use 
80-bit-wide data paths internally 
throughout the chip. The design will 
incorporate speculative execution 
techniques to anticipate the tasks that it 
will be given to run. Motorola says it 



can produce this chip sometime in 1 99 1 
and that it will be between three and 
five times faster than the 88 1 00. 

The chip maker has made what some 
microprocessor experts consider bold 
predictions. Motorola said it can retain 
object-code compatibility while adding 
a highly parallel superscalar design and 
dynamic instruction scheduling, and 
implementing this at 100-MHz clock 
rates with extremely wide data buses. 
Motorola designers say that by the end 
of the 1990s, the company will be 
producing multiprocessor chips that 
contain 100 million transistors and are 
capable of operating at 300 MHz. 

Motorola officials say that the 88000 
architecture will provide a broad range 
of processors that can control anything 
from a toaster to a supercomputer, all 
with the same basic instruction set. 

— Owen Linderholm 



Mixed-Media Magazines on Disc Are on the Way 



With some help from hypertext 
tools and multimedia develop- 
ment programs, four companies are 
readying or have released new interac- 
tive magazines on CD-ROM. The 
platters will provide everything from 
software demos to music videos to ads 
with electronic buttons you can press 
for more information. 

These kinds of publications, which 



tend to make heavy use of graphics, 
sound, and hypertext links, are easier to 
design now than a year or so ago 
because of sophisticated programs for 
manipulating images and linking 
information. Verbum, for example, has 
constructed its Verbum Interactive disk 
entirely with off-the-shelf software. "A 
couple of years ago," says Michael 
Gosney, president and publisher, "it 



28 BYTE • DECEMBER 1990 



POCKET FRIENDLY 




Meet the new Practical Pocket Modem :„a tiny 2400 bps 
modem that delivers big modem performance and features. 

A giant value at $159! 

Despite its credit card size the PM2400PPM gives you Hayes 2400 compatibility and all 

the advantages of 2400 bps data transmission. And thanks to a remarkable design 
approach, no-fail power comes from the RS232 port and the telephone line.. .you never 
have to find a wall outlet or change batteries! Our new Software Speaker™ enables the 

modem to send detailed call progress information to the computer's terminal. 

Now, if you're a Mac-user, you'll need a separate 9V battery adaptor which is included in 

the special Macintosh Package.The PM2400PPM couldn't be more portable or Practical. 

Quality and reliability is backed by the Practical Peripherals warranty: 

the modem performs for 5 full years or we'll repair or replace it FREE. Simple. 

It doesn't get more Practical than that. 



'PRACTICAL 
PERIPHERALS, 



Circle 235 on Reader Service Card 



31245 La Bay a Drive, West lake Village, CA 91362. Sales Office: 1-800-442-4774 
Corporate Headquarters: 1-818-706-0333, Technical Support: 1-818-991-8200, FAX: 1-818-706-2474 



All products and names trademarked are properties of their respective manufacturers. 



© 1990 Practical Peripherals, Inc. All rights reserved. 



On the left, the best-selling VGA monitor. On 




The MultiSync® 2A is one monitor that performs like two. On one 
hand, it's an uncompromised VGA monitor that works so well, VGA 
users have made it the best-selling 14" VGA color monitor in America. 

On the other hand, the MultiSync 2A is also an equally uncompromised 
SuperVGA monitor, providing the perfect upgrade path to a standard 
that, at 800 x 600, gives you 56% more resolution than VGA. 



C&C 

Computers and Communications 



the right, the best-selling SuperVGA monitor. 




It's even available in a gray-scale version — the MultiSync GS2A — 
which delivers everything the 2A does, in glorious shades of gray. 

The MultiSync 2A. It's two of the best monitors you've ever seen. 

For technical information or for the location of the dealer nearest 
you, call 1-800-FONE-NEC. For product literature, call 1-800-826-2255. 



In Canada, call 1-800-268-3997. 



Circle 203 on Reader Service Card 



SEC 



MICROBYTES 



NANOBYTES 



If our offices are at all representative 
of Real Life, no two Macs within a 
10-foot space are alike. To help live 
with the differences caused by an 
ever-increasing variety of Macin- 
toshes, Farallon Computing 
(Emeryville, CA) has come up with 
DiskPaper. With this $149 software, 
networked Mac users will be able to 
view, copy, and print a document 
regardless of their type of Mac, color 
capability, application, or font 
availability, Farallon says. And with 
appropriate sound-input hardware — 
like Farallon' s MacRecorder voice 
digitizer or the built-in sound 
capabilities of the new Mac LC and 
Ilsi — users can attach sound notes to 
their documents. A DiskPaper file 
contains "multiple representations" 
of a document, including Quick- 
Draw, PostScript, or bit-mapped 
images. DiskPaper sends the 
appropriate representation to the 
receiver's Macintosh. (Whereas a 
Mac Plus on a network might receive 
a black-and-white bit-mapped image 
of a complex color drawing created 
on a Mac Ilfx, another Mac Ilfx on 
the network would receive a color 
QuickDraw image. But other than 
the lack of color, the Mac Plus image 
would be identical to the one 
received by the Ilfx, Farallon says.) 
DiskPaper is scheduled to be ready 
this quarter. 

Things are slow this year, but 
semiconductor companies can 

expect a healthy increase in sales 
during the next two years, according 
to one forecast. Sales in 1991 to 
1993 will perk up due to the 
"continuing pervasiveness" of semi- 
conductors in the electronics 
industry, according to the Semicon- 
ductor Industry Association. The 
group predicts more than $75 billion 
in semiconductor sales in 1993. As 
for predictions of a gloomy eco- 
nomic situation, SIA statistical pro- 
grams director Doug Andrey said 
that the semiconductor growth rate 
doesn't necessarily follow that of the 
economy as a whole. The industry 
experienced double-digit growth 
rates in the late 1970s, when the 
economy was in a recession, Andrey 
said. But then the chip industry had 
its worst years in 1984 and 1985, 
when the general economy was 
doing well, he said. 



would have taken hundreds of hours of 
custom programming." But now, the 
different elements of a magazine can be 
built with an assortment of Macintosh 
design and illustration tools, including 
Adobe Illustrator, Aldus FreeHand, 
PixelPaint Professional, Studio 8, 
Swivel 3D, StrataVision 3D, and 
LetraStudio. Verbum assembles the 
final product in MacroMind Director 
2.0. "The beauty of the Mac platform," 
says Gosney, "is that all these programs 
work together." 

Gosney plans for Verbum Interactive 
to be a showcase of creativity and a 
resource of information about multi- 
media, hypermedia, and animation. It 
will be modeled on the firm's paper- 
and-ink magazine, Verbum, which 
covers computer-based publishing and 
graphic design. Verbum Interactive will 
feature multimedia art work, a database 
of multimedia products and services, 
and interactive advertisements. 

Subscriptions to Verbum Interactive, 
which works with the Mac II, cost 
$49.95 per disk. Verbum plans to 
produce an edition that runs under 
Windows 3.0. 

Discovery Systems is putting 
software, demos, games, multimedia 
interviews, sound files, clip art, 
hypermedia tools, and "talking" letters 
to the editor, sent via voice mail, on its 
Nautilus CD, says Marsh Williams, 
project manager. Readers can purchase 
software contained on the disk. Nautilus 
prototypes were built with SuperCard, 
but Discovery plans to develop its own 
code to assemble the magazine. The 



magazine "runs" on a Mac with 2 MB 
of RAM. Issued 13 times a year, it costs 
$9.95 per disk. The company plans a 
Windows edition for early 1991. 

Still in the prototype stage, Antic 
Publishing's as-yet-unnamed CD-ROM 
magazine, according to Antic president 
Jim Capparell, will capture the look and 
feel of "riffling through the pages" of a 
traditional magazine, but with added 
dimensions of sound, animation, and 
video. Capparell likens a multimedia 
magazine to a Hollywood production; 
Antic is even referring to the CD-ROM 
magazine's editors as "producers." 

Antic's disk will be available for the 
Macintosh and IBM platforms, as well 
as for Commodore's new CD TV, 
which combines a compact disk drive 
and computer in one machine. Subscrip- 
tions will cost in the $10 to $25 range. 

The least computer-oriented of the 
new CD-ROM magazines, under- 
Control's Grip, will focus on current 
events and music. Grip will incorporate 
animation, video, news, editorials, and 
material gleaned from 8mm decks, 
VCRs, cameras, videodisks, and frame 
grabbers. Cofounder Nick Cutillo says 
underControl is receiving material from 
around the world, including a video of 
the collapsing Berlin wall. Built in 
HyperCard, Grip will require a Mac II 
with 2 MB. 

The potential audience for CD-ROM 
magazines is still comparatively small. 
"Obviously it's not a very big market," 
says Verbum 's Michael Gosney, "but 
we expect it to grow rapidly." 

— Mark Clarkson 



LAN Leaders Call for Network Benchmarks 



Officials from companies prominent 
in computer networking have 
called for some industry standards for 
testing LANs. The new Performance 
Testing Alliance met during NetWorld 
'90 to discuss developing LAN bench- 
marks. The PTA includes Novell, 
AT&T, IBM, 3Com, and Banyan. 

"The thing about LANs is that they're 
so complicated," said Drew Major, 
Novell systems architect. "It's a lot 
easier in many ways to test a minicom- 



puter. It's all centralized in one box." 
While all the companies at the PTA 
meeting supported the idea of standard 
benchmarks, the development of those 
benchmarks might create considerably 
more friction. The PTA will have to 
find a way to test every layer of a 
network. Its benchmarks will have to be 
portable. And the benchmarks will need 
to isolate specific components, testing 
different configurations and loads. 

— Jeffrey Bertolucci 



ARE YOU AN INNOVATOR? If you, your company, or your research group is 
working on a new technology or developing products that will significantly affect 
the world of microcomputing, wed like to write about it. Phone the BYTE news 
department at (603) 924-928 L Or send a fax to (603) 924-2550. Or write to us at 
One Phoenix Mill Lane, Peterborough, NH 03458. Or send E-mail to "microbytes " 
on BIX or to "BYTE" on MCI Mail. An electronic version of Microbytes, offering a 
wider variety oj computer-related news on a daily basis, is available on BIX. 



32 BYTE- DECEMBER 1990 



IN ATLANTA, GEORGIA. 










bjgv. 


mm 






-«^k5^ 



AT THE GRAND CANYON IN ARIZONA... 



AND IN ZURICH, SWITZERLAND... 



SilsT 



T! ] 






Hi 



JjjE i 



71 Tin H 






n ii 



fill! 



qfrtr 



BF'mzgm 



<"*£'•<:& 






,./ fj/£EigXm& 



V 



"I&w W #o/ a friend in the business. " 



People the World Over 




Everywhere you look these days you'll find 
Gateway 2000 computers. That's because people 
ft0 o computers in q/ /s everywhere know a good 
value when they see 

one. In all 50 
\ — states and in over 
% % ? °* ^O foreign 
1 1 countries, 

8 thousands of 
people are compar- 
ing price, quality and 
service - and choosing 
Gateway 2000. 

In Atlanta... 

ZSoft, the well-known graphics software 
company, often demonstrates its software at trade 
shows on Gateway 2000 
computers. Dave Steier, ZSoft 
code librarian and software 
demonstrator, said he prefers 
showing products on Gateway 
systems. "They're terrific," Dave 
remarked. "I just got back from a 
show where I was using Gateway 
33's and they're screamers." Don Womick, Jr., a 
programmer for ZSoft, bought a Gateway 2000 20 
MHz 386 for his personal use because he liked the 
Gateway systems at work. "With Gateway," said Don, 
"I was able to get the performance I need at a price I 
could afford." 

Don and Dave both commented on the excellent 
service they received from Gateway. "Everyone is 
uniformly polite, friendly and helpful," Dave said. 




ZSoft employees Dave Steier, left, and 
Don Womick, Jr., with Don 's Gateway 
2000 20 MHz 386 system. 



At the Grand Canyon... 

Papillon Grand Canyon Helicopters uses Gateway 
2000 computers in its operation. Rick Carrick, chief 
ii / pilot, started using 





n 

a 

Rick Carrick, Papillon Grand Canyon 
Helicopters, and his indestructible Gateway 
2000286. 



PC's a few years 
ago to run point- 
of-sale software 
and to perform 
weight and balance 
calculations on 
aircraft, a critical 
safety and efficiency procedure. Initially he experi- 
mented with several computer firms. "I called 
Gateway because I liked their ads," Rick admitted. 
"But I've become a loyal customer because their 
machines are indestructible and they have excellent 
customer service." 

Papillon Helicopters has another Gateway 2000 
computer now - a 25 MHz 386 - and Rick said he's in 
the process of replacing all of the company's PC's with 
Gateway 2000 systems. 

In Zurich... 

Michael Paravicini runs a Gateway 2000 33 MHz 
386 system. Michael is a management consultant for 
Price Waterhouse in Zurich. "I was impressed by 
Gateway's price-features comparison," he remembered. 
"My system cost far less than you'd expect to pay for a 
comparable computer." 
Continuing, he said, "It was 
also the responsiveness they 
showed when I sent a fax 
request for a quotation. 
Out of ten U. S. companies 



Michael Paravicini, Price 
Waterhouse, and his Gateway 
2000 33 MHz 386 system. 




Choose Gateway 2000 ! 



I contacted, Gateway was the most prompt and 

efficient in responding. I still haven't heard from 

some of the others." 

PC Magazine's survey about service and reliability 

confirms what these customers are saying: 
"Gateway shared top billing with such heavy- 
weights as Compaq, IBM, and HP for 
those who would buy their products 
again,.. Over all, Gateway's high marks 
bode well for the company's future, as 





does its commitment to customer service." 
PC Magazine 
September 25, 1990 



From the Heartland 

The combination of price, quality and service 
makes Gateway 2000 the best value in the industry. 
But value alone doesn't explain how a little company 
in the Midwest, just celebrating its fifth anniversary, 
managed to outdistance hundreds of other companies, 
selling more systems through the direct market 
channel than any other PC manufacturer in the 

country. 



"We can't run that ad anymore," continued Ted, 
grinning, "because we built a new plant 14 miles 
<a down the road in South Dakota. But the cows 
really worked for us. They made the phones 
ring. From then on, though, we built 
our business on value - good prices 

on quality systems with old- 
fashioned, personal service." 
Ted mentioned another reason for 
Gateway's success. "We take a long-term 
approach to customer service." he said. 
"In the C^^indust^ "When you buy a computer from 

longevity should be measured in Gatewa y 2000 > y° u become P art 

dog years.' * of our family and we're going to be 

there for you as long as you own that machine." 
As Ted talked about the company's fifth 
anniversary, he laughed again. "In the computer 
industry, longevity should be measured in dog years," 
he chuckled, "because every- 
thing's moving so fast. That 
makes Gateway 35 years old! /^P*"*! W " f ' 







Gateway 2000 sells more computers through the 
direct market channel than any other PC 
manufacturer in the country. 



"It was the 
cows," 
laughed Ted 
Waitt, 

Gateway 2000 
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Letters 



and Ask BYTE 



Fifteen Years and Counting 

I found the September issue bittersweet. I 
read it thinking that it was one of the 
most enjoyable issues of any computer 
periodical I've ever read. (I subscribe to 
many magazines, so that's quite an im- 
pression.) However, I was astonished to 
find that the principal man behind the 
Apple II, Macintosh, and NeXT com- 
puters—who is, of course, Steven P. 
Jobs— was not on your list of influential 
people in personal computing. This 
omission was particularly hard for me to 
bear in light of the many people on the 
list whom I would not even consider in 
Jobs's class. In my opinion, Jobs should 
be considered the most important force 
in bringing personal computers to the 
masses. 

I believe a gross injustice has been 
done. 

Kevin Weidner 
Pleasantville, NY 

Steve Jobs consented to participate in the 
BYTE Summit but was unable to do so 
due to last-minute scheduling conflicts. 

—Bob Ryan 

I thank you for the excellent September 
issue. The coverage all around is superb, 
and I thoroughly enjoyed the 63 [experts] 
writing about the PC's present and fu- 
ture. I have learned a lot. 

F. A. Mulla 
Nakuru, Kenya 

One would hardly expect Don Crabb's 
Macinations column to minimize graph- 
ics-based computing, but his enthusiasm 
seems to have carried him over the brink 
in his September column. I thought back, 
as he suggested, to the time when I read 
what I thought was a really good book 
and found it was not the graphics that 
drew me into it (in fact, it had no pictures 
at all!). Rather, it was the skill of the 
writer. 

Can it be that Crabb has fallen into the 
very trap that he so eloquently warns of 
in the very same article? As Alan Kay 
points out in your Summit, "technology 
is just an amplifier." Contrary to Mar- 
shall McLuhan, the message is really the 
message. Even so, I read Crabb's column 
every month and appreciate it. 

I want to congratulate you on your 1 5th 
anniversary. I agree with Esther Dyson's 




comment ("I don't want to babysit this 
computer. I want it to act for me, not with 
me"). That's the future of computing: 
not a more servile or fun servant, but a 
more able one. Graphical user interfaces 
(GUIs), networks, fancy input and output, 
and all the rest must work toward this 
goal. If I want a video game, I'll look to 
Nintendo, not Apple or IBM or Microsoft. 

Gary Fisher 
Allendale, MI 

Congratulations on your 15th anniversa- 
ry. I enjoyed the anniversary issue a 
great deal. 

I came away from reading Alan Kay's 
comments ("The BYTE Summit") feel- 
ing that Kay is brilliant and innovative 
but that his revolution is not for me (nor, I 
think, is it for many of my colleagues) . 

I found it very telling that Kay said, 
"The PARC stuff we did was originally 
designed for children." Now the icons 



WE WANT TO HEAR FROM YOU. Please 
double-space your letter on one side of the 
page and include your name and address. 
Letters two pages in length or under have a 
better chance of being published in their en- 
tirety. Address correspondence to Letters 
Editor, BYTE, One Phoenix Mill Lane, Pe- 
terborough, NH 03458. You can also send let- 
ters via BlXmail c/o "editors. " 

Your letter will be read, but because of the 
large volume of mail we receive, we cannot 
guarantee publication. We also reserve the 
right to edit letters. It takes about four months 
from the time we receive a letter until we pub- 
lish it. 



make much more sense to me. I can ad- 
mire Alan Kay without wanting to think 
like him or work like him. 

I think that there are many people in 
computing who have very good reasons 
for not using GUIs. When we make our 
choices, we opt for speed, flexibility, 
and compactness. I know many people 
who choose DOS (delphic as it is) be- 
cause it is a fast "shorthand" interface. 

Like everyone else, I am impatient for 
improvements to DOS; I want to be able 
to give directions and files longer, more 
descriptive names and to be able to work 
with files that are associated with the 
programs used to create them. I also 
want to be able to switch from one pro- 
gram to another and then back again in- 
stantaneously. Occasionally, I would 
also like to be able to work in true 
WYSIWYG mode. I know, however, that 
I do not need a GUI to achieve these 
goals, and I will always opt for a solution 
that is economical and agile and that 
doesn't make me wait. 

Richard Zakin 
Oswego, NY 

Your September issue completely over- 
whelmed me. I couldn't read it all. But I 
admire you for the risk you took with 
your prognostications. I am looking for- 
ward to your 25th anniversary issue in 
2000 to see how embarrassed you are. 
Predicting the future is seldom accurate. 
But keep it up. 

Robert LaFara 
Indianapolis, IN 

Alvy Ray Smith's suggestion ("The 
BYTE Summit") that people would pre- 
fer to communicate with pictures instead 
of words was a thought-provoking one, 
and it is certainly a logical extrapolation 
of the direction in which our nonl iterate, 
TV-oriented culture is moving. 

To take Smith's idea a bit further, 
when we get a sufficient number of these 
new icons (including, I assume, pictures 
that represent "justice," "sadness," 
"truth," etc.), we will certainly need 
standards so that we can all use the same 
pictures for identical concepts. I am curi- 
ous, however, as to how we will organize 
the manuals to quickly find the appropri- 
ate icon to represent a specific thought— 
a dictionary, if you will. 

lam sure that the problem i s soluble. 



DECEMBER 1990 -BYTE 33 



LETTERS 



After all, the Chinese have been using 
pictures to represent concepts for a long 
time now. 

Sydney B. Self Jr. 
Sudbury, MA 

Copyright Controversies 

The opportunity for full protection of 
intellectual rights must be available to 
all, contrary to what Mitch Kapor has 
learned from his "very, very good" ex- 
periences with software ("Litigation vs. 
Innovation," Stop Bit, September). 

Innovation is not ethereal and does not 
just appear to the most enthusiastic of the 
bunch. It is the result of hard work and of 
dedication to R&D, all of which deserve 
to profit from success in the market- 
place. But that success does not have 
much chance in an environment where 
the results of effort can be stolen by any 
thief or ring of thieves who declare them- 
selves innovators. 

The only way that developers can be 
protected is by the courts. The glut of in- 
tellectual-property litigation that scares 
Kapor is perhaps a result of innovation 
thieves being brought to justice. 

Brian Livingston 

Norman Wells, Northwest Territories, 

Canada 

I agree with Mitch Kapor' s remarks on 
software copyright, but I think that he 
does not sufficiently address the issue of 
visual copyright, per se. 

When you attempt to copyright or pat- 
ent the user interface of your program, 
that is an act of theft. How is it that the 
user interface belongs to the users? Sure- 
ly I hear a multitude of enraged cries 
from programmers: "It's our interface; 
we designed it." 

It i s a common delusion of the more ar- 
rogant sort of software developer that the 
value of the user interface consists in its 
inherent excellence, that his or her user 
interace is somehow easier to use, and all 
that. Nonsense! The value of a user inter- 
face consists almost entirely in the fact 
that users have learned to use it, all too 
often with unnecessary difficulty. 

When user interfaces are "user friend- 
ly," that generally means that they have 
borrowed the conventions of street signs, 
Coke machines, and the like. So the 
principle holds— the value of a user inter- 
face is the value of the skill of the users. 

In proof of this, there are any number 
of minor user interfaces whose few users 
will proclaim their excellence at the top 
of their lungs. Yet these interfaces have 
little or no cash value, because so few 
people know them. 

I might add that the less arrogant de- 



velopers are positively compulsive about 
allowing the user to redesign the inter- 
face at will, via elaborate customization 
programs. 

Andrew D. Todd 
Springfield, OR 

When U.S. District Court Judge Robert 
Keeton ruled in the Lotus case (Micro- 
bytes, September), he affirmed the right 
of programmers the world over to the 
fruit of their labors. Keeton' s narrow in- 
terpretation of the copyright law has pro- 
vided plenty of opportunity for other 
programmers to build on the work of pre- 
decessors. 

But the test of this limited concept will 
come only as more and more program- 
mers use standard interfaces such as 
IBM 's Systems Application Architecture 
common user interface. How does one 
not infringe on creative "expression" 
when everyone is using the same stan- 
dard style? I do not pretend to know law, 
but I do know that I, for one, would like 
some protection for my work if I were to 
use such a standard, as I desire to do. 
Please let us know, IBM and Microsoft. 
Bill Hartzell 
Garland, TX 

Monitor Fallout 

I 'm glad to see BYTE publishing articles 
on electromagnetic emissions from video 
displays ("Of Monitors and Emissions," 
September). Bill McGinnis's article is 
good; it takes the reader right inside the 
CRT. 

Still, as a Ph.D. physicist, I was disap- 
pointed to notice McGinnis's failure to 
distinguish between electromagnetic 
fields that are radiated away from the 
source and those that are not. All ioniz- 
ing radiation (e.g., visible and infrared 
light) and all broadcast nonionizing radi- 
ation (e.g., microwaves and radio-fre- 
quency radiation) radiate energy away 
from the source, thereby producing radi- 
ation emissions. But extremely low-fre- 
quency (ELF) fields (which include fre- 
quencies from 50 Hz to 100 Hz) do not 
radiate energy through the air away from 
the source. 

Emissions that are radiated through 
space can affect creatures far from the 
source. These effects do not occur for 
nonradiated fields such as ELF. 

I have never encountered the distinc- 
tion between radiation and emission that 
McGinnis points out. Those who make 
this distinction must be scientists or engi- 
neers in a specialized discipline with 
which I am not familiar. 

Marjorie Lundquist 
Milwaukee, WI 



I agree that very few far-field emissions 
exist in the 30-Hz (wavelength 10 million 
meters) to 300-Hz (wavelength 1 million 
meters) region. But the point of the article 
was not to limit shielding considerations 
to the far- field condition. There are 
fields coming from most video terminals 
that are identifiable as either electric or 
magnetic. 

The interest in emissions in this fre- 
quency range centers on two main con- 
siderations: How large is the field, and 
how can it be reduced? The first question 
can be answered by qualified personnel 
using measurement equipment. The sec- 
ond question can be addressed by identi- 
fying emissions sources and applying ap- 
propriate shielding techniques to them. 
My article was intended as a guide to 
sources of emissions and possible reme- 
dies. 

The distinction between radiation and 
emissions is very common among mem- 
bers of the Electromagnetic Compatibil- 
ity Society and is gaining acceptance 
from some in the IEEE. The main reason 
for promoting these terms is the misun- 
derstanding of the term radiation by many 
people. Too often, the first thought is of 
some nuclear event, which is incorrect. It 
is something like the "flammable /inflam- 
mable" problem. Now, tanker trucks are 
marked "flammable, " since the other 
term was so misunderstood. 

I invite all to use the word emissions 
where it is appropriate to help reduce the 
misunderstanding of radiation. 

—Bill McGinnis 

Wrestling with Resolutions 

I read with some astonishment a state- 
ment that the resolution of images 
dropped to 72 dots per inch or 75 dpi 
when they were imported using the Clip- 
board ("Word Processors That Build 
Character," September). I cannot say 
that this is not true in the DOS world, but 
I can definitely say that it is not true in 
my experiences with the Macintosh. 

My regular word processor is Full- 
Write Professional 1 . 1 . 1 also use Write- 
Now 2.2, Microsoft Word 4. OB, and 
MacWrite II 1 .0. 1 use a Hewlett-Packard 
Deskwriter for most of my printing. I 
have used several of these applications to 
compose a departmental newsletter for a 
university. The masthead of the newslet- 
ter contains a 300-dpi scanned image of 
the university's logo, which is pasted 
into the newsletter from the Clipboard. 

I could not remember any difficulty 
printing the newsletter at full resolution. 
After I read your article, I conducted a 
test to make sure that I was not mistaken. 
Each of the word processing programs 



34 BYTE- DECEMBER 1990 



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ASK BYTE 



printed a 300-dpi bit map pasted from 
Canvas 2.1 at full resolution. In fact, the 
only problem that I have with resolution 
occurs with drawings created in Full- 
Write' s drawing environment. For those 
drawings, the resolution is limited to 
72/75 dpi. 

Matthew F. Ware 
Greensboro, NC 

When I tested FullWrite, I used Apple- 
Scan 1.0.2 (Apple's 300-dpi scanner 
software) as my 300-dpi image source 
and copied the scanned images directly to 
the Clipboard. The 72- /75-dpi images 
came through fine. The 300-dpi images 
retained all their information; FullWrite 
simply interpreted them as 75 dpi and dis- 
played them at four times normal size. 

After receiving your letter, I tried 
bringing some 300-dpi AppleScan images 
into Adobe 's Photoshop and then placing 
them in FullWrite. Oddly enough, that 
seemed to work fine. In this case, we 're 
both right— it apparently matters where 
you get your 300-dpi graphics from. I've 
made a note to take another look at this 
with future releases of FullWrite or the 
scanner software. —Howard Eglowstein 



ASK BYTE 



Direct to Disk 

I have a Western Digital WD-1006V- 
MM2 hard disk drive controller card and 
a Seagate ST255 hard disk drive. I'd like 
to program the hard disk drive operations 
directly, without the help of DOS or the 
ROM BIOS. Where can I get detailed in- 
formation about my hard disk drive con- 
troller? 

Igor Bujanovic 
Zagreb, Yugoslavia 

You can get technical literature about 
Western Digital controllers by contacting 

Western Digital 

Literature Department 

15345 Barranca Pkwy. 

Irvine, CA 92718 

(800) 832-4778 

BBS (714) 756-81 76 (protocol 8N1) 

In Europe, the nearest office to you is 
Western Digital Germany (Zamdorfer 
Strasse 26, D-8000 Munich 80, Germany. 

-S. W. 

PC or Not PC? 

I am writing to get your advice before 
shopping for my next computer system. 




My primary decision involves which 
type of computer I should choose: an 
Apple Macintosh or an IBM PS/2 or 
compatible. After I have decided on one, 
shopping for the right model to suit my 
needs (and all my desires, if I can afford 
them) should be relatively easy. 

On the IBM AT, my weekly comput- 
ing environment includes MultiMate Ad- 
vantage II, Lotus 1-2-3, FoxPro, Micro- 
soft Paintbrush, PC Tools, Turbo 
Pascal, NewsMaster, and Print Shop. 

On the Macintosh II, my environment 
includes Microsoft Word, Microsoft 
Excel, FoxBase + /Mac, Mac Paint, 
Turbo Pascal, Think C, and Aldus Page- 
Maker. 

I have more expertise on the IBM; I 
have an AT, a Microsoft Mouse, and an 
Epson LQ printer. Nevertheless, I prefer 
the Macintosh interface, and the Mac has 
grown up; it's not just a desktop publish- 
ing machine anymore. 

However, both my paid summer in- 
ternships thus far have required IBM ex- 
perience (e.g., Lotus 1-2-3 and Word- 
Perfect), and the job market stresses the 
IBM machines, too. 

Ideally, I would like the best of both 
worlds in my next computer— a Mac with 
an add-in card for IBM compatibility, for 
example. But have all the bugs been 
worked out of this technology? Would 
you recommend the use of such tech- 
nology? 

At the high end, I can afford a PS/2 
Model 80 or a Macintosh Ilci, with just 
enough money left over for a 24-pin 
printer. 

Should I go with Apple or IBM? 

Oscar Rozario 
Ley sin, Switzerland 

There 's no clear answer to your question; 
if there were, one or the other type of 
computer probably wouldn't exist. I'll 
give you a couple of guidelines to help 
you decide. 

When you 're trying to decide on either 
architecture or capacity, don 't start by 
picking the machine; first pick the appli- 
cations you want to run. Some types of 
applications are best represented on Ap- 
ple architectures, while others have more 
support on the PC. You have a specific 
applications list in mind; that 's an excel- 
lent start. Remember that your list will 
change with time, but you'll probably 
lean toward similar applications in the 
future. 

On the PC, you 've got MultiMate Ad- 
vantage 11, certainly an industry-stan- 
dard word processor with no parallel on 
the Mac. There are good reasons to stay 
with MultiMate, and each one might seem 



to vote for the PC. PC Tools has many 
uses, but the primary one is to make life 
on the PC easier. For that reason, I 
would tend to discount that package when 
making the decision. Similarly, you 
would overlook Symantec 's SUM or simi- 
lar Mac products. Lotus 1-2-3 is another 
product with no exact parallel on the 
Mac, except that spreadsheets are more 
alike than word processors, and you 
could switch. The Mac has several good 
ones. Then there are cross- platform 
products. You 've named FoxPro, Micro- 
soft Word, Excel, and PageMaker. All of 
them are available on the Mac and on the 
PC under Windows. Even your paint pro- 
grams are a good cross. Several Windows 
paint programs have capabilities similar 
to Macintosh paint programs. 

Second, after you go through your ap- 
plications list, look for products that you 
could replace with something on another 
platform. Do you have to exchange files 
or disks with someone else using that 
product? Will you be networking the ma- 
chine ? Factor that in, and start adding 
up the score. Remember that you rarely 
spend any actual time working with DOS, 
so don 't let that scare you away from the 
PC. As for the user interface, you say you 
prefer the Mac; lots of people do— so 
many that Mac-like shells have become 
very popular on other environments. 
Windows 3. is a strong product in its 
own right, yet it feels enough like a Mac 
to encourage many products to be sup- 
ported on both platforms. 

I suggest that you take a look at Win- 
dows 3. and play around with it for a 
while. You have two products on your PC 
applications list that require a PC. All 
your Mac products have exact or close PC 
parallels. In your case, a PC running 
Windows might be the way to go, particu- 
larly since your job field seems to favor 
using PCs. 

That said, make sure you have enough 
computer. Windows and Windows appli- 
cations tend to be resource hogs, so don 't 
be stingy. A big hard disk drive (80 mega- 
bytes or bigger) is a definite must— the 
bigger and faster, the better. I further 
suggest a minimum of a 25-MHz 386- 
based machine with 4 MB of RAM if you 
plan on using Windows as a multitasker. 
If you go for the Mac, the llci would serve 
you well— again, with lots of RAM. Ideal- 
ly, you would own both types of ma- 
chines. (I own both Macs and PCs and 
wouldn't give up either.) Add-in cards 
with Intel coprocessors for the Mac sim- 
ply haven 't been as big a win as everyone 
hoped. They're generally slower than 
folks would like and fairly expensive, and 
the compatibility is good, but not perfect. 



36 BYTE- DECEMBER 1990 



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j/jfyoK want 
the perfect 
printer for 
the home. 



If you want 
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If you want 
high speed, 
high volume 
for spread- 
sheets and 
financials. 



If you want 
near laser 
quality at 
dot matrix 
prices. 



A few years ago, we redefined what 
people expect from a dot matrix printer. 
By creating a 24-pin as sophisticated as it is 
simple. And as affordable to buy as it is 
economical to own. 

The KX-P1 124 has won its share of 
awards. But it's not the only PanasonkfDot 
Matrix to receive rave reviews. Now there's 




a whole family to choose from. All with 
EZ Sefoperator panel, multiple paper paths, 
a variety of fonts, 2-year limited parts and labor 
warranty (see your dealer for details), and other 
features that typify our approach to price/per- 
formance for today's office environment. 

There are feature-rich 9-pin models for 
every-day drafts. And supeib 24-pins for im- 
portant correspondence. In both regular and 
wide-caniage versions. 

And we've just introduced what may well be 
the quintessential office printer for the 90s, the 
KX-P1654. A wide-carriage 24-pin that rockets 
along at up to 375 characters per second. With 
print quality approaching that of lasers. 

Chances are, your first Panasonic printer 
will lead to another, and another, and another. 

For further information on Panasonic Dot 
Matrix Printers, see your Panasonic dealer, or 
telephone toll-free 1-800-742-8086. 

Printers, Computers, Peripherals, 
Copiers, Typewriters and Facsimiles 



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ASK BYTE 



For running the occasional PC package 
on your Mac, SoftPC is an interesting 
hack. Using the Mac 's 680xx, it emulates 
the 80x6 and PC BIOS to run DOS appli- 
cations. It works amazingly well, but it, 
too, is slower than the real thing. 

To sum up, the choice between archi- 
tectures is a hard one, one that should be 
driven by the applications you want to 
run and the environment you need to run 
in. Pick the software first, and then fit the 
hardware to it. Once you get your new 
computer, start saving up for one of the 
other kind. It's getting more and more 
obvious that anyone serious about com- 
puting needs access to both a Macintosh 
and an MS-DOS machine these days. 

-H. E. 

What Good Is a Backup? 

I have an IBM PS/2 Model 80 with two 
ESDI hard disk drives (one is 100 mega- 
bytes, the other 300 MB), an external 
5!4-inch 1.2-MB floppy disk drive, a 
mouse, and a 60-MB MaynStream (from 
Maynard Systems) tape backup system 
with version 2.2 of the tape backup 
software. 

My trouble is related to the tape backup 
system and the 100-MB hard disk drive. 
At the beginning of the month, I made an 
image backup of my C drive, and when I 
tried to restore the data after a disk crash, 
the software returned an Unable to find 
partition error message. I called the 
technical-support group of the company 
that sold me the MaynStream. 

The people I spoke with told me that I 
should perform a low-level format on the 
hard disk drive, repartition it into its 
original configuration, and try again. 
I'm using DOS 4.01, and the drive had 
only one partition, so that was easy. 
After reformatting, I reinstalled DOS 
and tried again. I still got the same error 
message. 

I then brought the tapes to the techni- 
cal-support people. They tried the same 
thing on one of their machines with the 
same result. Desperately— it is very pre- 
cious data— I contacted some people who 
also use MaynStream tapes, but they had 
never encountered such problems. 

Is the data on the tape lost, or is there a 
way to restore it? I never had any prob- 
lems before with the MaynStream, and it 
still works when I use the normal backup 
and restore utilities. What is the purpose 
of a backup system when you can't re- 
store the data on it? 

Vereecken Luc 
Leuven, Belgium 

The good news is that your tape is prob- 
ably recoverable. Unfortunately, it 's go- 



ing to cost you gobs of money. Maybe I 
should explain why. 

There are two ways a tape backup sys- 
tem can work. The file-by-file backup 
will walk through the file system and se- 
quentially copy each file that it encoun- 
ters onto a contiguous piece of tape. The 
file structure on the tape is created and 
maintained by the tape software and has 
nothing whatsoever to do with the com- 
puter's file system. The advantage here is 
that if the original disk is lost, any ma- 
chine, regardless of operating system, 
should be able to recover the data as long 
as its hard disk drive is big enough. 
Image backups work by scanning through 
the hard disk, sector by sector, and copy- 
ing an exact image of each sector without 
regard to its contents. On a DOS ma- 
chine, this will include the boot sectors, 
file allocation tables (FATs), directories, 
and files, as well as the location of any 
locked-out bad sectors. To restore an 
image tape, the hard disk drive has to be 
formatted in the same way, with the bad 
sectors identified and locked out in the 
same way they were before. Otherwise, 
the tape software may try to restore data 
onto a bad sector that wasn 't marked bad 
when the backup was made. 

If the restore disk has a different geom- 
etry or a different sector map than the 
original, the software won't be able to 
figure out where to put the data and will 
report the kind of error you found. I sus- 
pect that by reformatting the drive, you 
either marked additional bad sectors or 
freed up previously bad disk spots, there- 
by making the disk look different than it 
was. 

To recover your tape, someone is going 
to have to restore all the sectors, deter- 
mine what your drive geometry must have 
looked like, and reconstruct an entirely 
new disk based solely on the FATs and di- 
rectory information stored on the tape. 
It's an elaborate process, and it's not 
cheap. I spoke with Maynard techni- 
cians, who, while sympathetic to your 
plight, couldn 't offer any quick solutions. 

To answer your last question next, it 's 
never been remotely obvious to me why 
anyone would offer an image backup pro- 
gram when the chances of recovering 
data were so minimal. In fact, Maynard 
no longer provides an image backup facil- 
ity with the MaynStream, and most other 
vendors have dropped them, as well. In 
the future, don 't use the image backup fa- 
cility— erase that software from your disk 
and stick with the file-by-file stuff. And 
to be doubly safe, use your software's 
verification feature, or run a full tape 
verify to make sure that the tape is read- 
able. 



The Maynard folks suggested that you 
might want to send your tape to one of the 
many file recovery services. They sug- 
gested X-Late (P.O. Box 161, Lake 
Elmo, MN 55042, (612) 770-8087) as 
one company you might try. Prices vary, 
but recovery costs could run up to $100 
per megabyte of data, depending on how 
much work is involved. — H. E. 

Sparing the Sperry 

I have a five-year-old Sperry 286 com- 
puter. It has an EGA, a 5 ^-inch 1 .2-MB 
floppy disk drive, and a 30-MB hard disk 
drive. The hard/floppy disk drive con- 
troller circuit is on the motherboard. 

I want to add a 3 !/2-inch 1 .44-MB flop- 
py disk drive. I have tried updating the 
installed Sperry DOS to MS-DOS 3.3 
and PC-DOS 3.3. In both cases, I could 
address drive B and do a DIR that sort of 
worked. But I could not make the 3!/2- 
inch drive format a floppy disk no matter 
what I tried. Neither the Norton Utilities 
nor PC Tools would recognize drive B. 

I suspect the outdated BIOS chips, but 
because I deal primarily with generic 
clones, I have no idea where to look to 
find out. 

Could you help me with information 
on this upgrade? If new chips are re- 
quired, I'd like to know where I can find 
them. 

Vern De Fehr 
Fresno, CA 

Due to the age of your computer, your 
suspicions concerning the BIOS ROM are 
probably correct. 

Sperry Computers was bought out by 
Unisys (P.O. Box 500, Blue Bell, PA 
19424). Unisys still supports Sperry 
computers. You can order parts by calling 
(800) 448-1424. The parts technicians 
will need to know the model number on 
the motherboard of your Sperry 286. 

-S. W. 



FIXES 



• Instant Recall 1.2 does contain "tick- 
ler" functions. The features table in 
"Strictly for Personal Information" 
(September) failed to note that. 

• In the October article "A Knowledge 
Engineering Toolkit," we listed the Lon- 
don address for Logic Programming As- 
sociates. LPA Prolog and MacProlog are 
also available from Quintus Computer 
(1310 Villa St., Mountain View, CA 
94041, (800) 245-6442 or (415) 965- 
7700). ■ 



40 BYTE- DECEMBER 1990 



ZORTECH C+ + DEVELOPER'S EDITION V2.1 



Multi-Platform C++ 



MS-DOS • WINDOWS • OS/2 • DOS 386 • UNIX 386 



MS-DOS 




Zortech's industrial strength 
compiler provides all the benefits 
of C++, but with with the speed 
and code size you would expect 
from the best C compilers. 

The quality of the original Zortech 
C++ implementation together with 
the continuous improvement 
achieved since its launch in June 
1988 produces fabulous 
benchmarks. Just look howfar it's 
ahead of the nearest competitor. 

Zortech 

C++ 

provides 

state of the 

art, 

USEFUL 

features, 

most of 

which are 

added in 

direct 

response to 

customer requests. 

You can effortlessly cruise 
through the DOS 640K barrier 
using Zortech's Virtual Code 
Manager (VCM™). This allows 
you to develop applications up to 
4MB in size whilst in real mode, 
without changing your C/C++ 
source code. Zortech's much 
acclaimed 'handle pointers' 
provide an elegant solution to 
processing EMS memory. 

Zortech C++ also uses the 
Rational Systems™ DOS 
Extenders allowing you to easily 
compile and debug really large 
programs, even large 
MS-Windows 3.0 applications. If 
you want to purchase a Rational 
Systems license for your own 
applications, your Zortech code is 
Plug & Go. 

Zortech's new C++ Workbench 
provides a cross platform 
development environment for 
C++. It has really useful features 
including powerful source and 



grep browsers, to look at your 
handiwork. 

In response to hundreds of 
requests, MS-Windows 2.1 
support was added into the base 
DOS C++ Compiler in version 2.0. 
Now with Zortech C++ V2.1 
development of C++ applications 
for Windows 3.0 is a reality not a 
promise. 

Along with the C++ compiler 
comes a top quality ANSI C 
compiler. In fact, after reviewing 
14 C/C++ compilers in its May 

1990 issue, 

Computer 

Language 

Editor J. D. 

Hilderbrant 

said: 

"The 
pressure 
to name 
an 

overall 
winner in 
the compiler sweepstakes is 
nearly overwhelming... it's an 
easy choice. We pick Zortech! " 

Thousands of our customers had 
existing C code they wanted to 
recompile, so we made it simple. 
In the words of BYTE Magazine: 

66 1 fed a Microsoft C specific 
version of the Micro-EMACS 
editor source to Zortech's 
compiler, and less than one 
hour later, I had a new (and 
smaller) program. " 

Our C++ Debugger, which 
understands C and Assembler 
too, is CodeView™ compatible, 
butthat's where the similarities 
end. This feature packed tool can 
examine your program from 19 
viewpoints and uses overlapping 
windows with full mouse 
support, icons and dialog boxes. 

Debugging large programs is no 
problem with our DOS Extender, 
Virtual and Remote debugger 
versions. Quite simply, there's 



no better C++ debugger to use 
and no better C++ to debug. 

Our C++ Tools package is the 
most comprehensive set 
available. All 25 class libraries are 
extensively documented and 
come with the full source code. 

The Zortech C++ Developer's 
Edition V2.1 includes C and C++ 
Compilers, C++ Debugger, C++ 
Tools and the FULL Library 
Source Code (excluding Flash 
Graphics). That's right, you don't 
have to pay hundreds of dollars 
extra for source code - it's in the 
box! 

MS-WINDOWS 

Improved support for 
MS-Windows (including new 
Windows 3.0 support) is 
provided in the base C++ DOS 
compiler, at no extra cost. 
With Zortech, you can now even 
compile from within Windows! 

Support for new extended 
keywords Joadds and _export as 
well as the ability to create DLL's 
make programming in Windows 
with C++ practical. We provide 
extensive documentation and 
50K of sample code to illustrate 
development of applications in 
this exciting new environment. 

Do you need MS-Windows class 
libraries? Call for details of third 
party Zortech Validated Products. 



OS/2 ^ 



The OS/2 Developer's Edition 
option now provides a C++ 
Compiler and source level 
Debugger designed for C++. In 
the words of OS/2 Magazine: 

66 Zortech C++ serves as a 
direct replacement for the 
Microsoft C Compiler in 
developing applications, 
allowing programmers to use 
object-oriented techniques in 
OS/2 development." 



$fl 



DOS 386 ^\ 

Now MS-DOS developers can 
build true 32 bit C and C++ 
applications for 386 processors 
using Zortech's powerful 
development system. The 
Zortech C++ V2.1 Developer's 
Edition for DOS 386, contains 32 
bit versions of the C and C++ 
Compiler, Flash Graphics library, 
C++ Debugger and full standard 
library source code together with 
all the familiar features provided 
with the standard DOS 
Developer's Edition. 

Using Phar Lapp's much 
acclaimed 386/DOS Extender 
Technology, you can build 
applications which access 4 
Gigabytes of linearly addressable 
memory. Your applications will 
also be Plug & Go for use with 
Phar Lapp's 386 DOS Extender 
which may be purchased 
seperately. 

UNIX 



386 ^ 



Not a day passes at Zortech HQ 
without numerous requests for a 
UNIX version of Zortech C++. 
Now, DOS and OS/2 developers 
can reach new markets by easily 
moving their code to SCO UNIX 
386 and binary compatibles. 

The Zortech C++ V2.1 UNIX 386 
Compiler generates the same 
tight, fast code that Zortech's 
DOS and OS/2 users have come 
to expect. UNIX specific versions 
of Flash Graphics and the C++ 
Workbench are also provided. 

In line with the traditional Zortech 
Policy, owners of the Zortech C++ 
V2.1 UNIX 386 Compiler will be 
able to inexpensively upgrade to 
the forthcoming Zortech C++ V2.1 
UNIX 386 Developer's Edition. 




V2.1 



ZORTECHInc, 4-C GMStreet, WOBURNMA 01801 Tel: 617-937-0696 Fax: 617-937-0793 Orders: 1-800-848-8408 
ZORTECH Ltd., 58-60 Beresford Street, LONDON SE18 6BG Tel: +44-81-316-7777 Fax: +44-81-316-4138 



DEVELOPER'S EDITION 



Freedom of Choice. 



At Jameco, you have the freedom to choose 
from a complete line of starter, mid-range, 
and full powered computer kits. You also 
have the freedom to build and expand these 
kits by choosing the major components 
that best suit your individual needs. From 
memory, monitors, and disk drives; to 
scanners, mice, and trackballs; to cables, 
power protectors, and more. 

Take a look at our high-end 80386 and 
80386SX expandable computer kits: 

Jameco 33MHz 32KB Cache, 
80386 Computer Kit 

Includes: 

• 80386 33MHz Motherboard with 32KB cache, 4MB RAM 
(expandable to 16MB) 

• 101-key enhanced keyboard 

• Multi I/O Card 

• Toshiba 1.44MB, 3.5" DSHD floppy disk drive 

• Vertical enclosure with 6 half-height drive bays 

• 300 Watt power supply 

• DR DOS 5.0 by Digital Research and Diagsoft's QAPlus 
diagnostic software 

monitor extra 



$2599. 

JE3833 



95 



Jameco 20MHz 32KB Cache, 
80386SX Computer Kit 

Includes: 

• AMI 80386SX 20MHz Motherboard with 32KB cache, 
4MB RAM (expandable to 16MB) 

• 101-key enhanced keyboard 

• Multi I/O Card 

• Toshiba 1.44MB, 3.5" DSHD floppy disk drive 

• Mini-vertical computer case 

• 200 Watt power supply 

• DR DOS 5.0 by Digital Research and Diagsoft's QAPlus 
diagnostic software 

$1899. 95mo ""°""~ 

JE3820 

Call Jameco for our new 1991 catalog. In it you'll find 
an extensive offering of quality computer and electronic 
components. You have the freedom to order 24 hours a 
day and if you need assistance, expert technicians are 
available from 7 am to 4 pm (PST) to help you with all 
your computing needs. Enjoy the freedom of choice. 
Call Jameco today at (415) 592-8097. 



jaWotf 



(415) Sg 



n#* 







COMPUTER PRODUCTS 

1355 Shoreway Rd., Belmont, GA 94002 
FAX: (415) 592-2503 

Terms: Prices arc subject to change without notice. Items subject to availability and prior sale. Complete list of terms/warranties is available upon request. 

All trade names arc registered trademarks of their respective companies. 
© 12/90 Jameco Computer Products 



Circle 155 on Reader Service Card 



M 


MMC 


Please 

refer to 

Mall Key 1 

when 
ordering 


|M»| 


^fl 



24 Hours a Day. 










J* 



What's New 



HARDWARE • SYSTEMS 



Light Portables 
Take Flight 

NEC Technologies has 
launched the UltraLite 
286V, a 6% -pound 12-MHz 
notebook computer. The sys- 
tem comes with 1 MB of 
RAM (expandable to 2 or 5 
MB), a 3 Vi -inch 1.44-MB 
external floppy disk drive, and 
a 20-MB hard disk drive. 

The system also features a 
10-inch backlit screen with 
640- by 480-pixel VGA reso- 
lution. The removable battery 
cartridge system provides up 
to 2Vi hours of power; the sys- 
tem also comes with an auto- 
sensing/auto-switching AC 
power supply that works with 
both U.S. and international 
power systems. 

The system measures 9 l / 2 
by 12% by V/ XQ inches. Options 
include a 2400-bps modem, a 
send/receive fax modem, and 
a SCSI adapter. 
Price: $3999. 
Contact: NEC Technol- 
ogies, Inc., 1255 Michael Dr., 
Wood Dale, IL 60191, (708) 
860-9500. 
Inquiry 1271. 




The Samsung S3600 is a 12-MHz laptop with a 40-MB hard disk 
drive and a VGA-compatible screen. 



The Samsung S3600, like 
the NEC UltraLite 286V, 
comes with a 286 processor, 
1MB of RAM, alVi-'mch 
1.44-MB floppy disk drive, 
and a VGA screen. But the 
Samsung weighs in at a hefty 
16 pounds, including its 
battery. 

The S3600 comes with a 
rechargeable nickel-cadmium 
battery that provides 3 hours 
of power, a battery charger, 
and a power management 
feature similar to the 
UltraLite' s. 

Options include LapLink 




III software, a 2400-bps 
modem, and a carrying 
case. 

Price: With 40-MB hard disk 
drive, $3499. 

Contact: Samsung Informa- 
tion Systems America, Inc., 
3655 North First St., San 
Jose, CA 95134, (800) 624- 
8999 ext. 851. 
Inquiry 1272. 



386SX Systems 
with Windows 
on the Side 

The Mitac MPC2386E is 
a basic 20-MHz 386SX 
system with an option for 
Super VGA graphics. The sys- 
tem comes with Windows 
3.0, a mouse, and 1 MB of 
RAM (expandable to 4 or 8 
MB). 

The system is sold without 
any disk drives but has room 
for both 5 Va- and 3 Vi-inch 
floppy disk drives. 



Price: $2395. 
Contact: American Mitac 
Corp .,410 East Plumeria Dr. , 
San Jose, CA 95134, (800) 
648-2287 or (408) 432-1160. 
Inquiry 1273. 

The Eltech 2200 is an- 
other 20-MHz 386SX sys- 
tem that comes with Win- 
dows 3.0 installed. It includes 
2 MB of RAM (expandable 
to 8 MB), 5V4- and 3 Vi -inch 
floppy disk drives, a 40-MB 
hard disk drive, a VGA card 
and monitor, a mouse, and 
DOS 4.01. 
Price: $2199. 
Contact: Eltech Research, 
Inc., 47266 Benicia St., 
Fremont, CA 94538, (800) 
234-4331 or (415) 438-0990. 
Inquiry 1274. 



Going for the 
GoldStar 

GoldStar Technology's 
GT212isal2-MHz286- 
based system with 1 MB of 
RAM and 16-bit VGA capabil- 
ity for under $1000. The 
base system has an Intelligent 
Drive Electronics interface 
and VGA capability built into 
the motherboard. It also in- 
cludes a dual floppy disk drive 
controller; serial, parallel, 
and mouse ports; and DOS 
4.01. The system measures 4 
by 15 by 15*/2 inches. 
Price: $995. 

Contact: GoldStar Technol- 
ogy, Inc., 3003 North First 
St., San Jose, CA 95134, 
(408)432-1331. 
Inquiry 1275. 



Mitac 's 20-MHz 386SX comes with Windows 3. installed along 
with a mouse and more. 



SPREAD THE WORD 

Your new product is important to us. Please address information to 
New Products Editors, BYTE, One Phoenix Mill Lane, Peter- 
borough, NH 03458. Better yet, use your modem and mail new 
product information to the microbytes.hw or microbytes.sw 
conferences on BIX. Please send the product description, price, 
ship date, and an address and telephone number where readers can 
get more information. 



44 BYTE- DECEMBER 1990 



HARDWARE 



jHillJiHifJ 



HP Does It 
Again for Less 

Hewlett-Packard's Laser- 
Jet HID is its second 
printer with the HP PCL 5 
printer language and HP Reso- 
lution Enhancement technol- 
ogy. This 300-dpi, 8-ppm 
LaserJet is compatible with 
the III and IID and replaces 
the IID, according to HP. 

Like the IID, the HID of- 
fers double-sided printing and 
the same internal bit-mapped 
typefaces as the IIP (i.e., Cou- 
rier and Line Printer). Two 
font-cartridge slots give you 
the option of plugging in 
fonts, typefaces, and Post- 
Script cartridges. 

Also like the IID, the HID 
comes with two letter-size 
paper trays for an input ca- 
pacity of 400 sheets. An auto- 
matic envelope feeder is 
available for the HID. In addi- 
tion, the HID comes with 1 
MB of memory and two slots 
for memory upgrade boards. 

HP's Resolution Enhance- 
ment technology adjusts the 
position and size of dots to 
smooth the jaggies of 300-dpi 





The HP LaserJet HID laser printer offers low-cost printing for 
high-volume users. 



printing. The PCL 5 printer 
language uses Intellifont font- 
scaling technology from 
Agfa, which allows the printer 
to scale typefaces on the fly. 
Price: $3595. 
Contact: Hewlett-Packard 
Co. Inquiries, 19310 Prune- 
ridge Ave., Cupertino, CA 
95014, (800) 752-0900. 
Inquiry 1276. 



disk drive with 0.5 MB of 

RAM). 

Contact: Supra Corp., 1133 

Commercial Way, Albany, OR 

97321, (800) 727-8772 or 

(503)967-9075. 

Inquiry 1277. 



SupraDrive 500XPfor the 
Amiga. 



Hard Disk Drive 
Gives RAM 
to the Amiga 

Th e SupraDrive 500XP 
for the Amiga 500 com- 
bines a 20-MB hard disk 
drive and installed RAM. The 
drive consumes less than 4 W 
of power and does not require 
fans or external power, ac- 
cording to Supra. 

The RAM is installed on 
the 500XP board in DRAM 
chips in configurations of 
0.5, 1, or 2 MB of RAM with 
256K- by 4-bit DIP DRAM 
chips, or in configurations of 
2, 4, or 8 MB with an add-on 
RAM board using 1 -megabit 
by 4-bit DRAM chips. The 
drive plugs into the Amiga's 
expansion port. 
Price: $679 for a minimum 
configuration (20-MB hard 



Low-Cost Video 
Printer from Sony 

The UP-3000 prints with 
256 levels of color from a 
palette of over 16 million 
colors per pixel at more than 
500 TV lines of horizontal 
resolution in a 4- by 3-inch 
format. 

The printer has a one- 
frame memory and uses RGB 
8-bit digital signal processing 
and advanced color-dye-trans- 
fer thermal printing technol- 
ogy. In normal scanning 
mode, the printer produces a 



picture about the size of a 
35mm photo on an A6 page. 
It has an RS-232C interface 
and accepts and outputs RGB 
analog, composite video, and 
S-video signals. 
Price: $3999. 
Contact: Sony Corp. of 
America, 9 West 57th St. , 
New York, NY 10019, (212) 
418-9427. 
Inquiry 1278. 



An 851 4/A 
VGA Monitor 

The ViewSonic 4 is a 
multiple-frequency VGA 
monitor that has a multiscan- 
ning frequency of from 20 to 
38 kHz and a presetting 
function. The monitor features 




auto-sizing controls and a 
nonglare 14-inch screen on a 
tilt-and-swivel base. 
Price: $599. 

Contact: ViewSonic, 12130 
Mora Dr. , Santa Fe Springs, 
CA 90670, (213)944-3041. 
Inquiry 1279. 




Sony 's UP-3000 turns video to color hard copy. 



DECEMBER 1990 • B Y T E 45 



WHAT'S NEW 



HARDWARE 



A D D - I N S 



Orange Micro Lets 
You Mix Apples 
with DOS and OS/2 

The Orange386, a single- 
slot coprocessor card that 
works in any Mac II, features 
an on-board 16-MHz Intel 
386SX. With the card in 
place, you can run OS/2 and 
DOS applications in a Mac 
window as if they were Mac 
applications, according to 
Orange Micro. 

The Orange386 has two 
AT slots so you can install any 
IBM add-on card on it; you 
can also add an 80387 math 
coprocessor. Other features 
of the Orange386 card include 
PC interface hardware for 
serial, parallel, 1.2-MB floppy 
disk drive, and Intelligent 
Drive Electronics ports. This 
lets you connect almost any 
PC-type peripheral to the 
card. 

Price: $2295. 
Contact: Orange Micro, 
Inc., 1400 North Lakeview 
Ave., Anaheim, CA 92807, 
(714)779-2772. 
Inquiry 1280. 



Basic VGA for Less 
Than $99 

A full 16 bits on a com- 
pact VGA card is what 
you get for $99 with ATI's 
VGABASIC-16. The card uses 
a proprietary application-spe- 
cific IC that makes it over 
three times faster than com- 
petitors' cards, ATI says. 
The VGABASIC-16 is 
compatible with CGA, EGA, 
VGA, Hercules, and MDA. It 
has a 16-bit bus design but also 
supports an 8-bit bus. It mea- 
sures 6 Va by 2 3 A inches, 



j 



■ - ■£■•.- a 




J : 



The Orange386 puts a powerful PC in your Mac. 



which, ATI says, makes it the 

smallest VGA card in the 

world. 

Price: $99. 

Contact: ATI Technologies, 

Inc., 3761 Victoria Park 

Ave., Scarborough, Ontario, 

Canada M1W3S2, (416) 

756-0718. 

Inquiry 1281. 



Mac DSP Boards 
Meet Your Floating- 
Point Needs 

Spectral Innovations is 
offering floating-point 
digital signal processing 
(DSP) boards for the Mac II 
and SE/30. 

The boards provide a peak 
performance of 32 MFLOPS 
and feature NuBus and pro- 
cessor direct slot (PDS) com- 
patibility. The bus interface 



for the board includes a 5- 
MBps DMA mode that lets 
you transfer programs and data 
between Mac and MacDSP 
local memory without inter- 
rupting MacDSP program 
execution. 

The boards, based on 
AT&T's DSP32C DSP, have an 
integrated DMA controller 
that performs IEEE-compat- 
ible 32-bit floating-point 
arithmetic. The higher-end 
board, the MacDSPAP, is de- 
signed for memory-intensive 
array-processing applications 
such as image processing, 3-D 
modeling, graphics anima- 
tion, and PostScript accelera- 
tion. It provides from 64K 
bytes to 1 MB of zero-wait- 
state RAM. 

The lower-cost board, the 
MacDSPXI, is designed for 
signal-processing applica- 
tions where cost is a factor. 
This board features built-in 




16-bit A/D and D/A converters 
with a sample rate of 128 
kHz, and it performs at up to 
24 MFLOPS. 

Both boards are available 
with C development environ- 
ments, which include a com- 
piler, an assembler, a simula- 
tor, and a linker. The boards 
are also compatible with Spec- 
tral Innovations' signal 
analysis program. 
Price: MacDSPAP, $4994; 
MacDSPXI, $2895; C develop- 
ment environment, $1500. 
Contact: Spectral Innova- 
tions, 4633 Old Ironsides Dr., 
Suite 450, Santa Clara, CA 
95054,(408)727-1314. 
Inquiry 1282. 



Oscilloscope Card 
with a 256K-byte 
Storage Buffer 

Soltec says that its SCC- 
1220 digital storage oscil- 
loscope card is the first inte- 
grated scope with a 256K-byte 
storage buffer. 

The card has a sampling 
frequency of from 40 MHz to 
1 Hz. It is capable of simulta- 
neous sampling on two chan- 
nels at up to 20 MHz per 
channel. All features, func- 
tions, and setup parameters 
are selectable from menu- 
driven software called PC- 
Calc. 

You can capture single 
events unattended by setting 
the trigger on the card. You 
can also zero in on prototype 
faults, which enables fault 
analysis, according to Soltec. 

The card installs in a sin- 
gle slot in an XT or AT. 
Price: $1300. 
Contact: Soltec Corp., Sol 
Vista Park, 1 2977 Arroyo St. , 
San Fernando, CA 91340, 
(800) 423-2344 or (818) 
365-0800. 
Inquiry 1283. 



The VGA BASIC- J 6 delivers 16 bits on a card that measures 
6 } A by2Y4 inches. 



46 BYTE- DECEMBER 1990 



db VISTA III for Windows 3.0™ 



T 




DBMS That 



Bg|Sfe.; 


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1 I 


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Microsoft. 
Windows,. 

\fcraon 30 Cotnpaiibte PiwdiKt 



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Get High Performance 
Under Microsoft 
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Develop Windows applications 
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profitable. db_VISTAm 
combines speed, flexibility, and 
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Add db_VISTA Ill's high-speed 
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guidelines for memory use. 
Dynamic linked libraries (DLL), 
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environments are all supported. 
For even faster development, use 
db_VISTA III with products like 
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No royalties. Supports: MS Windows, MS-DOS, OS/2, VMS, UNIX, BSD, QNX, SunOS, Macintosh. 



Special $195 Developer's Edition ! 

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Dec. 3-5, 1990 
Dec. 3-5, 1990 
Dec. 10-14, 1990 
Dec. 17-18, 1990 
Jan.28-Feb.2,1991 
Feb. 4-8, 1991 



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Raima Corporation 3245 146th Place S.E., Bellevue, WA 98007 USA (206)747-5570 Fax:(206)747-1991 Telex: 6503018237 MCI UW 

International Distributors: Australia: 61 2 419 7177 Austria: 43022 43 81861 Brazil: 55 1 1 829 1687 Central America: 506 28 07 64 Denmark: 45 42 887249 France: 33 1 46092784 ° 

Italy: 39 045 58471 1 Japan: 81 03 865 2140 Mexico: 52 83 49 53 00 The Netherlands: 31 2503 26312 Norway: 47 244 8855 Sweden: 46 013 124780 Switzerland: 41 064 517475 r 

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Copyright ©]990Raitna Corporation, All rights reserved. db_ is registered in the U.S.Pateni and Trademark Offiee. Windows 3.0. ToolBook, Windnwcraft. and Actor arc trademarks of their respective companies. 

Circle 259 on Reader Service Card 



THE Only Competition For Our New Handhe 



mam 



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in everyone's grasp. It does almost everything a big, expensive scanner 
can do, for a fraction of the price. Oew ScanMan Model 256 lets you 
capture the subtlest details in your originals, in 256 shades of gray. Special 
retouching software tools let you enhance difficult originals and preview 
the results. You can dramatically improve the contrast and brightness of 
any image. So you always give your monitor and printer the best possible 
image to work with. hat really sets ScanMan Model 256 apart is its 

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together. You can instantly re-align, resize, flip or rotate images to create 
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optional CatchWord™ Intelligent OCR software you can scan text in most any 
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LOGiTEGH 

Tools That Power The Desktop. 



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OTHER 



Click and Play 
from the 
Mac Jukebox 

The MacJukebox, which 
consists of an infrared in- 
terface box, a Macintosh 
Plus, software, and cables, lets 
you remotely control your in- 
frared peripherals (e.g., TVs 
and compact disk players). 
The interface box includes an 
infrared receiver, a transmit- 
ter, and the connections to 
hook it up to the serial port 
of the Mac Plus. 

Using the software pro- 
vided, you can control infrared 
peripherals with the click of 
a button after you've converted 
command sequences to 
macros, and you can link the 
macros to a set time or event. 
The software also gives you 
extensive organizing capabil- 
ities, such as listing all your 
CDs by artist or song title. 
Then when you click on a song 
or series of songs, your selec- 
tions will play in sequence just 
as on a jukebox. 
Price: $1599; without the 
Mac Plus, $599. 
Contact: DanCraft Enter- 
prises, 5520 West 1 18th Place, 
Inglewood, CA 90304, (213) 
643-8782. 
Inquiry 1284. 



DSPontheNeXT 




The QuintProcessor 
board can add up to 
67.5 MIPS performance to 
the NeXT machine, accord- 
ing to Ariel. The board fea- 
tures five 27-MHz digital 
signal processors. The DSP 
chips are the same as those 
installed on the NeXT sys- 
tem's processor. Four are 
used as slave processors for 
computation, while the fifth 
is an I/O processor that man- 
ages DRAM, SCSI storage, 
and interprocessor commu- 



nications. 

The QuintProcessor is 
compatible with Ariel's 
BUG-56, a debugger bun- 
dled with the NeXT. 

The QuintProcessor has 
five DSP ports and can be 
connected to Ariel's digital 
microphone for recording 
andsignal analysis. 
Price: $6995. 

Contact: Ariel Corp., 433 
River Rd., Highland Park, 
NJ 08904, (201) 249-2900. 
Inquiry 1287. 




Second Wave 's line of expansion chassis systems gives you the 
ability to expand your Mac Portable, Plus, SE, or II. With the 
Home Base, for example, you are able to add two slots to your 
Mac Portable. 



Expansion Chassis 
Systems for Macs 

Second Wave's line of 
Expanse expansion chas- 
sis systems lets you add to 
your Macintosh. The Home 
Base, the chassis for the Mac 
Portable, fits under the ma- 
chine and contains two slots 
for standard SE option cards, 
enabling you to get more out 
of your Portable when it's 
parked on your desk at home 
or in the office. 

Other Expanse chassis sys- 
tems include the Plus, which 
adds four SE slots to the Mac 
Plus; the SE chassis, which 



adds four SE slots to the Mac 
SE; and the SE/30 chassis, 
which adds four NuBus slots 
to the Mac SE/30. Other chas- 
sis are available for the Mac 
II family. 

All the chassis connect to 
the Macs through an interface 
card and cable assembly. 
Each chassis has a power sup- 
ply, a cooling fan, and the 
slots. The NuBus chassis can 
accommodate internal disk 
drives, according to Second 
Wave. 

Price: Home Base, $995; SE 
Plus, $795; SE, $995; SE/30, 
$1295. 

Contact: Second Wave, Inc., 
9430 Research Blvd., Echelon 
II, Suite 260, Austin, TX 
78759,(512)343-9661. 
Inquiry 1285. 



Speak into the 
Microphone 

Micro Intro Voice is a 
modular speech-process- 
ing system that comes with a 
microprocessor and has the 
ability to recognize up to 
1000 words. The manufacturer 
reports a recognition accu- 
racy of more than 98 percent. 

Micro Intro Voice listens to 
command or data input. It then 
responds by sending key- 
strokes via the serial port and 
text to the on-board synthe- 
sizer for audio prompting. 

The voice system works 
with any IBM PC or compat- 
ible, according to the manu- 
facturer. It comes with soft- 
ware, sample vocabularies, a 
battery charger, and a serial 
cable. 

The NEC V-25 micropro- 
cessor operates at 8 MHz and 
comes with 1 28K bytes of 
RAM. 

Price: $1295. 
Contact: Voice Connexion, 
8258 Kingslee Rd., Bloom- 
ington, MN 55438, (612) 
944-1334. 
Inquiry 1286. 



50 BYTE- DECEMBER 1990 



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DISTRIBUTOR 

• CANADA BUDGETRON INC TEL* 416-564-7800 FAX= 416-564-2679 • FRANCE M3C L INFORMATIOUE DU SUCCESTEL* 1-48271976 FAX? 1-42355916 • HONG KONG: PARKLY TECHNOLOGY LTD 
TEL*852-3051268 FAX*852-7968427 • ISRAEL. MLL COMPUTERS SYSTEMS LTD TEL? 3-7515511 FAX?' 3-7516615 • ITALY PRIMA COMPUTER TRADING ITALIA TEL? 522-518599 FAX* 522-518599 

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• SPAIN AT ELECTRONIC. S. A TEL* 1-5645434 FAX* 1-4 1 10869 • SWITZERLAND: ESS SOFTWARE TRADING SA TEL* 022-622020 FAX? 022-61 5650 • UNITED KINGDOM CENTERPRISE INTERNATIONAL 
LTD TEL= 2 56-463754 FAX= 256-843174 • WEST GERMANY: MACROTRON AG TEL? 89-4208233 FAX #89-423745 • BELGIUM CELEM S.A. TEL* 4 1-676434 FAX* 41-676515 



Operate your own BBS 

with the world's most popular, expandable, flexible 

Multi-User Online Bulletin Board System 




The Major BBS® 
starter system: 

A complete BBS software package for your 
PC, PS/2, XT, AT, 386, 486, or compatible. 
Includes electronic mail with binary and 
ASCII file "attachments", SIG conferencing 
or "forum" areas with configurable security 
level access control, file upload/download, 
message keyword searching, "quickscans" for 
fast access to new messages, message and file 
"threading", real-time multi-user "chat" and 
teleconferencing, "classified ad" and "user 
registry" databases, etc. Also includes ac- 
counting, Audit Trail, and timed usage-meter- 
ing features, and hundreds of convenience 
features for the Sysop (System Operator), 
such as a full-screen configuration editor, the 
ability to import/export files to/from floppy 
without system shutdown, "SIG-Op" privi- 
lege delegation, and much more. Supports up 
to 2 simultaneous users (from a database of 
thousands) on a single CPU. Works with stan- 
dard Hayes-compatible COM1/2/3/4 internal 
or external modems, or with serial ports up to 
38,400 bps. Minimum RAM requirement 
5 12K. Minimum disk requirement 20MB. Re- 
quires PC-DOS or MS-DOS 3.1 or later. 
The Major BBS Standard Edition $ 59 

When you're ready to expand: 

No LAN or multi-tasking OS necessary! Dou- 
ble the number of simultaneous users that 
your system can support, from 2 to 4, or 4 to 
8, or any number up to 64 simultaneous users 
on a single CPU, for a flat $300 software 
license fee per doubling. The upgrade process 
is quick, automatic, and fully upward -compat- 
ible— i.e. you can install an update or upgrade 
onto your existing system without disrupting 
any of your user account files, E-Mail mes- 
sages, configuration variables, or any other 
aspect of your system. For up to 16 users, 
640K RAM is sufficient; above 16 users, more 
than 640K may be necessary. Prerequisite: 
The Major BBS (any edition). 
Users, per doubling (up to 64) $ 300 



If you need multi-modem hardware: 

Our Model 2408 consists of up to 8 Hayes- 
compatible modems on a single circuit card, 
for the PC/XT/AT/386/486 family. Each 
modem operates independently at 
300/1200/2400 bps (automatically switching 
to match the caller's bps rate). Built-in serial 
ports are not COM-port based, so this card can 
co-exist with other COM port hardware in the 
same machine (drivers for software other than 
The Major BBS are not included but may be 
written). RJ-11 telephone cables are included. 
MNP Class 4 (error correction) modems are 

available as an option. 

MNr 

non-MNP Class 4 

2408 w/2 modems $ 1536 $ 1696 

2408 w/4 modems $ 2090 $ 2388 

2408 w/6 modems $ 2644 $ 3080 

2408 w/8 modems $ 3198 $ 3772 




utility object libraries, linker control files, and 
DOS "batch" files you will need, along with a 
detailed Programmer's Guide. Works with 
Turbo C 1.5, 2.0, or 2.01, Turbo C++, or 
Microsoft C 4.0, 5.1, or 6.0. Prerequisite: The 
Major BBS Standard Edition. 
Standard Edition C source code $ 285 

For the ultimate in 
file transfer flexibility: 

The File Library Edition of The Major BBS 
has everything that the starter system does, 
plus built-in ZMODEM, KERMIT, Super- 
KERMIT, YMODEM-g, and YMODEM 
(batch) file transfer protocols. Also, it offers 
super-fast pre-indexed keyword file searches, 
library -wide searches as well as constrained 
searches, special file upload/download ac- 
counting options, alternate DOS "paths" per 
sub-library, split paths for CD-ROM support, 
a transparent "DOS-only" sub-library option, 
and much more. This package is for you if the 
focus of your system will be the upload and 
download of large amounts of files. You can 
easily upgrade from the starter system to the 
File Library Edition, without losing any of 
your data files or configuration work you have 
already done. Prerequisite: The Major BBS 
Standard Edition. 

File Library extensions $ 199 

File Library C source extensions* ... $ 159 



When you're ready for source code: 

With the C sourcecode to The Major BBS, you 
can add 3rd-party software, such as The Major 
Database (a general-purpose, configurable 
database manager), various multi-player real- 
time adventure games, dial-out utilities, global 
command utilities, accounting enhancements, 
and much more. Also, you can maintain your 
own copy of the BBS, or you can modify it to 
suit your own unique requirements. The Major 
BBS C source code package is fully docu- 
mented, and it includes the Galacticomm Soft- 
ware Breakthrough Library, plus all of the 





If you decide to offer 

online games and amusements: 

The Entertainment Edition of The Major BBS 
has everything that the starter system does, 
plus Quest for Magic (a multi-player interac- 
tive text adventure game), Androids! (a multi- 
player arcade-style ANSI-graphics game), 
Flash Attack (a futuristic tank and laser battle 
for multiple players with IBM PC's), and the 
Action Teleconference Link-Up, which in- 
cludes private "chambers", action verbs (grin, 
wink, nudge, etc.), the ability to link to other 
systems for huge multi-system tele- 
conferences, custom en try /exit strings, user- 
configurable profiles, and much more. This 
Edition supports the Flash™ Protocol (where 
most of the game functionality is on the user's 



end of the phone line), for which dozens of 
incredible new multi-user games are now 
being developed. Upgrading from the starter 
system to the Entertainment Edition is quick 




ruvsH annex w.t » ty n* strict 

Copyright li) Vm G«l*ctlcow, lot. 
ftxl tret to tap*t 'a SWr * TlHrij, 



and easy and involves no loss of data or func- 
tion. Prerequisite: The Major BBS Standard 
Edition. 

Entertainment extensions $ 149 

Entertainment C source extensions* . . $ 1 29 

If your requirements include 
order entry and catalog sales: 

The Shopping Mall Edition of The Major BBS 
has everything that the starter system does, 
plus online shopping. Your online mall can 
have multiple "stores", each run by its own 
separate "merchant", if desired. Each mer- 
chant has control over his or her own product 
line, pricing, discount structure, store wel- 
come message, sales tax handling, etc. Also, 
each merchant may create up to 6 different 
payment methods (e.g. VISA, MC, AMEX, 
C.O.D., "bill me", etc.), and up to 6 different 
shipping methods (e.g. UPS, FedEx, US Mail, 
etc.), each with its own rates (flat rate, percent 
of sale, lst-ounce/add'1-ounce, or lst-pound/ 
add'l-pound). Users may browse product cat- 
alogs at no obligation, or order products and 
services directly online! Orders generate in- 
voices that are posted to the individual mer- 
chant as attachments to E-Mail. To upgrade 
from the starter system to the Shopping Mall 
Edition takes only a few minutes. Prerequisite: 
The Major BBS Standard Edition. 

Shopping Mall extensions $ 249 

Shopping Mall C source extensions*. . $ 1 89 




For super- flexibility of 

menu trees and ANSI screens: 

The MenuMan Edition of The Major BBS can 
do everything that the starter system does, and 
in addition you as Sysop can create your own 
menu trees, with menus leading to menus lead- 
ing to menus, as deeply "nested" as you like. 
The "leaves" of your menu trees can be ordi- 
nary ASCII or ANSI files, which are simply 
dumped to the user's display (with or without 
automatic screen breaks), or they can be any 
of the built-in functions of the BBS such as 
scanning the user's incoming E-Mail or firing 
up a SIG quickscan. Includes commands like 
GO <pagename>, FIND <topic>, USERS, 
and for the Sysop, the equivalent of the DOS 
commands DIR, RENAME, COPY, DEL, 
MKDIR, and RMDIR, as well as a set of priv- 
ileged commands for editing and extending 
the menu trees, remotely, while the BBS re- 
mains fully online. Upgrading from the starter 
system to the MenuMan Edition takes only 
minutes. Prerequisite: The Major BBS Stan- 
dard Edition. 

MenuMan extensions $ 149 

MenuMan C source extensions* .... $ 1 29 





...and that's not all! For advanced applica- 
tions, we also offer an X.25 direct-connect 
software option, a protected-mode develop- 
ment toolkit, and special licensing arrange- 
ments for up to 256 simultaneous users! And 
don't forget the smorgasbord of 3rd-party 
add-ons available, such as The Major Data- 
base from Galactic Innovations. Custom pro- 
gramming and integration services are also 
available. Your system can grow in power and 
sophistication, far into the future, with The 
Major BBS. 

Here's How To Order: 

Just dial (305) 583-5990 and say, "I'd like 
to place an order!" We can generally ship your 
order within 48 hours. We accept major credit 
cards, or we can ship C.O.D. Prices shown do 
not include shipping or insurance. 

For more information, you may either call 
the main order number and ask for a sales 
engineer, or dial (305) 583-7808 with your 
modem (8-N-l) for a free demo of most of our 
products. This demo system also contains an 
online Shopping Mall with many of the 3rd- 
party add-ons available for The Major BBS, 
operated by the 3rd-party vendors themselves. 

Give us a call today ! 



VISA 



P'iU 



As your system grows larger... 

The GalactiBox™ is our 16-slot "expansion 
chassis", for large-scale systems. It has the 
unique ability to address individual modems 
by slot number rather than just COM port 
address, so you can use up to 16 standard 
internal modems in it, side by side, without 
conflict. Includes built-in 150W power sup- 
ply, interface card for your XT/AT/3 86/486, 
cables, and full documentation. Up to 4 boxes 
may be attached to one CPU, for a total of up 
to 64-channel expansion capacity. Prices 
shown below are for standard 300/1200/2400 
bps Hayes-compatible internal modems. We 
also have 9600 bps V32/V.42 MNP Class 5 
modems available, call for prices. 

GalactiBox (unpopulated) $ 1992 

GalactiBox w/4 modems $ 2416 

GalactiBox w/8 modems $ 2840 

GalactiBox w 1 16 modems $ 3688 the corresponding extended Edition, 




The Major BBS, Flash Protocol, and GalactiBox are trademarks of 
Galacticomm, Inc. PC, PS/2, XX AT, and PC-DOS are trademarks of 
International Business Machines Corp. Hayes is a trademark of Hayes 
Microcomputer Products, Inc. The Major Database is a trademark of 
Galactic Innovations, Inc. lurbo C and TUrbo C++ are trademarks of 
Borland International, Inc. MS-DOS and Microsoft C are trademarks of 
Miciosoft Corp. UPS is a trademark of United Parcel Service. FedEx is a 
trademark of Federal Express Corp. MNP is a trademark of Microcom, Inc. 

*The C source code extensions are necessary, if 
you wish to combine multiple extended Editions 
together, or add 3rd-party software, or develop 
your own modifications. Prerequisites, in each 
case, are the Standard Edition C source code, and 



U) GALACTICOMM 



Galacticomm, Inc. 4101 S.W. 47 Ave. 
Suite 101, Fort Lauderdale, FL 33314 



Modem: (305) 583-7808 

Fax: (305) 583-7846 

Voice: (305) 583-5990 



Circle 116 on Reader Service Card 



WHAT'S NEW 



SEEEEQIDB 



Connectivity 
in a Box 

The LANPORT-II box, 
which is smaller than 
most external modems, lets 
you dial in to your Novell net- 
work from remote sites. You 
can hook LANPORT-II any- 
where along your network ca- 
bling, according to Microtest. 

The LANPORT-II box 
(which measures 4 by 7 V2 by 1 
inch) includes a built-in net- 
work interface, RAM, ROM, 
asynchronous communica- 
tions firmware, two serial 
ports, and software. It's 
compatible with terminal emu- 
lation programs such as Pro- 
comm and Crosstalk, and it 
works with PCs, Macs, 
mainframes, and other ASCII 
terminals. 

Three levels of security are 
included in LANPORT-II. 
When you call in to the net- 
work, LANPORT-II answers 
the call, prompts you to log 
on, and requests your pass- 
word. Once you're logged 
onto the file server, you're pre- 
sented with a menu of op- 
tions, and LANPORT-II be- 
comes transparent. 

LANPORT's two serial 
ports operate at up to 19,200 
bps, allowing multiple users 
to share modems. With LAN- 
PORT's network interface, 
you don't need a dedicated 
communications server on 
the network, as you do with 
other remote communica- 
tions devices. With the option- 
al On-Link feature, you don't 
need a computer up and run- 
ning on the network to use 
LANPORT-II— you can power 
up remotely. 
Price: $495 to $695. 
Contact: Microtest, 3519 
East Shea Blvd., Suite 134, 
Phoenix, AZ 85028, (602) 
971-6464. 
Inquiry 1288. 




LANPORT-II lets you dial into your LAN without the need for a 
PC communications server. 



Putting Windows 
on the Network 

Windows Workstation 3 
bridges the Windows 
3.0 user interface and your 
Novell NetWare LAN. The 
software consists of seven 
utilities that enhance the 
network features of Win- 
dows 3.0. 

The Workstation Print 
Manager brings network print- 
ing capabilities to Windows 
applications. Secure Station 
provides transparent security 
for network workstations and 
offers file encryption/ 
decryption capabilities. The 
Workstation Intercom lets you 



receive and send messages to 
users and groups of users 
across multiple file servers. 
You use the Workstation Clock 
to set multiple alarm mes- 
sages and events to occur at 
user-specified times and 
intervals. 

Windows Workstation 
3 is compatible with Novell 
NetWare 286 2.1 and higher. 
To run the utilities you 
need Windows 3.0 and at 
least 1 MB of RAM on each 
workstation. 

Price: $695 for a 10-user 
license. 

Contact: Automated Design 
Systems, Inc., 375 Northridge 
Rd., Suite 270, Atlanta, GA 
30350, (404) 394-2552. 
Inquiry 1289. 



Dialing Directory U2.1 



File Utility Kelp Quit 



I Go (Call selected entry) fllt-C 
I Go and learn Ion in 



Wait for call 
I 1 Delayed Dl 

t BSS The current tine is 1 

Of Enter tine to dial CH, 

I B.Heu York Sales Press: Return to star 
[ 9. Boston Sales Off Fl for help. 
I IB. MCI Hail ESC to abort. 




Getting the Most 
from Your Fax 

Ricoh's DX-1 Fax Adapt- 
er and communication 
software, compatible with 
PCs, Macs, and laptops, lets 
you use your Group 3 fax as a 
printer, scanner, copier, or just 
a fax. DX-1 software is avail- 
able for controlling the fax, 
scanning, printing, and copy- 
ing capabilities. 
Price: $799; DX-1 software, 
$275. 

Contact: Ricoh Corp., 5 De- 
drick Place, West Caldwell, NJ 
07006, (800) 637-4264 or 
(201) 882-2000. 
Inquiry 1290. 



The Mirror III dialing directory features pull-down menus and 
can be operated with a keyboard or mouse. 



Mirror III 
Gets a Boost 

The communications pro- 
gram for PCs called Mir- 
ror III is now enhanced with 
several new features, including 
a dialing directory interface 
and mouse support, according 
to SoftKlone. Also new are 
scripts for several on-line ser- 
vices, including BIX. Version 
2.0 also offers ZMODEM and 
XMODEM file transfer pro- 
tocols and support for MNP 5. 

To take advantage of the 
MNP session/data compression 
protocol, you must have an 
MNP modem. However, users 
without MNP modems can 
still use Mirror III software. 

Additions and extensions 
to the Prism communications 
programming language in- 
clude mouse support for Prism 
scripts, parameter passing, 
drawing enhancements, and 
several new commands. 
Price: $149. 
Contact: SoftKlone, 327 
Office Plaza Dr. , Suite 100, 
Tallahassee, FL 32301, 
(904) 878-8564. 
Inquiry 1291. 



54 BYTE- DECEMBER 1990 



JSil 







\. »'- ' '"- 



Instant Mainframe. Just add SCO. 



Not too long ago, a few dozen people sharing the same pro- 
grams, resources, and information on a single computer at 
the same time meant only one thing — a mainframe. 

Powerful, big, expensive, and proprietary. 

More recently, the same people could be found doing exactly the 
same things — simultaneously sharing programs, resources, and 
information — on a minicomputer. 

A lot cheaper, a lot smaller, yet powerful enough to do the same 
jobs. And just as proprietary. 

T'hen along came the latest generation of personal computers. 
And now, the same people are more and more likely to be 
found doing exactly the same things — simultaneously sharing 
programs, resources, and information — on a PC. 

And not a whole off iceful of PCs networked together, either, but 
a single PC powering the whole office at once. 

A lot cheaper, a lot smaller, yet still easily powerfi.il enough to do 
the same jobs. Built to non-proprietary, open system standards 
that allow complete freedom of choice in hardware and software. 

And running the industry-choice multiuser, multitasking UNIX® 
System Y platform that gives millions of 286- and 386-based PC 
users mainframe power every business day. 

The UNIX System standard for PCs— SCO.™ 

The SCO family of UNIX System software solutions is available for all 80286-, 
80386-, and 80486-based industry-standard and Micro Channel™ computers. 



UNIX is a registerwJ trademark of AT&T. SCO and the SCO logo are trademarks of The Santa Cruz Operation, Inc. Microsoft and XENIX are registered 
trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. OS/2 and Micro Channel are trademarks of International Business Madiines Corporation. 1-2-3 is a registered 
trademark of Ixnu* Development Corporation. tlfiASE [II PLUS is a registered trademark of Ashton-Tate. 1/89 

C1989 The Santa Cruz Operation. Inc.. 400 Encinal Street, P.O. Box 1900, Santa Cnn, California 95061 USA 

The Sarita Cruz Operation, Lid. Croxley Centre, Hatters Lane. Watford WD1 8YN. United Kingdom, +44 (0)923 816344. FAX +44 (0)923 817781, 
TELDC: 917372 *&*.= 



Today, SCO UNIX System solutions are installed on more than 
one in ten of all leading 386 computers in operation worldwide. 

Running thousands of off-the-shelf XENIX® and UNIX System-based 
applications on powerful standard business systems supporting 32 
or even more workstations — at an unbelievably low cost per user. 
And with such blazing performance that individual users believe 
they have the whole system to themselves. 

Running electronic mail across the office — or around the world — 
in seconds. 

Running multiuser PC communications to minis and mainframes 
through TCP/IP and SNA networks. 

And doing some things that no mainframe — or even DOS- or 
.0S/2 T "-based PC — ever thought about, such as running multiple 
DOS applications. Or networking DOS, OS/2, XENIX and UNIX 
Systems together. Or running UNIX System versions and workalikes 
of popular DOS applications such as Microsoft® Word, 1-2-3®, and 
dBASE III PLUS.® 

Or even letting users integrate full-featured multiuser productivity 
packages of their choice under a standard, friendly menu interface. 

Today's personal computer isn't just a <l PC" anymore, and you can 
unleash its incredible mainframe-plus power for yourself — today. 

Just add SCO. 

For more information, call SCO today and ask for ext. 8562. 




THE SANTA CRUZ OPERATION 



' (800) SCO-UNIX (726-8649) 
(408) 425-7222 
FAX: (408) 458-4227 
E-MAIL: . . .!uiinet!sco!info info(<^ sco.COM 



Circle 273 on Reader Service Card 



Two Reasons Why Toshiba Sells 



a 



t Toshiba, we think that designing a portable computer to fit real live 
human beings can make the difference between a computer you 



t 




love and a computer 
you merely tolerate. 
So that's ex- 
actly what we think 
about when we design 
our portable PCs. 




Chances are, you're already used to our comfortable, full- 
function keyboard. That's because the keys are the exact size 
and shape you expect them to be. 



And the public has told us we were right in our 
thinking. In fact, according to PC Magazine, 
Toshiba portables rank number one in cus- 
tomer satisfaction. 

Take our T1200XE notebook PC, for 

example. You'll notice how our unique 

screen technology 



makes it easy to read 

under virtually all 

lighting conditions, 

no matter where 

you decide to get 

your work done. 



HiniiUljiJUU^- 



JjJjJjJjj 



1 lllllll I 



l.„h i i i i i j .i Ji % jt t I CJL 
/»«** I, J, -I 'J I i * i i .* .|m«IM 

/........ i^-Jji&J . ., I . . %m£iiJlmm mm ami 

h- -' • - 

The T1200XE takes up about one square foot of desk 
space (or lap space) so there's always room to work. 



For a free brochure or the name of your nearest 
Toshiba dealer, call 1-800-457-7777. 



More Portables Than Anyone Else. 




Next, you'll find the keyboard to be immediately familiar, 
since it's what you're already used to. All of the key 
spacing and sizes are standard. 

You'll also discover plenty of processing 
power packed into the 286-based T1200XE. 
And the 20MB hard drive means you can 
keep all your programs and files right 
where you need them. With you. 
• Plus, you'll undoubtedly 
appreciate the T1200XE's other humane 
features like a slim line battery pack and 
AutoResumel" which lets you pick up exactly where you left off. 
No grand reopening of the system, program and file every time you want 
to start work again. 

The only thing you'll notice we've 
skimped on is size and weight. After all, what 
good is a portable if you can't take it with you? 

With notebooks like the T1200XE it 

Toshiba designed the large, easy-to-read display with real, 
i 11 ^^___ ^^ ^^ «*«-. *~~ i-l~~i- T* 1~"U^ ~ 11 live humans in mind. So now you can work without a lot of 

should come as no surprise that loshiba sells eyestrain, m*** or backi. 

more portable PCs than any other company in the world. After all, you're not 

the only one who recognizes a good thing when they see it. 

In Touch with Tomorrow 

TOSHIBA 




Circle 314 on Reader Service Card (RESELLERS: 315) 



WHAT'S NEW 



HTTH-IIUU 



Mac DAT 
Runs Alone 

Mirror Technologies has 
introduced the T 1200 
DAT Drive, an external 1.3- 
gigabyte digital audiotape 
drive for Macs. The T 1200 
supports unattended backup 
and network backup and con- 
forms to the digital data stor- 
age (DDS) recording format 
standard. 

With the included Sof t- 
BackUp software, you can pro- 
gram the T1200 for 2 hours 
of unattended operation. This 
means that it can perform 
backup for up to 2 hours and 
then shut down, freeing the 
system or network for other 
activities. 
Price: $2997. 
Contact: Mirror Technol- 
ogies, Inc., 2644 Patton Rd., 
Roseville,MN55113, (612) 
633-4450. 
Inquiry 1292. 



Integrated System 
for NetWare 
Communications 

FlexCom offers a hard- 
ware/software asynchro- 
nous communications solu- 
tion for NetWare-based LANs. 




Mirror's T1200 DAT drive offers Mac users unattended 
backups, 1. 3 gigabytes of storage, and high-speed access to data. 



The system supports dial-in 
and dial-out access on each 
communications line and 
provides a separate processor 
for each dial-in or remote-ac- 
cess user. With FlexCom, you 
also get as much as 550K 
bytes of RAM for applications, 
EGA-level graphics, and up 
to 1 MB of expanded or ex- 
tended memory. 

Version 1 . 1 of the software 
features reduced memory over- 
head for dial-in users, ex- 
tended management capability 
for dial-out lines, user-ex- 
tendable activity logging, and 
line-by-line modem ini- 
tialization. 

The server base units can 
handle from two to 36 lines, 
and a rack-mounted version 
handles up to 44 lines. Each 




server includes a network 
adapter (Ethernet, Token 
Ring, or ARCnet) and comes 
with the FlexCom/Manager 
administration software. 
Two communications proces- 
sor kits are available for the 
server base unit. The kits come 
with FlexCom/CPX software 
and pcAnywhere III remote- 
access software programs. 
Price: $3000 and up, includ- 
ing all hardware and software. 
Contact: Evergreen Systems, 
Inc., 120 Landing Court, Suite 
A, Novato, CA 94945, (415) 
897-8888. 
Inquiry 1293. 



Accton 's pocket-size adapter plugs into your portable 's parallel 
port and turns it into an Ethernet workstation. 



Pocket-Size 
LAN Adapter 

You can convert your por- 
table computer into an 
Ethernet workstation with a 
pocket-size LAN adapter from 
Accton Technology. 

The EtherPocket adapter, 
which measures 3% by % by 
2 l / 4 inches, is used in place of 
a network interface card. It 
comes with its own power 
adapter and attaches to the 
portable's parallel port. 
Price: $499. 

Contact: Accton Technology 
Corp . , 46750 Fremont Blvd . , 
Suite 104, Fremont, CA 
94538, (415) 226-9800. 
Inquiry 1294. 



Low-Cost 
and Practical 

The PM 9600 SA modem 
(a 9600-bps stand-alone 
modem) features automatic 
correct connection with remote 
mode, V. 42 and MNP 4 
error correction, V.42bis and 
MNP 5 data compression, 
and command and data rates of 
from 75 to 38,400 bps. It is 
also Hayes compatible. 
Price: $699. 

Contact: Practical Periph- 
erals, Inc., 31245 LaBaya 
Dr., Westlake Village, CA 
91362,(818)706-0333. 
Inquiry 1295. 



1-2-3/G Ships 
Server and Node 
Editions 

Lotus 1-2-3/G, the graph- 
ical version of the 1-2-3 
spreadsheet program, is now 
available in standard, server, 
and node editions. 

Lotus 1-2-3/G retains the 
familiar 1-2-3 commands but 
runs under OS/2 and adds a 
goal-seeking technology called 
Solver. Solver automates the 
what-if process and shows you 
how to achieve desired 
results. 

The server edition supplies 
administrators with tools for 
easier network management, 
according to Lotus. The node 
edition lets you have an addi- 
tional concurrent 1-2-3/G user 
on the network. It includes a 
single license for network use. 

1-2-3/G runs on a PC with 
at least 5 MB of RAM for net- 
work versions. It runs under 
OS/2 1 . 1 or higher and is com- 
patible with IBM, 3Com, and 
Novell networks. 
Price: Server edition, $895; 
node edition, $595. 
Contact: Lotus Development 
Corp., 55 Cambridge Pkwy., 
Cambridge, MA 02142, 
(617) 577-8500. 
Inquiry 1296. 



58 BYTE- DECEMBER 1990 



Buy one quick. 







1 Microsoft- QuickC 






List: S99 
Ours: $69 



List: S99 
Ours: $69 



List: $99 
Ours: $69 



List: S 199 
Ours: $ 139 



Get one free 




I 



HARD DISK BACKUP 




from Programmer 's 

Paradise 



(800) 
445-7899 



An unbelievable limited-time offer! Buy Microsoft® QuickBASIC,™ the easiest way to 
learn how to program. Or QuickPascal,™ the fastest way to learn and program in Pascal. Or 
QuickC,™ the easiest way to master C and write powerful C programs. Or QuickC Compiler 
with Quick Assembler,™ the only integrated C and Assembly development environment for 
MS-DOS.® 

And get one of the great software products shown, worth up to $90 (SRP), free!* 

Choose from Microsoft Flight Simulator,® the closest thing to flying short of flying. Central 
Point Backup,™ an incredibly easy way to back up documents. Or Sign Designer,™ great for 
creating professional quality signs on your dot matrix printer. 

Call Programmer's Paradise. Today. 




A Division of Voyager Software Corp 
1163 Shrewsbury Avenue 
Shrewsbury, NJ 07702 



Microsoft 

CALL TODAY! 



n^While supplies fast. Coupon offer redeemable through Microsoft. 
Circle 237 on Reader Service Card 



Programmer's Paradise 



® 



• •• 





CASE TOOLS 

EasyCASE Plus 

Professional Pack 
Personal CASE 

COBOL LANGUAGE 

Micro Focus: 

COBOL/2 w/Toolset 

Personal COBOL 
MS COBOL 
Realia COBOL 

CODE GENERATORS 

Louie Gem 
Mdtrix Layout 2.0 
PRO-C 

DATABASE DEVELOPMENT 

Clarion 2.1 

Clipper 5.0 

Data Junction Advanced 

dBASE IV 

clBFasl/PLUS 

dCE 

Dr. Switch-ASE 

F;icelt 

FlashTools! 

Flipper 

Force 2.1 

FoxPro 

FUNCKy Library 

R&R Report Writer 

R&R Code Generator 

Say What^! 

SilverComm "C" Interface 

SilverComm Library 2.0 

The Documentor 

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UI2 Version 2 



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295 265 
395 355 
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We'll Beat The Competition's Advertised Prices! debuggers (dos) 



LISTOURS 

386 CONTROL PROGRAMS 

DESQview 386 w/QEMM 

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386 DEVELOPMENT TOOLS 

386 ASM/LinkLoc 

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C-Terp 386 

L.ihey F77L-EM/32 (w/ OS/386) 

MetaWare High C 386 

Novell C Network Compiler/386 

PC-lint 386 

WATCOM C 8.0/386 Prof. 

w/386/DOS Extender 
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WATCOM FORTRAN 77/386 
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ADA 

Academic IntegrAda 

Ada Scope Debugger 

Ad.i Training Environment 

Adagraphics 

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Meridian AdnStudent 



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Resource 

Sourcer w/ Pre-Processor 

Spontaneous Assembly 

Turbo Debugger & Tools 

Visible Computer: 80286 

BASIC COMPILERS 

MS BASIC Prof. Devel. System 

Power Basic 

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GraphPak Professional 
P.D.Q. 
ProBas 

ProBas Toolkit 
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(QuickPak Professional 
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C COMPILERS 

Lattice C 6.0 
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w/ Objective-C 
MS QuickC 2.5 

MS QuickC w/QuickAssembler 
Turbo C 2.0 

WATCOM C 8.0 Professional 
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LISTOURS 



C++ 



220 


169 


150 


99 


245 


209 


895 


839 


395 


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1295 


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495 


439 


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495 


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Intek C++ 


495 


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495 


479 


Rogue W.ive M,ith.h + + 


200 


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Turbo C++ 


200 


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300 


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150 


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200 


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299 


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500 


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C-COMMUNICATIONS 






Breakout II 


249 


189 


C Asynch Manager 3.0 


189 


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Essential Communications 


329 


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Greenleaf CommLib 


359 


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SilverComm "C" Async Library 


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C-FILE MANAGEMENT 






AccSysfor dBASE or Paradox 


395 


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595 


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Codebase IV 


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595 


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clUC III Plus 


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495 


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1295 


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795 


635 



C-GENERAL LIBRARIES 

Blackstar C Function Library 
C TOOLS PLUS/6.0 
C Utility Library 
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C SCREENS 

C-Worthy 

Greenleaf DataWindows 
QuickWindows Advanced (C) 
Vermont Views 
Vitamin C 
VC Screen 

C-UTILITIES/OTHER 

Bar Code Library 

Clear for C 

C Shroud 

Heap Expander 

MKS LEX & YACC 

Objective-C 

PC-lint 

PCYACC Professional 

TimeSlicer 



99 
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249 
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MultiScope 
Periscope I 
Periscope II w/ switch 
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allCLEAR 

Clear for Cor dBASE 

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Interactive Easyflow 

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Source Print 

Tree Diagrammer 

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C6 to PROM 

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Grafmatic 

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MS FORTRAN 

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Baby Driver 

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Graphic 5.0 

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GX Graphics 

HALO 

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Menuet 

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PCX Programmer's Toolkit 

PCX Text 

SilverPaint 

Slate w/ graphics 

Turbo Geometry Library 



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89 


195 


175 


149 


135 


129 


109 


448 


415 


200 


179 



LINKERS/LIBRARIANS 

Overlay Toolkit 

Plink86+ 

Plink/LTO 

PolyLibrarian 

.RTLink 

.RTLink/Plus 

OBJECT-ORIENTED TOOLS 

Objective-C 
Smalllalk/V 
Smalltalk/V 286 

OS/2 TOOLS 

Brief 

CASEPMforC 

Epsilon 

MKS LEX & YACC 

MS OS/2 Pres. Manager Toolkit 

MultiScope for OS/2 

PCYACC 

PI Editor 

Smalltalk/V PM 

Vitamin C (OS/2) 

PASCAL LANGUAGE 

Asynch PLUS 

B-tree Filer 

MS QuickPASCAL 

Object Professional 

Power Tools PLUS/5.0 

Topaz 

Topaz Multi-user 

Turbo Analyst 

TurboMAGIC 

Turbo Pascal 5.5 

Turbo Pascal 5.5 Professional 

Turbo-Plus 5.5 

Turbo Professional 5.0 

SOURCE MAINTENANCE 

Cod an 
Code Check 
MKS Make 
MKS RCS 

MKS Software Mgmt. Team 
PolyMake 
PVCS Professional 
SMS 
TLIB 
5 Station LAN 

WINDOWS (MS) TOOLS 

Actor 3.0 

Asymetrix Toolbook 

Bridge Toolkit 

Case:W 

C-Talk/Views 

dBFast/Windows 

DialogCoder 

Graphics Server SDK 

MS Windows Development Kit 

MultiScope for Windows 

ObjectGraphics 

ProtoView 

Resource Workshop 

WindowsMAKER 

WinTrieve 

WNDX GUI Toolbox 



395 


369 


395 


335 


495 


419 


249 


209 


295 


265 


495 


419 


DLS 

249 


225 


100 


85 


200 


169 


249 


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1495 


1420 


195 


159 


349 


279 


500 


349 


449 


345 


695 


625 


249 


225 


495 


369 


345 


279 


149 


115 


125 


109 


99 


69 


150 


109 


149 


109 


99 


89 


149 


135 


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89 


199 


179 


150 


105 


250 


175 


199 


159 


125 


109 


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395 


345 


495 


469 


149 


119 


189 


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299 


239 


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399 


139 


109 


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450 


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349 


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289 


445 


365 


695 


625 


300 


269 


795 


635 


395 


339 


499 


449 



NEW RELEASES 

Resource Workshop 

The Workshop, from EdenSoft, is a 
fundamental tool for Windows 
development. It provides an integrated 
resource compiler and editor. Access 
resources instantly from the project 
view, edit resources graphically or as 
text, compile incrementally. Unmatched 
in features and capabilities. 

List: S300 Ours: $269 

Dr. Switch-ASE 

Make any dBASE language program 
RAM resident, occupying only 16-20K of 
RAM. Advanced cut and paste for 
transferring of data to and from dBASE. 
Full network compatibility. 

List: $180 Ours: $149 

TimeSlicer 6.0 

Multitasking linkable library of C 
functions for Microsoft C 6.0. Develop 
applications that will run an unlimited 
number of tasks concurrently. 
Multitasking at the application level 
rather than oy interfacing with the 
operating system. 

List: $295 Ours: $279 



Guaranteed Best Prices! 



(800) 
445-7899 



FAXcetera 

Want more product information 

on the items in the gold box to 

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code listed below each product 

description-information will be 

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XENIX/UNIX 

BLAST UNIX/XENIX 

Epsilon 

Interactive Products 

LP1-COBOL 

LPI-FORTRAN 

MetaWare High C 

Microport Products 

MKSRCS 

MKS Trilogy 

PI Editor 

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VEDIT PLUS 

ADDITIONAL PRODUCTS 

APL'PLUS 

Dan Bricklin's Demo 11 

dBx/dBPort 

Cuido 

Lattice RPG 

MKSAWK 

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PC Scheme 

Personal Rexx 



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APPLICATION SOFTWARE 
COMMUNICATIONS 

BLAST II 250 225 

CarbonCopy Plus 199 129 

Laplink III 150 99 

PC Anywhere III 1 45 99 

Procomm Plus 99 63 

SideTalk 1 20 99 

DESKTOP PUBLISHING 

Adobe Products CALL CALL 

Corel Draw! 595 399 

HALO DPE 195 139 

PageMaker 795 509 

Ventura Publisher 895 549 

MATHEMATICS 

Derive 200 179 

MathCAD 495 315 

Mathematics 386 695 625 

SCIENCE & ENGINEERING 



AutoCAD Release 10 

AutoSketch 

ChiWriter 

CSS 

DADiSP 

Design CAD 3-D 

Drafix Windows CAD 

EXACT 

Generic CADD Level 3 

LABTECH Acquire 

LABTECH Notebook 

MICRO-CAP III 



3000 
150 
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495 
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Our Guarantee... ^ 

Products listed here are backed 
by the following guarantee*: 

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magazine, CALL US! 

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offer our same quality 

service and support. 

Terms of Offer: 

• Offer good through December 31, 1990 

• Applicable to pricing on current versions 
of software listed; Dec. issue prices only. 

• Offer does not apply towards obvious 
errors in competitors' ads. 

• Subject to same terms and conditions. 



LIST OURS 
SCIENCE & ENGINEERING 
(continued) 

Oread PCB 1495 CALL 

PC-MATLAB 695 659 

PC TEX 249 229 

SCHEMA III 495 449 

Systatw/Sygraph 895 759 

Tango PCB Series II 595 559 

TEChTGRAPhTPAD 395 319 

T 1 595 479 

SPREADSHEETS 

Lotus 1-2-3 3.1 595 389 

Microsoft Excel 495 319 

Quattro Professional 495 329 

SuperCalc5 495 319 

UTILITIES 

386MAX5.0 130 114 

above DISC 119 64 

AboveMEM 80 75 

Bootcon 60 55 

Cache 86 

FASTBACK Plus 

HeadRoom 2.0 

Hijaak Plus 

Hold Everything 

InfoSpotter 

MACE 1990 

Magellan 

MKS Toolkit 

MOVE'EM 

Norton Commander 

Norton Utilities 5.0 

PC Tools Deluxe 6.0 

Pizazz Plus 

PreCursor 

Sit Back 

Software Carousel 

Spin Rite II 

Squish Plus 

Switch-It 

Tree 86 

Turbo EMS 5.0 

UpShot 

XTreePro Cold 

ZENO 

WORD PROCESSING 

Ami 

Microsoft Word for Windows 

WordPerfect 5.1 

SOFTWARE FOR SUN 
WORKSTATIONS 

Basmark QuickBASIC 

C Programmer's Toolbox/ Sun 

Edix 

EMACSforSun 

Informix 

Lotus 1 -2-3 for Sun 

Mathematics for Sun 

MetaWare High C 

NeuralWorks Professional II 

Panel Plus (Sun 3) 

WordPerfect for Sun 



Programmer's Policies 

Phone Orders 

Hours 8:30 AM-7 PM EST. We accept 
MC,Visa, AMEX. Domestic shipments, 
please add $5 per item for shipping/ 
handling by UPS ground. For domestic 
COD shipments, please add $3. Rush 
service available. 

Mail or FAX Orders 

POs are welcome. Please include 
phone number. 

International Service 

Phone number required with order. 
Call or FAX for additional information. 

Dealers and Corporate Accounts 

Call for information. 

Unbeatable Prices 

We'll beat the competition's advertised 
prices. Prices subject to change 
without notice. 

Return Policy 

30 days. Due to copyright laws, we 
cannot take back software with the disk 
seal broken unless authorized by the 
manufacturer. Returned product must 
include R.A. number. 



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GUIDO 1.0 

CUIDO is a powerful library of C functions which 
enables you to easily add graphical user interface 
objects to your graphics application, including menus, 
windows, data entry, text boxes, list boxes, radio 
buttons, percent bars and more-used independently or 
combined. Both mouse and keyboard are supported. 
Also contains an event-driven, object-oriented 
environment called the CUE, based on the high-level 
objects included. Requires no other graphics library. 
Includes manual with demos and 
JJJx examples. No royalties. Supports 

^L\ Microsoft C/Quick C and Turbo C/C++. 

List: $249 Ours: $189 FAXcetera #2089-0004 
w/ source List: $499 Ours: $329 





\ SOFTWARE 




Objective-C 



Aepstone 



Objective-C offers proven true object-oriented tech- 
nology consisting of language, compiler and libraries. 
State-of-the-art development tool suitable for building 
object-oriented commercial applications in DOS, OS/ 
2 and many other popular environments. The Objec- 
tive-C language is specifically designed for reusability 
and flexibility, while retaining the performance and 
character of the industry standard C language. ICpak 
1 01 Foundation Class Library, a basic library consisting 
of over twenty basic data types and I/O handlers, is 
included. 

List: $249 Ours: $225 FAXcetem #1688-0001 



WindowsMAKER 

WindowsMAKER is a code generator that builds 

complete Microsoft Windows 3.0 applications. 

Prototype the entire user interface {menus, icons, 

dialog boxes, child windows, controls, etc.) in a 

WYSIWYG screen designer. Animate and test on 

users without a lengthy compile. Then generate 

Microsoft C code for high performance Windows 

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WATi 



WATCOM C8.0/386 is a 100% ANSI C 
optimizing compiler and run-time library for the 
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can go beyond the 640K DOS limit. Library 
and source code compatibility with Microsoft C 
simplifies many porting projects. Significant 
features include: protected mode version of the 
compiler; VIDEO full-screen source-level 
debugger; Microsoft library and source 
compatibility; execution profiler; high- 
performance linker; graphics library. 

Standard List: $895 Ours: $719 

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FAXcetera #1683-0001 



International: 201-389-9228 
Customer Service: 201-389-9229 
Fax: 201-389-9227 



Corporate: 800-422-6507 
Canada: 800-445-7899 
FAXcetera: 201-389-8173 
Call or Write for Latest Free Catalog! 



1-800-445-7899 

rtUMkAAAMAAJlAb 



A Division of Voyager Software Corp 

1 1 63 Shrewsbury Ave., Shrewsbury, NJ 07702 

Circle 238 on Reader Service Card 




WHAT'S NEW 



PROGRAMMING 



CASE Tools Ease 
OS/2 Cooperative 
Development 

SQL/ Workbench , a Pre- 
sentation Manager appli- 
cation for OS/2 Extended 
Edition, lets a team that's 
developing cooperative pro- 
cessing applications benefit 
from the expertise of one 
Structured Query Language 
programmer. 

SQL/Workbench can gen- 
erate and compile Static SQL 
directly instead of requiring 
you to program it in C. One 
programmer keys in the SQL 
and puts the compiled SQL 
into the IBM Database Man- 
ager for use by all. This way, 
other programmers can do 
procedure calls instead of hav- 
ing to embed complex SQL 
strings into an application. 

With the repository, a 
database administrator can 
check and validate the best 
callable procedures from a sin- 
gle source and not have to 
worry about code spread out 
among several programmers. 

CP/Workbench helps a 
communications expert define 
transactions, conversations, 
buffers, and data types outside 
the program. 

Both work on PC-to-main- 
frame applications. 
Price: SQL/Workbench, 
$7200; CP/Workbench, 
$4200. 

Contact: Intelligent Environ- 
ments, 2 Highwood Dr., 
Tewksbury, MA 01876, 
(508)640-1080. 
Inquiry 1297. 



Build Your Own 
Data Bridge 

DBMS/Program lets you 
build applications that 
can directly read and write 
data simultaneously in multi- 
ple formats, including most 



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♦ nut! show host sijirt mt screen 

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SQL/Workbench and CP/Workbench, two additions to the 
Applications Manager family of OS/2 development tools, help 
ease the creation of cooperative processing applications. 



major DOS databases, spread- 
sheets, statistical packages, 
and Structured Query Lan- 
guage databases. Created ap- 
plications can directly process 
more than 15 Macintosh ap- 
plications supported by the 
company's DBMS/Copy Mac 
program. 

Conceptual Software says 
that an application created with 
DBMS/Program can merge a 
database with another data- 
base, create new variables in 
the merged database, assign 
computed variables for each 
record in the database for the 
new variables, and output the 
result to another package for 
further analysis. 

DBMS/Program supports 
Excel, Lotus 1-2-3, Quattro 
Pro, ACT!, dBASE, Data- 
Ease, Paradox, PFS:File, 
Clarion, and Oracle, Ingres, 
and Informix SQL databases. 
Over 22 statistical packages 
are supported, including SAS, 
SPSS, StatGraphics, and 
BMDP. 
Price: $595. 

Contact: Conceptual Soft- 
ware, Inc., P.O. Box 56627, 
Houston, TX 77256, (713) 
667-4222. 
Inquiry 1298. 



Create Foreign - 
Language Versions 
of Your Software 

Performance Technology 
developed PowerTranslate 
for software companies that 
want to create, without recom- 
piling, foreign-language ver- 
sions of their programs or En- 
glish versions of an appli- 
cation originally written in 
another language. 

PowerTranslate creates a 
database of all the text that ap- 
pears to the end user of the 
program, which you then 
translate. When you update a 
program, you need to translate 
only the modifications that 
will result in display changes. 

PowerTranslate maintains 
the integrity of program text 
containing embedded or spe- 
cial codes that shouldn't be al- 
tered. Also, it will not mod- 
ify text that contains a 
copyright banner. 

The program works with 
C, Pascal, and similar 
languages. 

Price: $595; corporate li- 
cense, $4995. 

Contact: Performance Tech- 
nology, 800 Lincoln Center, 
San Antonio, TX 78230, 
(800) 825-5267 or (512) 
524-0500. 
Inquiry 1299. 



Borland's Pascal 
Interface Library 
in a Box 

Libraries of reusable ob- 
jects are one of the touted 
benefits of object-oriented 
programming. They do, how- 
ever, require substantial ef- 
fort to develop and (when the 
libraries come from several 
sources) maintain. In its new 
version of Turbo Pascal, Bor- 
land is jump-starting that pro- 
cess by including Turbo Vi- 
sion, a library of objects, 
including windows, pull- 
down menus, dialog boxes, and 
scroll bars, all with built-in 
mouse support. Turbo Pascal 
6.0 also supports object per- 
sistence, the ability to map in- 
memory structures to disk 
directly. 

A new compiler in Turbo 
Pascal 6.0 works in protected 
mode, letting you free up 
more memory for the compila- 
tion of large real-mode appli- 
cation s. The integrated devel- 
opment environment features 
a multifile editor with macros, 
overlapping windows, and 
built-in support for expanded 
memory. For bug squashing, 
version 6.0 offers integrated 
source code debugging, con- 
ditional breakpoints, a CPU 
window, and a hypertext help 
system. 

With object persistence, 
objects know how to store 
themselves on disk, freeing 
memory and saving time by re- 
ducing instantiation. The 
new version also lets you inte- 
grate assembly code with its 
own in-line assembler. 
Price: $149.95; with Turbo 
Debugger & Tools, $249.95. 
Contact: Borland Interna- 
tional, 1800 Green Hills Rd., 
P.O. Box 660001, Scotts 
Valley, CA 95066, (408) 
438-8400. 
Inquiry 1300. 



62 BYTE- DECEMBER 1990 




oil need 





3#$^8£ 









iX^ 





That's Intel's. And our 
new family of Math 
Coprocessors is faster — 
up to 50% for the 287XL. 
In fact, working side by side with the Intel 
microprocessor already inside your computer, 
an Intel Math Coprocessor can increase the 
speed of your spreadsheet, graphics, CAD and 



database programs by as much as 500%. That's 
good to know. 

And the fact that it's made by Intel is also 
good to know. 

Because Intel developed the first Math 
Coprocessor in 1982, and we've shipped 
millions since then. Each one is manufactured 
by Intel in the world's most advanced logic 




facility, and then tested and retested against an 
exacting set of criteria. 

And we can guarantee that every Intel 
Math Coprocessor lives up to the industry 
hardware standards we helped develop, 
delivering the same results regardless of what 
type of computer you're doing calculations on. 

So call Intel at (800) 538-3373. Ask for 



Literature Packet #F6 on Intel's new and im- 
proved Math Coprocessors. And put an Intel 
Math Coprocessor inside your computer. It's the 
only one with the Intel name to live up to. 



intel 



The Computer Inside: 



©1990 Intel Corporation. 386 and 387 are trademarks of Intel Corporation. 

Circle 146 on Reader Service Card (RESELLERS: 147) 



WHAT'S NEW 



SOFTWARE 



BUSINESS 



Abacus's Ripple 
Effect Eliminates 
Data Duplication 

Comsoft's Abacus II pro- 
gram for DOS integrates 
all accounting functions 
from the ground up with a real- 
time, single-point entry sys- 
tem designed for networks. 
You can extract information 
at any time from the dBASE III 
Plus-compatible system 
without closing accounts. 

Once you enter informa- 
tion in data screens, the pro- 
gram ripples the entry 
through the entire system, 
automatically distributing in- 
formation where needed. 

Abacus II comes in single- 
user and multiuser versions. 
Both include a spreadsheet, 
business graphics capability, 
several modules, and a 
db. Detective program that 
searches nonindexed fields at 
up to 1000 records per second. 
Price: $1695; with Job Esti- 
mating/Costing and Inven- 
tory/Order Entry, $3395. 
Contact: Comsoft, Inc., 
10335 172 St., Suite 208, Ed- 
monton, Alberta, Canada 
T5S1K9, (403) 489-5994. 
Inquiry 1301. 



Date 99/12/90 Period AUG 31 1396 QUICK < 
__ — Abacus 1 1 


insert; ihl'MM 


HI" ABACUS 1 /J jl m^M 


Job Code DOGHOUSE 1 

I job Title 2 STORY SPLIT LEVEL DOGHOUSE JIHS6A 


In Process . i 


B 1 Abacas Job Create/Edit 


i5?|| | 


C Est iuted Cost 6691.92 Job Start Date.. 


., ei/ei/89 


r~ 




I Ahiiais Job Edit/Crtidte; Juh rkrwi 


3/3 1 


Jan 14/89 

Please rewind everyone concerned to use caution in 


collecting »oney 
th the residents 

on file. 


lie fro» this custoeier, lest we become entangled ui 
of our handiwork. 

Feb 62/89 

Customer ordered upgraded light fixtures, P.O. 1421 

April 26 1989 

We need to reaeBtber to do something on this job. 


r 


1 













The word processor included with Comsoft's Abacus II 
accounting program lets you tag reminder notes onto a master 
file so you can easily access information on accounts. 



Improve 

Negotiating Skills 
with Negotiator Pro 

Beacon Expert Systems' 
hypertext-based program 
for the Mac and IBM PC can 
help individuals and teams im- 
prove their negotiating skills. 
Negotiator Pro offers advice on 
making better deals, devel- 
oping options, and dealing 
with difficult opponents. The 
program includes a communi- 
cations feature that acts as a 
referee, suggesting to both 



Hassle-Free Overseas Transfers 



When you have to send 
employees overseas, 
Ernst & Young's two pro- 
grams for the IBM PC can 
help you plan and manage 
these potentially costly as- 
signments. 

E & Y Expatriate helps 
you calculate and plan the 
costs of overseas assign- 
ments. To minimize costs, 
you can, for example, do 
what-if analyses and com- 
pare alternative tax-reduc- 
tion strategies. The program 
has current U.S. and foreign 
tax information for more 
than 25 countries. 

Expatriate Tracking Sys- 



tem (ETS) helps you manage 
costs after you have trans- 
ferred employees. You can 
track advances, obtain U.S. 
and foreign compensation 
payment statements for ex- 
patriates, and obtain from 
one source the information 
required for international 
management, such as year- 
to-date costs for each oper- 
ation. 

Price: E & Y Expatriate, 
$1500 per country; ETS, 
$7500. 

Contact: Ernst & Young, 
277 Park Ave., New York, 
NY 10172, (212) 773-2595. 
Inquiry 1305. 



sides of a negotiation alterna- 
tive methods of dialogue when 
two teams must strike an ac- 
cord but opposing strategies 
block this. This referee fea- 
ture helps teams get on with 
the job when things have 
bogged down. 

The program asks negotia- 
tors questions and, based on 
their answers, creates a pro- 
file of their negotiating style. It 
then provides a proposed ne- 
gotiating strategy. It also gen- 
erates reports at different 
levels of detail for various team 
members. Negotiators can 
use the program to prepare 
strategic and tactical ways to 
circumvent objections. 
Price: $299 for the first 
copy; $99 for each additional 
user. 

Contact: Beacon Expert Sys- 
tems, Inc. , 35 Gardner Rd. , 
Brookline, MA 02146, (617) 
738-9300. 
Inquiry 1302. 



Sagacity Helps 
Managers Assign 
Resources 

Erudite's Sagacity pro- 
gram helps resource man- 
agers juggle the assignment 
of people or equipment for var- 



ious tasks, considering skills, 
availability, costs, and other 
factors. Once you've entered 
information about tasks and re- 
sources—including available 
dates, billing rates, skill 
levels, and average time to 
complete the work— the pro- 
gram determines an optimal 
schedule. 

Sagacity also lets you ac- 
commodate factors that are be- 
yond your control. For exam- 
ple, if a client demands that a 
task be done by a certain in- 
dividual, Sagacity lets you 
modify the schedule. 
Price: $1595 each for one to 
four users; $1395 each for five 
or more users. 

Contact: Erudite Corp. , 533 
Airport Blvd., Suite 400, Bur- 
lingame, CA 94010, (415) 
348-7714. 
Inquiry 1303. 



Integrated Sales 
Prospecting 

Integrated Sales Manager 
(ISM) is designed to help 
qualify prospects, letting you 
access one of up to 1500 pros- 
pect records within seconds. 
The program does this by 
keeping all client files stored 
in RAM. Once you pick a 
name, you can copy it to a 
group for even faster access. 

ISM provides numerous re- 
ports and can store in RAM up 
to two screens of information 
per client. It can also store a 
third page on your hard disk. 
Other features include a week 
at a glance, calendar func- 
tions, and alert messages. 
Price: $498. 

Contact: Aselco, Ltd., P.O. 
Box 251 , Station S, Toronto, 
Ontario, Canada M5M 4L7, 
(416)391-2277. 
Inquiry 1304. 



66 BYTE* DECEMBER 1990 



BIG IS OUT 




SMALL IS IN. 






Introducing the Falco Infinity Desktop Computer. 
The Smallest 386SX Desktop. 



If you're sizing up desktop computers, you'll 
immediately see the advantage of the Falco Infinity™ 
Desktop.lt gives you 386™SX power and perform- 
ance without dominating your deskspace. 

Half the size of a standard PC, the Infinity Desktop 
has everything you need on-board: Peripheral 
interfaces like disk controllers. Memory expansion. 
Communication ports. And VGA* level graphics up 
to 1024 x 768 resolution. Plus, two AT-compauble, 
16-bit expansion slots. 

It runs DOS™ 4.0, UNIX? OS/2™ and Microsoft 9 





Windows 3.0. What's more, you can choose from 
four configurations, including a diskless network node 
and a full-featured model with 1.44MB floppy and 
the option of 40, 100 or 200 MB hard drive. 

The only thing we left out is the noise. The Infinity 
Desktop runs so quietly, you'll hardly know it's on. 

Whether you work in close quarters or spacious sur- 
roundings, the Falco Infinity Desktop covers all your 
needs. Without covering your desk. And that's about 
the size of it.To get one for your desk, call us today: 
1-800-FALCO4U 



FALCO 



C 1990 Falco Data Products, Inc. 



440 Potrero Avenue, Sunnyvale, CA 94086-4117 
Circle 109 on Reader Service Card 



All trademarks arc registered to ihcir respective owners. 



Selecting a new computer system can be a real 
challenge. That's where we come in. We have the 
knowledge and experience to make your job easy. 
So, just do the Standard thing Pick up the phone 
and check us out. Test us. Talk to us about our 
quality. Our service. And especially our prices. 
You'll like what you hear. 

Introducing Features, Flexibility 
and Fantastic Color. 

Then ask us about our new 386/25 and 386/33 
systems. The list of standard features includes the 
latest that high technology has to offer. Features 
like a 64 KB memory cache for the 386/25, and 
128 KB for the 386/33, both expandable to 256 KB, 
providing the fastest possible memory access. Then 
there's the integrated VGA controller supporting 
1024 x 768 resolution, with 256 vibrant colors and 
a 50% performance increase all made possible by 
1 MB of 32-bit video memory. Plus support for 
interlaced and non-interlaced monitors. When it 
comes to features, we set the standard. 

No one can beat our flexibility either. An inte- 
grated floppy controller and hard disk interface 
that support up to three floppy drives and two 
hard drives. Up to 16 MB of RAM on board using 
the new industry standard 32-bit memc/ry modules leave all six 
expansion slots available. Our small footprint chassis includes 
both 5.25" and 3-5" floppy drives and 1 parallel and 2 serial 
ports. And consider this feature, our new 386/25 and 386/33 
systems come standard with 5 drive bays to hold up to one 



Introducing Our New 
High Speed 386^25 System. 

□ 4MB of 32-bit high speed memory (Expandable to 16MB on board) 

□ 64K Cache memory (Expandable to 256K) 

□ High performance 1024 x 768 VGA with 256 colors including 1MB of 
video memory 

□ Super Hi-Res 14" VGA color monitor with tilt/swivel base 

□ lOOMB IDE hard drive with Cache buffer 

□ 1.2MB 5.25" & 1.44MB 3.5" floppy drives 

□ 1 parallel & 2 serial ports 

□ 101-key enhanced keyboard 

□ MS DOS 4.01 

□ Microsoft Windows 3.0 

□ Hi-Res serial mouse 



$2,695.' 



oo 



386V 33 This powerful system has Cache memory upgraded to 128K 
in addition to the features listed above for only S2995.00. 

Visit us at Comdex booth # N219S 



Look At Our Other Value-Packed Systems 



All of these fully-loaded systems include: 

□ 2MB RAM (Expandable to 8MB on 
board) 

□ High performance 1024 x 768 VGA with 
25o colors including 1 MB of video 
memory 

□ Super Hi-Res 14" VGA color monitor 
with tilt/swivel base 



□ 1:1 interleave Floppy/Hard Disk 
Controller 

□ 40MB 28ms Hard Disk Drive 

□ 1.2MB 5.25" & 1.44MB 3.5" floppy drives 

□ 1 parallel, 2 serial and 1 game port 

□ 101-key enhanced keyboard 
a MS DOS 4.01 

□ 386SX includes Windows 3-0 and mouse 



386VSX at $1895.00 286T 16 at $1595.00 286T20 at $1695.00 



additional floppy drive or tape backup and 2 hard 

drives. So, we can help you add on and update to your 

heart's content. 

Our research and development center is always 

striving for excellence. Since 1984 we've been designing our 
own products, and all of our system 
boards are manufactured right here in 
the U.S. When building our computers 
we utilize the latest surface mount and 
VLSI technology for the ultimate in prod- 
uct reliability and space saving design. 
Our performance and quality are simply 
the standard for our competitors to beat. 

We are committed to providing you 
with a complete system that is ready to 
use the minute you open the carton. 
Everything is loaded, tested, burned in, 
and ready to go. And, in order to help 
you easily handle the new multi-tasking 






and multi-screen programs, we preload MS DOS 4.01 and 
Microsoft Windows 3.0 then throw in a high resolution mouse 
to boot. How's that for commitment! 

800/662-6111 

3 S© Wa A 

We're also a Novell Gold Authorized Dealer, so you have total 
compatibility with all levels of the Novell operating system. 
We Stand Behind Our Systems 
and Our Customers. 

At Standard Computer, we manufacture everything from 
high performance 486 and 386 systems to low cost 386SX and 



286 systems. And we back them with our total cus- 
tomer satisfaction program beginning with a 30 
day money-back guarantee. If you are dissatisfied, 
simply return your system within 30 days for a full 
refund. No questions asked. 

You can buy from Standard Computer with total 
confidence because all systems are also covered by 
our complete one-year parts and labor warranty. If 
you need help, we'll see that you get it. If you need 
a part, we'll express ship it to you. 

When you have a question, just call our cus- 
tomer service hotline. Our technicians are available 
to you toll-free for as long as you own your sys- 
tem. If that isn't enough protection, how about 
this? We'll even include one year of on-site service 
at no extra charge. 

Value That's Easy to Afford. 

We work hard to make it easy for you to own 
and use our products. That also includes 
offering many convenient ways to 
purchase or lease a Standard system. 
Our corporate leasing programs are 
designed to fit your business needs. 
Qualified company pur- 
chase orders, person- 
al checks and most 
major credit cards are also 
accepted. 

So, go ahead. Pick up 
the phone and call us. Right now. Find out why we take so 
much pride in the exceptional products and services that we 
provide. Why our repeat customer rate is one of the highest 
in our industry. And why our product reliability is so famous. 
For us, it's just the 
Standard thing. ^ 

Standard Computer 
Corporation, 12803 
Schabarum Avenue, 
Irwindale, CA 91706, 
phone 818/337-7711, 
FAX 818/337-2626. 




STANDARD 

COMPUTER 



Circle 290 on Reader Service Card 



WHAT'S NEW 



Jf-W-= 



AND ENGINEERING 



Optimize 

Mechanical Designs 
on the Sun 

Applied Motion, a 3-D 
program for mechanical 
engineers who work on Sun-3 
and Sun-4 workstations, in- 
cludes an automatic design 
feature that lets them evaluate 
several alternatives. The pro- 
gram provides static, kinemat- 
ic, dynamic, and inverse dy- 
namic analyses in a 3-D 
environment. An engineer 
who needs to know the reac- 
tion loads of joints in a mech- 
anism, for example, can use 
Applied Motion to compute 
the loads and, using the design 
sensitivity feature, minimize 
them. 

Price: $12,000. 
Contact: Rasna Corp., 2590 
North First St. , Suite 200, 
San Jose, CA 95131, (408) 
922-6833. 
Inquiry 1306. 



Racal-Redac and 
Mine Meld All-in-One 
Circuit Designer 

Racal-Redac has inte- 
grated its CADAT pro- 
gram for simulating and test- 
ing programmable logic 
devices with Mine's tools for 
designing them. The program 
lets you design and test all 
kinds of digital logic circuit 
boards in one package. 

With Mine's PLDesigner 
and PGADesigner device-inde- 
pendent tools, you describe 
how you want the device to 
work, including constraints 
such as maximum wattage or 
board size. The program's 
rule-driven technology map- 
ping then automatically gen- 
erates a device-specific design. 
These designs can incorpo- 
rate devices ranging from a 
single field programmable 
gate array (FPGA) up to 20 




Rasna 's Applied Motion recommends several alternatives to your 
mechanical design. 



programmable logic devices 
(PLDs) or a combination of 
them. 

CADAT then simulates the 
design, letting you verify the 
functionality of systems that 
incorporate standard logic, ap- 
plication-specific ICs, pro- 
cessors, and PLD/FPGAs 
without having to build a pro- 
totype board. CADAT runs on 
Sun workstations. Versions 
are planned for DEC and IBM 
RISC workstations. 
Price: $20,000 and up. 
Contact: Racal-Redac, 1000 
Wyckoff Ave., Mahwah, NJ 
07430, (201) 848-8000. 
Inquiry 1307. 



Three 

from Dynacomp 

Dynacomp adds three 
new programs— The 
Equator, Matrix Laboratory, 
and Molecular Modeling— to 
its line of math and science 
software for the IBM PC. 

With The Equator, you can 
save equations on disk and plot 
them later with a range of 
values that you choose. The 
program supports trigono- 
metric and hyperbolic func- 
tions and their inverses, 
square roots, and many other 




types of functions. The 
Equator lets you store defini- 
tions of variables with their 
constants. Optional packages 
($19.95 each) for The Equa- 
tor include equations for elec- 
trical engineering, statistics, 
and electromagnetics. 

Matrix Laboratory lets you 
perform operations on moder- 
ate (20 by 20) matrices. The 
program supports such func- 
tions as inverse, condition, 
and square root. 

The Molecular Modeling 
program lets you select ele- 
ments from a periodic table 
and bond them. Once you have 
created the chemical model, 
you can view and animate it 
in 3-D. 

Price: The Equator, $59.95; 
Matrix Laboratory, $19.95; 
Molecular Modeling, 
$29.95. 

Contact: Dynacomp, Inc., 
178 Phillips Rd., Webster, NY 
14580,(716)265-4040. 
Inquiry 1308. 



The PLD and PGA tool sets let you design, simulate, and verify 
your logical device and gate array plans in one package. 



How to Find 

the Best Equation 

to Fit Your Data 

The TableCurve curve- 
fitting program takes your 
x,y data set and fits 221 can- 
didate equations to it, ranking 
each equation in order of best 
fit. The program's equation set 
includes 60 first-order equa- 
tions, 66 second-order equa- 
tions, 55 third-order equa- 
tions, rational polynomials, 
and polynomials. 

TableCurve ranks each 
equation by the r-squared 
"goodness of fit" value, but 
it also ranks equations by 
floating-point efficiency. 
This means that you can 
choose the more efficient of 
two equations that are closely 
ranked in r-squared value. 
Price: $395. 

Contact: Jandel Scientific, 
65 Koch Rd., Corte Madera, 
CA 94925, (415) 924-8640. 
Inquiry 1309. 



70 BYTE- DECEMBER 1990 



Hayes 



When your high-speed 
error-control modem out- 
runs your PC system, you 
stand to lose more than a 
few characters. You could lose valuable time, not 
to mention your company's money 

The problem is that todays error-control 
modems often send data at speeds faster than 
even the best PC systems can handle. 

This problem can be easily solved, however, 
with the new dual serial port from Hayes. When 
used with such high-performance software as 
Smartcom Exec™ or Smartcom ///• this remark- 
able communications coprocessor ensures data 
integrity at the highest speeds. 

In fact, Hayes ESP is the only coprocessing 
serial card that can be used with standard 
communications software to prevent serial port 



errors and provide error-free data transfer at 
speeds up to 57.6k bps. Even with such advanced 
operating systems as OS/2® and Windows!" 

Of course, Hayes ESP also provides all the 
basic functions you want from a serial card, 
including two serial port connections for your 
printers, modems, or other equipment. And it 
works with all IBM® and fully compatible PCs. 

What's more, Hayes ESP is backed not only 
by one of the best customer service staffs in the 
industry, but by a two-year performance warranty 
as well. 

For more information about Hayes ESP, call 
us at 1-800-635-1 225. 

There's just no way you can go wrong with it. 



^ 



v~&« Our technology has 
the computer world talking. More than ever. 

Circle 132 on Reader Service Card 



Ifyoute not using Hayes ESR 
you could be making a big mistake. 







WHAT'S NEW 



CAD AND GRAPHICS 



Civil Engineering 
and Surveying 
for AutoCAD 11 

DCA Software's civil en- 
gineering and surveying 
programs now support Auto- 
CAD release 1 1 . The company 
offers Survey Collection, 
Data Input and Reduction, 
Digital Terrain, Highways, 
Earthworks, and Landscape 
modules for AutoCAD, along 
with Coordinate Geometry, 
Design, and Advanced De- 
sign programs. New features 
of the programs include a 
project management system 
that lets you work with, store, 
and access information from 
any drive or directory, a new 
point database, negative sta- 
tioning, right-to-left profil- 
ing, and dynamic TIN (trian- 
gulated irregular network) 
viewing. 

The new point database of- 
fers complete point protection, 
sorting, and editing. With 
full point protection, you can 
add new points without wor- 
rying about overwriting previ- 
ous point data. The ability to 
do negative stationing lets you 
add to existing drawings by 
extending from point zero. Dy- 
namic TIN viewing and edit- 
ing eliminates the step of going 
through DXF file conversion. 




DCA Software offers a host of programs for AutoCAD 11. 



The programs also add real- 
time cross sectioning and 
profiling and on-line TIN and 
contour generation. 
Price: $495 to $1995 per 
module. 

Contact: DCA Software, 
Inc., 7 Liberty Hill Rd., 
Henniker,NH 03242, (603) 
428-3199. 
Inquiry 1310. 



Vellum for Windows 
and Silicon Graphics 

Vellum, the 2-D CAD 
program for the Mac, is 
now available for Windows. 
As with the Mac version, the 
Windows version includes the 



Drafting Assistant, Vellum's 
drawing aid that lets you ac- 
curately place objects in rela- 
tion to one another. Other 
features include NURB 
splines, parametrics, and 
symbol libraries. Vellum will 
also soon be available on the 
Silicon Graphics Iris 4D work- 
station, according to Ashlar. 

The company says that it 
will release a 3-D add-on for 
the Mac early in 1991 and 
one for Windows in the second 
quarter of 1991. 
Price: $1995 for Windows 
and Silicon Graphics versions. 
Contact: Ashlar, Inc., 1290 
Oakmead Pkwy., Suite 218, 
Sunnyvale, CA 94086, (408) 
746-3900. 
Inquiry 1311. 



New AutoCAD Links Directly to Spreadsheets, Databases 



AutoCAD release 1 1 in- 
cludes a programming 
language environment that 
lets you create programs i n C 
that directly link with Auto- 
CAD. Release 11 provides 
record locking on networks 
and lets you display several 
different views of a drawing 
at one time. 

The optional Advanced 
Modeling Extension (AME) 
is an integrated tool created 
with the Autodesk Develop- 
ment System that allows you 
to create solid objects from 



primitive shapes. Once you 
have created the surface 
model, you can edit it with 
normal AutoCAD com- 
mands, perform Boolean op- 
erations, and calculate mass 
properties. 

Release ll's main menu 
includes a routine for recov- 
ering and reconstructing a 
damaged AutoCAD drawing 
file. Dimension style tables 
let you save groups of dimen- 
sion variable settings by 
name. 

The DOS version of re- 



lease 1 1 will not run on any- 
thing smaller than a 286 sys- 
tem; it also runs on Sun, 
DEC, Mac, and Apollo 
workstations. Versions are 
available for OS/2 1.1 or 
higher. At press time, Auto- 
desk had not yet announced 
whether it would port AME 
to the Mac. 

Price: $3500; AME, $495. 
Contact: Autodesk, Inc., 
2320 Marinship Way, Sau- 
salito,CA 94965, (415) 332- 
2344. 
Inquiry 1313. 



Two 2-D CAD 
Programs for the 
Mac and IBM PC 

Generic Software has re- 
leased version 5.0 of its 
2-D CAD program for the 
IBM PC and version 1 of its 
2-D program for the Mac, 
both of which support auto- 
mated associative dimension- 
ing. With associative dimen- 
sioning, when you modify an 
object, the data associated with 
that object changes as well. 

Other new features of Ge- 
neric CADD 5.0 include the 
ability to zoom, pan, and ex- 
ecute other commands while in 
the middle of a drawing or 
editing command. It also lets 
you undo and redo your last 
25 commands and offers sup- 
port for attributes. You can 
export attributes in .WK1 and 
.CSV file formats for use in 
spreadsheets and databases. 

Version 5.0's shell lets you 
exit the program, start another 
program, and return to your 
original position without hav- 
ing to restart Generic CADD. 
The File Selector utility dis- 
plays a video memory of your 
hard disk's directory with 
date, size, and other infor- 
mation about the files. 

In addition to associative 
dimensioning, Generic CADD 
for the Mac includes an Info 
Palette that lets you modify a 
drawing object by editing 
data rather than the object it- 
self. Snap previewing and 
symbol previewing let you 
change elements of a design 
before committing to the 
results. 

Price: $395; Mac version, 
$595. 

Contact: Generic Software, 
Inc., 11911 North Creek 
Pkwy. S,Bothell,WA 
98011,(206)487-2233. 
Inquiry 1312. 



72 BYTE* DECEMBER 1990 



Introducing a Revolutionary Concept 




HEALTHY COMPUTING 



• Flicker free... less eyestrain 
and stress. 

• Flat screen... less fatigue 
and headaches. 

• Low electromagnetic 
radiation... healthier 
work environment. 



Low Radiation Monitors 



The Difference Is What You Can't See. 

Do you experience eyestrain, headaches, fatigue and stress? 
Scientific studies show that many of these symptoms are 
caused by computer monitor radiation — even with occasional 
use. 

We Care About Your Computing Safety. 

Our customers demand quality, and expect long life from 
monitors. We expect the same from our customers. As a 
concerned manufacturer, ADI announces a new line of low 
radiation monitors to innovate a next to radiation-free computing 
environment. 

ADI Is More Than a Monitor Manufacturer. 

We also offer personal computers ranging from desktop and 
diskless PCs to workstations, and the complete spectrum of 
IBM plug-compatible and ASCII/ANSI terminals. 



For more information, please contact: 

HEADQUARTERS 

ADI Corporation 

14/F, 1, Nan-King E. Road, 

Sec. 4, Taipei, Taiwan, 

R.O.C. 

Tel: 886-2-713-3337 

Fax: 886-2-713-6555 

Tlx: 21790 ADICORP 



U.S.A. HEAD OFFICE 
ADI Systems, Inc. 
2121 Ringwood Avenue 
San Jose, CA 95131 

Tel: (408) 944-0100 
Fax: (408) 944-0300 
CA: (800) 232-8282 
US: (800) 228-0530 



U.S.A. EAST COAST 
ADI Systems, Inc. 
1259 Rt. 46E., Bldg #4 
Parsippany, NJ 07054 

Tel: (201) 334-0019 
Fax: (201) 334-0076 



i 




CORP. 



Circle 613 on Reader Service Card 



DECEMBER 1990 • B Y T E 72PC-1 



WHAT'S NEW 



OTHER 



Make DOS Friendly 
in a Foreign Land 

To a novice DOS user, 
unraveling the mysteries 
of DOS is difficult enough. 
Imagine how hard it must be if 
you can't speak English. A 
program called StarCOM con- 
sists of four programs that let 
you rename DOS commands to 
names and abbreviations that 
make sense in another lan- 
guage. 

Developer OurSof t says 
you can also use the program 
to rename the DOS command 
and substitute a more powerful 
third-party command. Star- 
COM is not an interpreter, and 
thus both the command line 
and a batch file recognize the 
same command set. Star- 
COM does its work by renam- 



ing the internal command 
table ofCOMMAND.COM. 
The program code of DOS 
remains untouched. 
Price: $59.95. 
Contact: OurSoft, P.O. Box 
6396, Bellevue, WA 98008, 
(206) 643-0204. 
Inquiry 1190. 



Stay in Touch 
on the Mac 

Intouch 1.0, Advanced 
Software's desk accessory 
for the Mac, lets you store 
names and addresses with up 



to 14 pages of notes attached 
to each address. 

You can use the program 
for envelope printing and pre- 
viewing, and it lets you de- 
sign label and envelope lay- 
outs. The program's dial 
function lets you locate and 
dial numbers in the database, 



Add Context-Sensitive Help to Your Applications 



Zaron Software's Help! 
utility lets you add con- 
text-sensitive help and 
menus for your programs 
and DOS operations without 
requiring any changes or re- 
compiling of the application. 
When used with standard 
text files, you can use Help! 
to create a flat-file help sys- 
tem. When used with Hyper- 
Word, Zaron's hypertext 



word processor, you can 
create multidimensional 
help. You can use the TSR 
program to create a menu 
system to return text strings 
and commands to any appli- 
cation, as well as to the DOS 
command processor. The 
program is also capable of 
running a series of programs 
from script. 
Help! includes sample 



help files and programs, 
plus a help system for com- 
monly used DOS com- 
mands, the company re- 
ports. 

Price: $49.95. 
Contact: Zaron Software, 
13100 Dulaney Valley Rd., 
Glen Arm, MD 21057, 
(800) 669-3348 or (301) 
592-3334. 
Inquiry 1191. 



Prospero: the Pascal experts 



The Language Definition 

Prospero Pascal is a full ISO standard 
Pascal, with a whole range of 
extensions including dynamic length 
strings, longreals, random access file 
handling, bit level manipulation, type 
breaking, include files and separate 
compilation. Prospero also produced 
the first ever microcomputer Pascal 
compiler to be validated as conforming 
to the ISO standard (for the Z80 under 
CP/M) in 1983, as well as the first 
validated Pascal compiler for the IBM 
PC in 1985. 

The Package 

As well as a compiler, you get a linker, 
librarian, cross-reference generator, 
source level symbolic debugger (except 
for Z80 systems) and a free technical 
support hot-line. 



Prospero Pascal is available for the following environments. 



OS/2 

MS-DOS 
PC clones 
DOS/GEM 
DOS->CP/M 



$390 

$290 
$99 
$99 
$768 



Full support for OS/2 and DOS. Full ISO level 1, with 

Prospero Workbench, the power programmer's choice. 

As above, but without OS/2 support. 

Personal version. 

Full GEM support, integrated development environment. 

MS-DOS hosted Z80 cross compiler. 



Now with 30 day money back guarantee. Prices include UPS shipping. Federal 
Express next day delivery is available for an additional charge. For information 
on any of these products, or any of our other development tools, contact us at the 
address below. 

Call us for further details on 1-800-327-6730. 

Prospero Software 



LANGUAGES FOR MICROCOMPUTER PROFESSIONALS 

100 Commercial Street, Suite 306, Portland, ME 04101 Tel: (207) 874 0382 Fax: (207) 874 0942 



72PC-2 BYTE- DECEMBER 1990 



Circle 642 on Reader Service Card (RESELLERS: 643) 



You Don't Have to be a Programmer to 
Develop Database Applications . . . 





When You Use Nutshell Plus II! 



Programmers, dealers and end-users 
alike love the power of Nutshell Plus II. 
Imagine setting up a relational 
database ready to go in a matter of 
minutes! Don't worry if you change 
your mind; the database is modifiable 
instantly! Whether you wish to create 



a simple mailing list or sophisticated 
invoicing system that joins a master 
client file, the capability is all there — 
thanks to Nutshell's simplicity of 
setting up custom input screens, 
custom reports, form letters, labels. 
The list is endless! 



Features: 

• Quick & easy design 

• Fast execution 

• Custom screen layouts 

• Sophisticated reports, form letters, 
labels, etc. 

• Relational lookups and information 
capturing 

• Modifiable at any time 



New Features with Nutshell Plus II: 

• More import/export formats: dBASE 
II, III and IV, FileMaker along with 
ASCII and DIF. 

• More search/find capabilities 

• International symbol support 

• Runs up to 10 times faster than Ver.I. 

• Special upgrade pricing available to 
existing Nutshell users 



And also Nutshell Plus II 
Professional: 

• Nutplus II full development version 

• 4 run-time disks to distribute your 
applications 

• Designed specifically for corporate 
users, VARs, consultants and 
resellers 



Don't Create Another Database Without Trying Nutshell Plus II. 



IRIS Software Products™ 

Visit your nearest retail dealer or call 1-800-582-IRIS to get the name of the 

dealer nearest you who sells Nutshell and Nutshell Plus II. 

P.O. Box 57, Stoughton, MA 02072 

Phone: 617-341-1990 FAX: 617-344-4640 




Circle 629 on Reader Service Card (RESELLERS: 630) 



DECEMBER 1990 • B Y T E 72PC-3 



WHAT'S NEW 



OTHER 



the company reports. 

You can search for names 
and addresses using any text 
string, and Intouch lets you 
import and export addresses 
from other applications. As 
you add notes about each name 
in the address, the program 
time- and date-stamps them. 
Price: $69.95. 
Contact: Advanced Soft- 
ware, Inc., 1095 East Duane 
Ave., Suite 103, Sunnyvale, 
CA 94086, (800) 346-5392 or 
(408) 733-0745. 
Inquiry 1189. 



A Program to 
Watch Over You 

Although most people 
prefer not to work while 
someone watches over their 
shoulder, Micro Logic's 



newest program may change 
this attitude. 

Key Watch lies in wait in 
your system, watching your 
keystroke patterns as you 
work in your word processor, 
spreadsheet, or database ap- 
plication. Once it detects a re- 
petitive pattern (e.g., refor- 
matting a document or deleting 
a series of cells in a work- 
sheet), Key Watch sounds a 
beep to offer its assistance. 
At this point, you can perform 
the repetitive motion with a 
single keystroke. Other actions 
in which the program can 
save keystrokes include modi- 
fying a series of fields in a 
database or commenting lines 
of code in a program. 

Micro Logic says the first 
implementation of the program 
can't look for repetitions over 
several different sessions in an 
application, although that 



ability will be added in a later 
version. The purpose of Key 
Watch for now is to keep you 
from typing the same thing 
twice, saving time and effort in 
the process. 

Key Watch runs on the 
IBM PC with 256K bytes of 
RAM. It is RAM-resident 
and requires 3K bytes. 
Price: $69.95. 

Contact: Micro Logic Corp. , 
P.O. Box 70, Dept. P, Hack- 
ensack, NJ 07602, (800) 
342-5930 or (201) 342-6518. 
Inquiry 1192. 



Lightning 
Strikes Again 

The newest version of 
Lightning, DacEasy 's 
caching program for the IBM 
PC, lets you specify the size of 



its buffer, up to 8 MB of con- 
ventional, extended, or ex- 
panded memory. 

In addition to its claim that 
Lightning 5.5 is the fastest 
cache on the block, DacEasy 
says the program lets you 
choose which drives will be 
affected and lets you specify 
full track read. 

The program supports 
DOS 4.0 and drives larger than 
32 MB. It also works with 
Windows 3.0. 

The program's Disk Watch 
feature, a color-coded screen 
indicator that appears in a 
corner of your screen, shows 
the number of disk accesses 
as they occur. 
Price: $29.95. 
Contact: DacEasy, Inc., 
17950 Preston Rd., Suite 800, 
Dallas, TX 75252, (800) 
877-8088 or (214) 248-0205. 
Inquiry 1193. 



<$/ Calcomp 
^P/ All Motels, 

CALL for Savings 

Summagraphlcs 
Sketch II 12x12, 

4-But 345 

Sketch II 12x12, 

16-But 427 

Sketch Pro II 12x18, 

16-But 666 

Large Formats Call 



Digitizers 



Kurta 

12x12, 4 Puck Stylus 345 

1 2 x 1 2, 1 2-But Corded 435 

12 x 17, Corded Puck 585 

30 x 36, 16-But 2015 

36 x 48, 16-But 2394 

GTCO 

Sketch Master 12 x 12 319 

SL 24 x 36 Super Pricing 

SL 36 x 48 Super Pricing 

Hitachi 

Puma 12x12,4 or 12-But ...375 

Tiger 12x12, 12-But 648 



Complete CAD workstations 



Each system fully configured including 2 Serial Ports, 1 Parallel Port, corresponding Math 
Coprocessor, Enhanced "AT 101 Keyboard, 1.2MB Floppy, DOS 3.3, GW-Basic, 
SUMMAGRAPHICS SUMMASKETCH PLUS, EVEREX VGA GRAPHICS CARD and 
EVEREX MODEL 300-01 <15-35KHz) MUL71SCAN COLOR MONITOR. Each system 
thoroughly tested prior to shipment and supplied with a Full One Year On-Site Warrantylll 

System 
Configuration 
Everex Step 486/33 W/8MB 
Everex Step 486/25 W/8MB 
Everex Step 386/33 W/4MB 
Everex Step 386/25 W/4MB 
Everex Step 386/20 W/4MB 



Cache 


44MB 


80MB 


92MB 


150MB 


Memory 


MFM 


MFM 


ESDI 


ESDI 


128Kb 


$8495 


$8595 


$8895 


$9095 


128Kb 


7595 


7695 


7895 


8095 


64Kb 


6295 


6395 


6895 


7095 


64Kb 


5295 


5495 


5995 


6195 


64Kb 


4879 


5028 


5495 


5795 



Monitor & Card Combos 



Graphics Only 
Card 

Artist XJ 10/16 Call 

Artist XJ 12/16 Call 

Metheus1124 $1250 

Metheus1224 1260 

#9 Pro 1280 2110 

#9 Pro 1024 1299 

VMICobra16HS 1350 

Video 7 VRAM 512 380 
Monitor Only 



w/Mtsu19" HftacN21" Hitachi 20" 

HL6905 4320-21 AP CM2085M 

$3515 $4105 $3415 

3985 4575 3885 

3270 3860 3170 

3280 3870 3180 

4130 4720 4030 

3319 3909 3219 

3370 3960 3105 

2400 3039 2300 

2020 2610 1920 



Nanac-16" Nanao 
9070S 9070U 

$2480 $2594 



2235 



2350 



2284 2398 

2335 2449 

1384 1479 

965 1099 



We Carry a Complete Line of Modems, 

Network Boards & Accessories, Math & 

Memory Chips, Surge Protection 



Renaissance GRX 
Graphic Boards 

Speed & CompatabHIty* 



The above Is a partial listing of our product line. Please Inquire 
If you're interested In a product not listed. All names are trade- 
marks and registered trademarta of their respective companies. 



• Quoted prices reflect a 2% cash discount. * 

• Prices subject to change without notice. • 

• Al I manufacturers' warranties apply. 



Plotters-All Models 

Calcomp 

HP 

Houston Instuments 

loline 

Roland 



Rated companies call for terms. 
C.O.D., VISA. Mastercard & Amex. 
Member Better Business Bureau. 



1-800-289-1650 

6760 Miller Road ■ Brecksville, Ohio 44141 



:«»: 



CAD Buster 
$13,500.00 



EVEREXSTEP 386/33 W/8MB* 
SIMM, 150MB ESDIHard Drive 

Includes Renaissance Rendition II 
16 s Color with VGA Module. Hitachi 
CM-2085M or Mitsubishi HL-6905 
19" Color Monitor. A thru D 8-Pen 
Plotter. 12 x 12 Digitizer your choice 
of three. *5MB minimum require- 
ment for AutoCAD/386. Delivery 
limited to continental U.S.A. 



WAREHOUSE 



72PC-4 BYTE- DECEMBER 1990 



Circle 619 on Reader Service Card (RESELLERS: 620) 




386 DX (not SX), true 32 bit, upto WOMB HDD 



LAPPOWER™386 

SPECIFICATIONS 
CPU AND MEMORY 

Processor 

■ CMOS 80C386 DX (not SX) 32-bit processor 
20/8 MHz, switchable. Socket for 

80C387 numeric coprocessors. 
Memory 

■ 2MB RAM standard expandable to 
8MB support EMS 4.0. 

DRIVES 

■ The interna! 3.5" 1.44MB floppy disk drive, 
and one 40MB orone 100MB HDD with average 
access time less than 29ms. 



VIDEO 

Display 

■ A Double-STN Black and White display with 
VGA resolution. Adjustable contrast and 
brightness. Backlight timeout feature. 

Display Graphics 

■ 640*480 high-resolution text and graphic; 
16 levels of gray scale. 

Video 

■ VGA/EGA/CGA/MDA utilizing the laptop 
LCD video controller, higher resolution 
possible through Desktop Expansion 
Chassis. 

POWER 

AC 

■ 90/250 VA (50/60 Hz) autosensing with 
charging indicator. 



Battery 

■ 40.6 Watt-Hr NiCad battery pack; easy 
changeable recharge, orange low power 
LED indicator plus audible warning beeps, 
overcharge protection. 

Intelligent Power Management 

■ Power control of backlight, mass storage, 

internal modem and process speed. 

PHYSICAL 

Size 

■ 13.7"W*8.5"D*4.3"H 
(349mm*3 16mm* 107mm) 

Weight 

■ 14 lbs (6.4 Kg). 

DESKTOP EXPANSION 
CHASSIS (OPTIONAL) 






VERIDATA RESEARCH INC. 

Unit A&B, 11901 Goldring Road, Arcadia, CA91006. 
Tel: (818)303-0613 Fax: (818)303-0626 
DISTRIBUTORS: 

in CA Tech Power 714-9794330 Matrix Digital. Products, Inc. 800-227-5723 
in GA Computer & Control Solutions, Inc. 404-491-1131 818-566-8567 



^L w^9fU&M^^M^P^^l 



Where creativity thrives with ingenuity 



Circle 645 on Reader Service Card (RESELLERS: 646) 




VGA PORTABLE 



ALL SYSTEMS RUN UNIX, XENIX, 
LAN OS DOS AND OS/2. 



LIGHTEST & 
SMALLEST 
CRT PORTABLE 

1024x768 RES, 256 COLOR 



5 YEARS PORTABLE 

EXPERIENC 





The BSI 386SX was the 

Fastest Machine 
in PC Magazine Review 



See Aug. 1990 P. 109, 120 



386SX 40MB SYSTEM (Desk Top 



• 386SX-16 MHz CPU, 1MB Memory (To 4MB) 

• 200W P/S, 11 0/220V 
•101 Enhanced Keyboard 

• 1:1 Interleave Cont. Card 

• 1.2 MB or 1.44MB FDD 
■ 40MB, 23ms, SCSI IDE Hard Drive 

• 2 Serial/1 Parallel/1 Game Port 

• Mono Graphic Card w/Printer Port 

• 12" Amber Monitor (720x348 Res.) 



OO^ e 



386-33 200MB SYSTEM (Desk Top) 



• 386-33 MHz CPU. w/64K Cache Memory 

■ 1 MB Memory on board (To 8MB) rt *7Q 

• 200MB, 19ms, !DE Hard Drive q&,2'' 

■ Other features the same as 386SX 



$2,' 



HDD 


286-12 


386SX 


386/25 


386/33 


486/25 


40MB 


799 


1089 


1359 


1639 


2759 


65MB 


859 


1149 


1419 


1699 


2819 


80MB 


1139 


1449 


1719 


1999 


3119 


100MB 


1139 


1449 


1719 


1999 


3119 


150MB 


1409 


1689 


1959 


2239 


3359 


200MB 


1459 


1729 


1999 


2279 


3399 


345MB 


2229 


2489 


2759 


3039 


4759 



• Upgrade to VGA (640 x 480 Res) + $330 

• Upgrade to VGA (1024 x 768 Res) + $560 

• Mini Vertical Case + $50 

• Regular Vertical Case + $100 



PORTABLE 


MOTHE 


RBOAR 


D ON SALE 


286-12 


MB 


$105 


SKD KITS AND 


386SX 


MB 


$355 


BAREBONE SYSTEMS 


386-25 


MB 


$570 


AVAILABLE 


386-33 


MB 


$850 


CALL FOR PRICING 


486-25 


MB 


$2,000 




•386SX VGA 40MB LAPTOP LT54CC $2400 


•386SX VGA 40MB LAPTOP 


LT5600 $2450 



Prices subject to change without notice. 
Call for return policy. 




9440 Telstar Ave., #4, El Monte, CA 91731 

For Order Only Call Toll Free 
1-800-872-4547 
1 -81 8-442-0020 Information 
Customer Support: (818) 442-7038 
Fax: (818) 442-4527 



386-33 200MB COLOR VGA PORTABLE 



Built-in SONY 8.5" Color VC3A Monitor 
0.26mm Dot Pitch, 
Speed Digital Display. 3 Drive Bays 
220W P/S 1 10/220V 4 Exp. Slots 
86-Key Detachable Keyboard 
386-33 MHz CPU, w/64 K Cache Memory 
1 MB Memory on Board (To 8MB) 
VGA Graphic Card (51 2K, 1024x768 Res.) 
External Monitor Adaptor 
■ 1.2MB or 1.44MB FDD 




PL *SM4 



$3,rr9 



• 200MB 19ms HDD (To 500MB) *"" r ; & \\ 

• Serial/Parallel/Game Ports (Sp e 

• Carrying Bag. Weight 27 Lbs. 

■ Dimensions: 17.5(W) x 14.1 (D) x 6.8(H) 

• Bigger Case with 7 Exp. Slots Optional 



386-33 200MB VGA PLASMA PORTABLE 



• 640x480 VGA Plasma Display 
■ Detachable 101 -key Keyboard 

• 200 W P/S, 1 10/220V. 3 Drive Bays 

• 386-33 MHz CPU, w/64 K Cache Memory 

• 1MB Memory on Board (To 8MB) 

• 1.2MB or 1.44MB FDD _ nfi9 
•200MB 19ms HDD (To500MB) %*>* i p 

• Serial and Parallel Ports q^ S&* 

• External Monitor Adaptor - 

• Carrying Bag. Weight: 26 Lbs. 

• Dimensions: 1 6 "(W) x 9.75"(H) x 8.5"(D) 



HDD 


286-12 


386SX 


386/25 


386/33 


486/25 


40MB 


2189 


2469 


2779 


3049 


4109 


100MB 


2519 


2799 


3109 


3379 


4439 


150MB 


2879 


3159 


3469 


3739 


4799 


200MB 


2919 


3199 


3509 


3779 


4839 


345MB 


3809 


4089 


4399 


4669 


5729 



VGA AMBER CRT PORTABLE 100MB AT 



• Built-in 9" Amber VGA Monitor 

• Speed Digital Display. 3 Drive Bays 

• 205 W P/S 1 10/220V. 4 Exp. Slots 

• 86 Keyboard, Detachable Keyboard + $30 

• AT 12 MHz System, 1 MB Memory (To 4MB) 

• VGA Graphic Card (256K, 800x600 Res.) 

• Run 48 Grey Scales VGA Internally 

Run Color VGA Externally ,, Q 

• 1.2MB or 1.44MB FDD *-Y 1 ™ 
•100MB 25ms HDD (To 500MB) ^ 

• Serial/Parallel/Game Ports 

• Carrying Bag. Weight 26 Lbs 

• Dimensions: 17.5 (W) x 14.1 (D) x 6.8 (H) 



HDD 


286-12 


386SX 


386/25 


386/33 


486/25 


40MB 


1729 


2009 


2319 


2589 


3649 


65MB 


1859 


2139 


2449 


2719 


3779 


100MB 


2039 


2319 


2629 


2899 


3959 


150MB 


2319 


2599 


2909 


3179 


4239 


200MB 


2409 


2689 


2999 


3269 


4329 


345MB 


3199 


3479 


3789 


4059 


5119 



CGA PLASMA PORTABLE 100MB AT 



- 640X400 CGA Plasma Display 

■ Detachable 86-Key Keyboard 

■ External RGB Monitor Adaptor 



$A,^ 9 



HDD 


286-12 


386SX 


386/25 


386/33 


486/25 


40MB 


1449 


1729 


2039 


2309 


3369 


65MB 


1569 


1849 


2159 


2429 


3489 


100MB 


1779 


2059 


2369 


2639 


3699 


150MB 


2139 


2419 


2729 


2999 


4059 


200MB 


2179 


2459 


2769 


3039 


4099 


345MB 


3069 


3349 


3659 


3929 


4989 



HDD 


286-12 


386SX 


386/25 


386/33 


486/25 


40MB 


1409 


1689 


1999 


2269 


3329 


65MB 


1539 


1819 


2129 


2399 


3459 


100MB 


1719 


1999 


2309 


2579 


3639 


150MB 


1999 


2279 


2589 


2859 


3919 


200MB 


2089 


2369 


2679 


2949 


4009 


345MB 


2879 


3159 


3469 


3739 


4799 



AMBER CRT PORTABLE 100MB AT 



■ Built-in 9" Amber Monitor 

• Speed Digital Display. 3 Drive Bays 



386-33 100MB VGA LCD PORTABLE 



■ 640x480 Res. Backlit LCD VGA Display 
with External Color Monitor Adaptor - «q 

• 200W 1 10/220V P/S, 5 Exp. Slots $2,->° 

« Detachable 89-Key Keyboard QeSt 

• 386-33 MHz CPU with 64K Cache Memory dii\i 
. 1.2MB or 1.44MB FDD ° ' 

• 100MB 25ms HDD (To 500MB) 

• Serial/Parallel/Game Ports 

• 9.45"(H) x 7.9"(D) x 15.7"(W), 23LBS 



• 205W P/S 1107220V. 4 Exp. Slots 

• 86 Keyboard, Detachable Keyboard + $30 

• AT 1 2 MHz System, 1MB Memory (To 4MB) 

• Mono or Color Graphic Card 

• Amber EGA Display (option) + $100 

• 1 .2 MB or 1 .44 MB Floppy Drive . ^9° 

• 1 00MB 25ms Hard Drive $ * ' 

• Carrying Bag Weight 26 lbs. 

• Dimensions 17.5(W) x 14.1(D) x 6.8(H) 




HDD 


286-12 


386SX 


386/25 


386/33 


486/25 


'40MB 

65MB 

100MB 

150MB 

200MB 

345MB 


1369 
1489 
1679 
1999 
2059 
2839 


1649 
1769 
1959 
2279 
2339 
3119 


1959 
2079 
2269 
2589 
2649 
3429 


2229 
2349 
2539 
2859 
2919 
3699 


3289 
3409 
3599 
3919 
3979 
4759 


HDD 


286-12 


386SX 


386/25 


386/33 


486/25 




1 »LCD CGA 640X400 Res. Portat 


le Less $120 


40MB 

65MB 

100MB 

150MB 

200MB 

345MB 


.1169 
1289 
1499 
1859 
1899 
2789 


1449 
1569 
1779 
2139 
2179 
3069 


1759 
1879 
2089 
2449 
2489 
3379 


2029 
2149 
2359 
2719 
2759 
3649 


3089 
3209 
3419 
3779 
3819 
4709 


l-LCD EGA Model Available C 


;all 






All Me 


»rchandi« 


>e FOB E 


I Monte 



COLOR EGA CRT Portable Available 



All order will be shipped by UPS COD cashier's check. Company check on approval IBM PC XT/AT are registered trade marks ol IBM Inc. 



Circle 615 on Reader Service Card (RESELLERS: 616) 



ACT NOW 

Limited-time 

Offer 



>j?& 




Now you can build more in a day. 



HyperPAD® 2.0, a powerful software 
construction set for MS-DOS® systems, 
dramatically increases your productivity. 
Applications that might take months to 
build with tools like Pascal, C, or BASIC 
now take only minutes. 

PC Week calls HyperPAD "the first 
PC program that can compare with 
HyperCard®." HyperPAD 2.0, now 
updated with over 100 new features 
and improvements, has almost limitless 
potential for creating and customizing 
tutorials, help systems, software proto- 
types, front ends to databases, networks, 
or CD-ROM devices, executive informa- 
tion systems, and dozens of other 
applications. 

It's easy. HyperPAD's object-oriented 
environment gives you all the building 
blocks you need for maximum produc- 
tivity. Its English-like scripting language 
is easy to use and learn, with dozens of 
samples to get you started. 



It's flexible. HyperPAD will take you into 
the 90's with a full set of development 
tools. Its open architecture lets you easily 
use data stored in dBASE and ASCII files. 
If you need to, you can even write C or 
assembly language extensions. 




It works on your PC. HyperPAD 2.0 is 
compatible with almost all PCs. You don't 
need a high-performance processor, 
multiple megabytes of memory, a graphics 
card, or a mouse. You get the benefits of 
a graphical user interface without invest- 
ing in Microsoft® Windows™ or OS/2. 



Order before December 31, 1990, to 
get HyperPAD 2.0 for only $59.95 
directly from Brightbill-Roberts 

(suggested list $149.95). Mention this 
ad and receive a royalty-free runtime 
module. 60-day money-back guarantee. 
VISA, MasterCard, American Express, 
or C.O.D. 

Call 1-800-444-3490 today. 

Try HyperPAD 2.0 on your next project. 
No one will ever know how much time 
you didn't spend. 



.1% .4^% 
S # .S w M 

Af 

BrigWbill-Fcberts 

120 E. Washington St., Syracuse, N.Y 13202 



HyperPAD is a registered trademark of Brighlbill-Roberts & Company, Ltd. All olher trademarks and registered trademarks are the property of their respective holders. Call for upgrade information. ©1990 Brightbill-Roberts & Company, ltd. 

Circle 614 on Reader Service Card 



WHAT'S NEW 



BUSINESS ACCOUNTING AND MANAGEMENT 



ftSISflS Cost ftfd/Ed it-Baseline 80B0T Date: i&-r e fc-89 



Take Control of 
Project Contracts 
with Artemis Cost 

Metier Management Sys- 
tems, a company that of- 
fers several applications for 
project management, devel- 
oped Artemis Cost to help 
you manage a project's con- 
tract throughout its life cycle. 
The program helps you main- 
tain consistency between 
costs and schedules, develop 
realistic proposals and bud- 
get baselines, and increase 
productivity with automated 
cost spreading, rating, and val- 
idation, the company says. 

Along with its manage- 
ment capabilities, the program 
lets you perform what-if 
analyses to assess the potential 
cost of a change in rate or an- 
other factor. The program pro- 
vides more than 200 standard 
reports, including Department 
of Defense formats. 

As with other programs 
for large projects, Artemis 
Cost lets you define a project 
according to work breakdown 
structure, organization 
breakdown structure, and cost 
element structure. 

The program works with 
Metier' s other programs for 
the 386: Artemis Project 
7.1.6 and Artemis Team, for 
allocating human resources. 
Artemis Cost requires either 
the Artemis 7000/386 com- 
mand language for customiz- 
ing the program to fit your 
company's specific needs or 
the run-time version. It re- 
quires a 386 with at least 1 MB 
of extended memory. 
Price: Artemis Cost, $3830; 
7000/386 command language, 
$6090; run-time version, 
$1830. 

Contact: Metier Manage- 
ment Systems, Inc., 12701 
Fair Lakes Cir., Suite 350, 
Fairfax, VA 22033, (703) 
222-1111. 
Inquiry 1166. 



rat-* 
C/a Code 



1 kTHiiiwmi 



Description 
[CUES] 



U/F 
IUPC1 






Description 
IUDES1 



Base Start Base Finish 
£BSD) CBF0J : ■■■- 

EN = Z 
£,U. Type Base Start Base Finish 
IEUTI [BSD] EBF&l 



C/E Code 

ncEci 

Prof He Code 
: (PCODEJ 






? 6 : 



Currency 
fCXC] 



C/E Description 
EEDES] 



. Description 
IPJESl' 



Quantity 
tCQIYi] 



Ipt ioits= 

Edit Spread 
Hilestone 

==Esc : ='Jteturn== 
pace <-* in the key field 



QEfi? 
tQEftl 

I 

Lock? 

iLsn 
■ 



F2 Edit Fid 
F4 Clio ices 



The screen layouts of Artemis Cost complement the underlying 
data structures, so that Cost Account, Work Package, and 
Elements maintain a hierarchical structure. 



Take Care 

of Your Business 

Takin' Care of Business, 
a program for small- to 
medium-size businesses, lets 
people without accounting ex- 
perience monitor assets, li- 
abilities, net worth, capital, 
and other areas of business 
finances. 

The General Ledger is the 
foundation of the program. It 
records your transactions into 
the appropriate account and 
lets you generate a variety of 
financial statements. 

The Account Reconcilia- 
tion module balances your 



checking accounts, finding 
the exact amount of any dis- 
crepancy. Financial Utilities 
helps you calculate financial 
risk by calculating future 
values, payments, terms, inter- 
est rates, and amortization 
schedules. 

The Accounts Payable 
module automates the payment 
of invoices, preventing you 
from missing a discount or 
payment. Other modules in- 
clude Accounts Receivable and 
Payroll, which can handle up 
to 1000 employees. 
Price: Module prices range 
from $14.95 to $49.95. 
Contact: Hooper Interna- 
tional, Inc., P.O. Box 50200, 
Colorado Springs, CO 



80949, (800) 245-7789 or 
(719) 528-8990. 
Inquiry 1167. 



Act! Now Works 
on Networks 

Contact Software Interna- 
tional says it wrote the 
new version of its contact 
management program Act! in 
C + + to provide the hooks to 
run on any DOS-based LAN 
and provide portability to 
other platforms in the future. 
The company added a TSR 
critical alarm that pops up 
while you're in an application 
such as Lotus 1-2-3. 

Act! 2.0 has all the normal 
features of contact manage- 
ment programs: tracking 
calls, scheduling meetings, 
keeping to-do lists, setting 
alarms, and resolving con- 
flicts. It deals with these in 
multiples: You can schedule 
tasks with reminders. 

The program's word pro- 
cessor supports automatic mail 
merge. 

Price: $395; LAN version, 
$995 for five. 
Contact: Contact Software 
International, 1625 West 
Crosby Rd., Suite 132, Car- 
rollton, TX 75006, (214) 418- 
1866. 
Inquiry 1169. 



Financial Planning Without Software Manuals 



Granville Publications 
Software has released 
a new version of its program 
for managers who need to 
plan finances but don't want 
to buy an expensive spread- 
sheet and plow through a 
thick manual. 

Up Your Cash Flow 2.0 
has seven spreadsheet for- 
mats that automatically link 
related items. 

Menus guide you through 
a financial forecast in min- 
utes, providing a profit and 
loss forecast/budget, cash 



flow forecast/budget, pro- 
jected balance sheet, term 
loan amortization schedule, 
payroll analysis, sales by 
product/product line, and 
cost of goods sold by prod- 
uct/product line. 

Up Your Cash Flow 2.0 
lets you forecast and consoli- 
date up to 99 branch opera- 
tions and separate entities. 
You can complete a multiple- 
year forecast, use fixed and 
variable costs of goods sold, 
and have different fixed and 
variable costs for each month 



of the forecast. The program 
has 28 predefined expense 
categories. It also provides 
for up to 30 user-defined cat- 
egories. 

Up Your Cash Flow 2.0 
runs on the IBM PC with 
512KbytesofRAM. 
Price: $129.95. 
Contact: Granville Publica- 
tions Software, 10960 Wil- 
shire Blvd., Suite 826, Los 
Angeles, CA 90024, (800) 
873-7789 or (213) 477- 
3924. 
Inquiry 1168. 



72PC-8 BYTE- DECEMBER 1990 



When MACWORLD Expo comes 
to San Francisco, it's big news. 



125 pages 
25 cents , 

35 cents at newsstands beyond 
30 miles from San Francisco 



SAN FRANU^ 




Fanatical and fledgling MacHeads mingle ; 

50000MacHeads invade San Francisco 

Register now for MACWORLD Expo/San Francisco, » 10-13, 

and save H0-H5 \, -g00^ 



For details, please turn the page 



o pub- city of people in /'• 

(mi* ■ ■ 



\\. 






Senilism's subst; 



Ull*f reservations. 

sp mmtina, law. engineering, mnun g, 

or fun and games, y 



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en 



.Mid 
has 
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in with State-ot- 

gass*--*" - 

Mac can be 1 . 



• r\n<^ vou can 
video, sound, and ^^Uts, gW*« , 

Interest Group Meeting ^ Lighter Side 

"on, healthcare and more Qbefun , L a* 

re C ;usetheMacW^ dTopi cs forthose 
Br-^STcSponthe^estMac 

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^^^^^^^^^^a floo;r(>os pn 
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Recome as scarce ,lu -—''•' 
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....■■.■..» u.u, Ihou^hlfui 
*0 as sensitive editors v 
vork of falonled w 



iiii-I :j 

^g^rToT^WRLD 

Expo/San Francisco by 
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. _ „u»^ to nrereaister c n pcial Instructions for 



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This is your chance to preregister 
for MACWORLD Expo/San Francs-^ 
co Thursday through Sunday, January 
,0 3 1991, at Moscone Center and 
Brooks Hall/Civic Auditorium. Due to 
popular demand, plastic badges a e 
Tack which may cause long rela- 
tion lines at the show. To avo.d the 
hassle, preregister and save. 

Plea'e choose your package and 
fdl out this form completely.lncom- 

nlete forms will be returned. Use one 
Cperperson.CMakephotocop.es 

to register additional people.) Then 
X °lfL ™leted form(s) along v» 



If you're preregistering from 
outside the U.S. and prefer to have 

vour badge sent to you instead ot 
Sing it up at Moscone Center, be ton 
Scheck the appropriate box on | v 

the preregistration form. Also, | s 

Se add an additional $4 to your 1. 

^registration cost. We wdl Federal I 

Lpre 8 ss your badge directly to you- | . 

Please fill in the exact street add.ess 

._j»-.„m to include your tele- 



payment to: M 
P.O. Box 40K 

MACWORLD Expo/San Fral^^ 
announces show hours 



send the xon p D E 0> Qffice Box . 



„ CONFERENCE & EXHIBITS 

Thursday, January 10 3 o.m.- 9 p.n 
Friday,' January 11 
Saturday, January 12 
Sunday, January 13 



3 p.m.- 9 p.m. 
10 a.m.- 6 p.m. 
10 a.m.- 6 p.m. 
10 a.m.- 3 p.m. 



J REGISTRATION 

Mon.-Wed,Jan.7,8,9 10 a 
Thursday, January 10 
Friday, January 1 1 
Saturday, January 12 
Sunday, January 13 



.m.- 5 p.m. 

10 a.m.- 9 p.m. 

8a.m. -6p.m. 

8 a.m.- 6 p.m. 

8 a.m.- 3 p.m. 



am, Mrt. u^v— , 

0^mmum t whili- liis ' (inns \vs{ 'squarely on a so 

i me West are i/^/iorod telleclual Iradifinn dafin/.; 

o (hoy continue (o ad- Kdnnmd tturlw and confini 

no old, tired prosorip- century hy James. Hurnh; 

:isni-I,oninisin in (he Iliiyek and William- b\ Hir 

|is oinpit'iral evidence anions others. The inlluenc 



JRm.sky is correct, in; 
f) ml. academic iniellec- 



anion^ oduM's. The inlltiene 
loctuals is not in. decline; Hi 
sive power ofllic lefi. k 

Americans wi-i -"-'•" •»••• 
(o -"academic (road 



once ae;; 
herallii 



Register for MACWORLD Expo/San 
Francisco by Dec. 10th and save *KMl5 



".'U UUlU'ii^ (in iUKlorcoyiM* Uipan 
about how Limy can do :;Ix 
Lli.s in [iri.sou '.sLandlh/f on 
'm.wkJ.s.' IVh li^jM! Lo find out 
r llwy can do 10 ycara 



came on 



of jMinisi 






^tiija^fft 



f%i *^«%^ 



^J&#3Mw^ 



'•Kipped by 
k:rm;> of 
\ wiLh" 
"nde- 



■m. is yo.r chance ,0 p^e^'&CWORLD eU "-*» *"** ^ *-*-*-**-» 
,0, nnZTm 1 . a.MoJone Cemer and Brooks B^«™ ^ fc relurned . Use one form pe r person. 

cannot be accepted. Registration fees are non-refund b to. P or f»«°™ tat December 28. (Be sore .0 check box irrdrca.mg 

beginning Thursday, January 10. 

MACWORLD Expo Attendee Bonus: , , • th $7>50 paid subscription to MACWORLD 

All registration fees to MACWORLD Expo San ^^^^^^ poster, well include your 
Mrwazine (MACWORLD** basic subscription rate is $30.00 tor U issues.; vvnei y p 
W^^S^ subscription request form in the preregistration package. 



Please register me for: 

□ Package One $65 

Conference sessions* and exhibits. 
Preregister by December 10. 
($80 cash only at the door) 



□ Package Two $15 

Admission to exhibits only. 
Preregister by December 10. 
($25 cash only at the door) 



Please send my badge and further information to: 

Please check one: □ Home Address □ Company Address 

, l I I I I I | I I ] I I I ■ First Name 
Last Name i i , i i i i i i i i __]——< 

Street Address 

City, State, Zip 

Country 

Telephone 



□ I am an International attendee 
and would like my badge shipped 
by Federal Express. I have 
enclosed an additional $45.00. 



JJ 
JJ 



J 



If mailing to company address: 
Title LLLLi- 

Company 



^uiupanj i 1 1 u — i 1 ■ t <s 

D Check enclosed (make payable to MACWORLD Exposition) Amount. $ 
□ Master Card □ VISA □ American Express Amoi.ni: > 

Account Number | | 1 1 1 I I — I — l — L 



| | Expiration Date 



S 

r 



Mil 

.» -- 

hit! 

HiV 

ra\ 

>rc;i 
mm 
"Mc 
JIo 
"life 1 
riaii 
po.si 
lutil: 
ipo:;' 
"/:' a 
I pi- 
cric I 



(Include all numbers) 



Card holder Signature (Signature necessary to be valid.) 

If card holder is other than registrant, please print name below: 

| | | | | | | | 1 J First Name! I I I 

Last Name 



J 



Cash only at the door. After December 10, you must register at the show 



Please check the appropriate boxes: 
Your industry or profession 

01 □ Manufacturer (non-computer) 

02 □ Manufacturer (computer industry) 

03 □ Distributor/dealer/retailer/service 

04 D Finance/insurance/real estate 

05 □ Business services 

06 □ Professional (law/medicine) 

07 □ Health services 

08 Q Communications/publishing 

09 □. Education 

10 □ Government 

11 Q Consultant 

12 D Other (specify) 

* All conference sessions are on a first-come, first- 
served basis with no guaranteed seating. 
ALL REGISTRATION FEES ARE NON- 
REFUNDABLE. 



Your title 

13 D CEO/president/vice president 

14 D Comptroiler/treasurer/accountant 

15 D DP/MIS manager 

1 6 Q Owner/partner 
17'D Engineer 

18 D Doctor/lawyer/dentist 

19 D Educator 

20 □ Art director/writer/editor 

21 □ Consultant 

22 D Marketing 

23 Q Sales 

24 D Other (specify) . 



Which personal computer(s) do you own/or use? 

25 D Macintosh 

26 □ Macintosh Plus 

27 D Macintosh SE 

28 □ Macintosh II 

29 D Apple II Series 

30 D IBM PC (or compatible) 

31 Q None . . 

32 □ Other (specify) _ — _ : — - — 



eS!M 



Please fill out this form completely and send 
it along with your check or money order to: 
MACWORLD Expo, P.O. Box 4010, 
Dedham, MA 02026. B ** 

PLEASE DO NOT STAPLE CHECK 
TO FORM. 



Circle 637 on Reader Service Card (RESELLERS: 638) 



^n^TtA)i\\ b;iU\m:c 



WHAT'S NEW 



BUSINESS MAILINGS 



Qume Releases 

New Version 

of Mailing Database 

The Qumatic Instant 
Mailing Lists and Labels 
program for the IBM PC now 
offers a menu-driven method 
for easily importing an estab- 
lished mail list compiled in an- 
other application, Qume re- 
ports. A new feature of version 
2.0 automatically enters the 
city and state when you type in 
a ZIP code. 

You can sort a database by 
many different categories, and 
the program prints out a re- 
port itemizing the number of 
pieces sent to each ZIP code 
to qualify for the lowest bulk 
mail rates. 
Price: $59.95. 
Contact: Qume Corp., 500 
Yosemite Dr. , Milpitas, CA 
95035, (408) 942-4000. 
Inquiry 1170. 



Add Bar Codes 
to Your Mailing 
Labels 

ComputaLabel now has 
an alternative to the film- 
master method of incorporat- 
ing bar codes into your mailing 
label. Its Label Designer lets 
you combine text and art from 
a variety of sources and ma- 
nipulate them with a bar code 
to make your label appear ex- 
actly as you want it. The pro- 
gram relies on PostScript 
printing technology to support 
printing at the high resolution 
(better than 300 dpi) required 
by some bar code families. 
Label Designer lets you 
design your label so that it's 
aesthetically pleasing, yet 
still complies with bar code 
specifications. You can rotate 











*"*<> Cap fiddly a Heu Entry " In*"* 




Enter Desired Data and Press FIB tc 

fir. Mrs. Hiss etc.: ttr. 

First Hane « Init.: Stuart K. Last Han 
J'f e : distorter Service Manager 
Conpany • Professional Conputer Builders, 


(Coni'iiltM- __^J 




Dept, /Floor No. : <skip> 

Address Line 1 : 2359 SU 23rd Street 

Address Line 2 : HS 28 

Address Line 3 : <sklp> 

C'ty : San Francisco State 

Zip ! 96123 

Country ■ USA 

Business PJione/Ext: (415) 444-4555 Hone Phone 

FAX Phone : (415) 444-4566 Other Plion 

Connent : Ac 


Consultant 

Decorator 

Personal 

Real Estate 

Sales 

Service 

Enter-Select ESC-ExitJ 

«4 lift ! 




F 




^fr^y^rrc i^^^ 






I 


'-Clear ft-Cate* List FIB-Save SMft*Tab-Preo 



Qume 's mailing database program lets you identify fields that 
you won 't use and automatically skip them. 



text, graphics, and bar codes at 
90-degree intervals. 

The program lets you ad- 
just the code size between 80 
percent and 200 percent of 
the nominal size, as recom- 
mended by the Uniform 
Code Council. Code height is 
adjustable in up to 0.0004- 
inch increments. To adjust for 
print gain when you print the 
code, you can manipulate bar 
width by 0.0002 inch, the 
company reports, for maxi- 
mum accuracy. 

Label Designer works on 
the Mac with any PostScript 
output device. It supports a 
variety of code symbology 
families, such as UPC, Code 
39, and many others. 
Price: $395; barcode for- 
mats, $250 each. 
Contact: ComputaLabel, 
Inc., The Carriage House, 28 
Green St. , Newbury, MA 
01951, (800) 289-0993 or 
(508)462-0993. 
Inquiry 1172. 



Reduce Postal 
Costs on Mass 
Mailings 

PostWare PrintForm is 
for hospitals, utilities, 
and financial institutions that 
want to take advantage of post- 
age discounts without sorting 
thousands of letters by hand. 

The program works by 
capturing a print image form 
of each letter's address. It 
assigns ZIP codes, ZIP+4 
codes, and carrier routes. 
The program presorts the let- 
ters in first-, second-, or third- 
class mailstream order and 
prints them in the new order. 

PostWare PrintForm runs 
on a 386 with 1 MB of RAM. 
Price: $15,000 to $30,000. 
Contact: Postalsoft, Inc., 
4439 Mormon Coulee Rd., 
La Crosse, W 1 5460 1,(608) 
788-8700. 
Inquiry 1171. 



Share Your Opinion 

With Solicit Your Edi- 
tor, a database for the 
IBM PC that has the names 
and addresses of hundreds 
of newspaper and magazine 
editors, you can let your 
opinion be known across the 
U.S. The program includes 
an editor and fields for keep- 
ing track of what you've sent 



to each editor. 

Price: $49.95; LAN ver- 
sion, $129.95; yearly up- 
dates, $24.95 and $74.95, 
respectively. 

Contact: T-Lan Systems, 
RR 2, Box 1290, Nor- 
ridgewock, ME 04957, 
(207)397-5511. 
Inquiry 1174. 



Find That ZIP 

With ZIP*Phone, tele- 
marketers can key in a 
phone number's area code 
and prefix and instantly deter- 
mine the number's city, 
state, time zone, and local 
time. You can use it in TSR 
mode while writing a docu- 
ment to do things like verify- 
ing a ZIP code. You can also 
use it by entering a partial 
ZIP code or city name, and the 
program fills in the rest. 
Price: $95. 

Contact: Melissa Data Co., 
321 18-8 A Paseo Adelanto, San 
Juan Capistrano, CA 92675, 
(714)661-5885. 
Inquiry 1173. 



Label Publishing 
for the Mac 

MacLabelPro acts as a 
companion to your data- 
base or word processor, let- 
ting you directly merge exist- 
ing addresses and combine 
them with graphics and other 
text elements to produce eye- 
pleasing mailing labels. 

The program is designed 
to work as a back end to such 
applications as Works, Excel, 
Word, FileMaker, Multiplan, 
and Mac Write. You select the 
type of label, and MacLabel- 
Pro displays a template win- 
dow inside which you design 
the label. Once you design 
the label using the program's 
layout and drawing tools, 
each address will print accord- 
ing to that format. Mac- 
LabelPro is also available in 
an IBM PC version. 
Price: $99.95. 
Contact: Avery Commercial 
Products Division, 818 Oak 
ParkRd., Covina, CA 
91724, (800) 541-5507 or 
(818)915-3851. 
Inquiry 1175. 



72PC-12 BYTE- DECEMBER 1990 



H. Co. Computer Products 

Your #1 Source For All P.C. Memory Upgrades 
Call Toll Free 1-800-RAM-CHPS Ext. 200 



FULL TECHNICAL SUPPORT * LIFETIME WARRANTY ON ALL MODULES 
BUY DIRECT * BEST PRICES * BEST SERVICE 



Part # EQ 

30F5348 (512K) 
30F5360(2MB) 
6450375 (1MB) 
6450379 (2MB) 
6451060 (4MB) 

6450603 (1MB) 

6450604 (2MB) 

6450608 (2MB) 
78X895 5(128K) 
34F2933 (4MB) 

6450605 (2-8MB) 

6450609 (2-16MB) 

1039136 (1MB) 

1039137 (2MB) 
1038675 (3.5MB) 



Works With PRICE 

30-286 $ 49.00 

30-286 $ 165.00 

80-041 $ 149.00 

80-111,311 $ 239.00 

80-A21.A31, 111,311 $ 559.00 

502, 55SX, 70-E61, 70-121. P-70 $ 85.00 

502, 55SX, 70-E61. 70-121. P-70 $ 160.00 

70-A21. A61. B-21, B61 $ 165.00 

25 S 26.00 

55SX.65SX S 525.00 

All 70's and 80's (Board) $ 525.00 

50. 502. 55SX, 60, 65SX (Board) $ 599.00 

Laser Printer 4019. 4019e $ 199,00 

Laser Printer 4019. 4019e S 325.00 

Laser Printer4019. 4019e $ 499.00 

Call for Other IBM Upgrades 



[Apple' 



MACII. Ilx; Ilex 
Ilex & SE/30 



MACSE 
&PLUS 



MAC PORTABLE 



LASER WRITER 
ll/NTX 



Memory Added 
1MB KIT 
2MB KIT 
4MB KIT 
16MB KIT 
4MB KIT 
16MB KIT 

1MB KIT 
2MB KIT 
4MB KIT 

1MB KIT 
2MB KIT 
3MB KIT 
4MB KIT 

4MB KIT 
16MB KIT 

1MB KIT 
4MB KIT 



Part If EQ PRICE 

M0218 $ 80.00 

M0219 $ 115.00 

MO2707 $ 225.00 

$1500.00 

M0292LL-A $ 225.00 
$1500.00 



M0218 
M0219 
MO2707 

M0248 
N/A 

N/A 
N/A 



$ 80.00 
$ 115.00 
$ 225.00 

$ 279.00 
$ 899.00 
$1299.00 
$1695.00 



M0292LL-A $ 369.00 
N/A $1695.00 



M6005 
M6006 



$ 179.00 
$ 369.00 



Cyrix 



Math Co-Processor 



Up to 200% Faster Than 

Intel Math Co-Processor 

100% Compatible — 5 Year Warranty 



83D87-16 
83D87-20 
83D87-25 



PRICE 

Call 

$ 325.00 

$ 385.00 



83D87-33 

83D87SX-16 

83D87SX-20 



$ 485.00 
$ 275.00 
Call 



HEWLETT 
PACKARD 

Model Memory Added PartffEQ 

LASERJET 1MB MODULE H33443B 

ll&IID 2MB MODULE H33444B 

4MB MODULE H33445B 



IIP & II 



1MB MODULE 
2MB MODULE 
3MB MODULE 
4MB MODULE 



H33474A 
H33475A 
N/A 
N/A 



$ 109.00 

$ 145.00 

$ 249.00 

$ 119.00 

$ 155.00 

$ 215.00 

$ 259.00 



We Accept Purchase Orders 

from Qualified Firms, Universities 

and Government Agencies. 

Trademarks are registered 
with their respective companies. 

We will match or beat 
any advertised price. 



NO SURCHARGE 



/isr 

Model 
BRAVO/286 



PREMIUM/286 
ADVANCED 



FASTBOARD 

/386 

PREMIUM 

WKST/286 

PREMIUM 

WKST 

386/SX 

PREMIUM 

386/16 

PREMIUM 

386 

PREMIUM 

386c 

PREMIUM 

386/25/16sx 

PREMIUM 
386/33 



Memory Added 

128K KIT 
512K KIT 
2MB KIT 
4MB KIT 
512KKIT 
1MB KIT 
2MB KIT 
4MB KIT 

1MB KIT 
4MB KIT 
512KKIT 
2MB KIT 
512KKIT 
1MB KIT 
2MB KIT 
4MB KIT 
1MB KIT 
4MB KIT 
1MB KIT 
4MB KIT 



Part if EQ 

500510-011 
500510-010 
500510-002 
500510-008 
500510-001 
500510007 
500510-002 
500510-003 

500510-007 
500510-008 

500510-010 
500510002 
500510-010 
500510-007 
500510-002 
500510-008 

500510-007 
500510-008 
500510-003 
500510004 

500510-007 
500510-008 



STANDARD SIMMS 



Part* 

256 X 8-12 
256 X 8-10 
256X8-80 
256 X 9-12 
256X9-10 
256X9-80 
256 X 9-70 
256 X 9-60 
1 X8-10 
1X8-80 
1 X 8-70 
1 X 9-10 
1X9-80 
1 X 9-70 
4 X 8-80 
4 X 9-80 



PRICE 

$ 17.00 

$ 18.00 

$ 19.00 

$ 17.00 

$ 18.00 

$ 19.00 

$ 24.00 

$ 26.00 

$ 50.00 

$ 51.00 

$ 60.00 

$ 55.00 

$ 56.00 

$ 61.00 

$ 320.00 

$ 350.00 



DRAM 

Part* 

1X1-100 

1 X 1-80 

1 X 1-70 

256-150 

256-120 

256-100 

256-80 

256-70 

256-60 

256X4-10 

256 X 4-80 

4464-10 

4464-80 

4164-15 

4164-12 

4164-10 



PRICE 

S 40.00 
$ 60.00 
$ 150.00 
$ 300.00 
$ 60.00 
$ 120.00 
$ 150.00 
$ 300.00 
$ 120.00 
$ 300.00 
$ 60.00 
$ 150.00 
$ 60.00 
$ 120.00 
$ 150.00 
$ 300.00 
$ 120.00 
$ 300.00 
$ 160.00 
$ 380.00 



5.50 
5.75 
6.25 
1.75 
2.00 
2.15 
2.35 
2.55 
3.35 
5.75 
6.00 
2.50 
3.00 
1.40 
1.85 
2.00 



EPROM/CPU/SRAM/VRAM Also Available 



comPAa 



Model 

DESKPRO 

386/33^86/25 

DESKPRO 

386/20-25 

286e 

DESKPRO 

386/20e-25e 



DESKPRO 
386s 



DESKPRO 
386/16 



DESKPRO 
386 PORTABLE 
SLT/286 
LTE/286 



Memory Added 

2MB MODULE 

1MB MODULE 
4MB MODULE 

1MB BOARD 
4MB BOARD 
1MB MODULE 
4MB MODULE 
1MB BOARD 
4MB BOARD 
1MB MODULE 
4MB MODULE 
512KKIT 
2MB KIT 
1MB BOARD 
2MB BOARD 
4MB BOARD 
8MB BOARD 
1MB KIT 
4MB BOARD 
1MB MODULE 
1MB BOARD 
2MB BOARD 



Part It EQ 
115144-001 



113644-001 

113645-001 

113131-001 

113132-001 

113633-001 

113634-001 

113646-001 

112S34-001 

107331-001 

107332-001 

108069-001 

108069-W/71 

108070001 

108072-001 

107651-001 

107653-001 

110235-001 

117081-001 

117081-002 



PRICE 

$ 229.00 

$ 139.00 
$ 339.00 

$ 189.00 

$ 479.00 

$ 139.00 

$ 339,00 

$ 189.00 

$ 479.00 

$ 139.00 

$ 339.00 

$ 70.00 

$ 165.00 

$ 355.00 

$ 525.00 

$ 850.00 
$1350.00 

$ 245.00 

$ 799.00 

$ 209.00 

$ 159.00 

$ 249.00 



Ask About Other Compaq Upgrades 



TOSHIBA 



Model 

Portable T1000SE 

&XE 

Portable T1200XE 

Portable T 1600 

Portable T3100c 

Portable T3100SX 

Portable T3200sx 
Portable T3200 
Portable T51 00 
Portable T5200 
DESKTOPT8500 



Memory Added 

1MB KIT 
2MB KIT 
2MB KIT 
2MB KIT 
512KKIT 
2MB KIT 
2MB KIT 
4MB KIT 
2MB KIT 
3MB KIT 
2MB KIT 
2MB KIT 
2MB KIT 



Part ffEQ 

PC14-PA8311U 

PC14-PA8312U 

PC13-PA8306U 

PC-PA8302U 

PC-PA8340U 

PC-PA8341U 

PC15-PA8308U 

PC15-PA8310U 

PC-PA8307U 

PC-PA7137U 

PC-PA8301U 

PC-PA8304U 

PC-PA8301U 



PRICE 

$ 319.00 
$ 444.00 
$ 214.00 
$ 214.00 
$ 135.00 
$ 214.00 
$ 214.00 
$ 649.00 
$ 214.00 
$ 359.00 
$ 214.00 
$ 214.00 
$ 214.00 



Ask About Other Toshiba Upgrades 



SEC 



Memoiy Added 



Power Mate SX Plus 1 M B Board 
2MB Board 
4MB Board 
8MB Board 



Part ft EQ 

APC-H850E 
N/A 

APC-852E 
N/A 



PRICE 

$ 295.00 
$ 495.00 
$ 725.00 
$1375.00 



Intel 



imim 

iWlllfH 



IIT Math 



Co-processors 



Part* 


PRICE 


Part If EQ 


PRICE 


8087-3 


$ 80.00 


2C87-8 


$ 175.00 


8087-2 


$ 117.00 


2C87-10 


$ 185.00 


8087-1 


$ 155.00 


2C87-12 


$ 215.00 


80287-6 


Call 


2C87-20 


$ 255.00 


80287-8 


Call 


3C87-16 


Call 


80287-10 


Call 


3C87SX-16 


Call 


80287XL (12.5 MHz) 
B0287XLT{12.5MHz) 


$ 229.00 


3C87-20 


$ 325.00 


Call 


3C87-25 


$ 385.00 


80387-16 


$ 305.00 


3C87-33 


$ 485.00 


80387SX-16 


$ 290.00 






80387SX-20 


$ 315.00 






80387-20 


$ 350.00 






80387-25 


$ 450.00 






80387-33 


$ 550.00 







We also carry memory upgrades for 
ACER • AT&T • DELL • DTK • EPSON • ZENITH 

• EVEREX • HP Vectra • SAMSUNG • SUN • Canon Printer 

• SILICON GRAPHICS • WYSE • and other AT & XT clones 

1228 Village Way, Unit D • Santa Ana, CA 92714 • (714) 542-8292 • FAX (714) 542-8648 • Hours 8:00 AM-5:00 PM PST 

DEALER'S INQUIRIES WELCOME 



Prices are subject to change 

Circle 623 on Reader Service Card (RESELLERS: 624) 



WHAT'S NEW 



PUBLISHING/WORD PROCESSING 



Import Math 
Equations into Your 
Word Processor 

K-Talk Communications' 
MathEdit 2.0 lets you 
create typeset-quality math 
equations that you can import 
into WordPerfect, Microsoft 
Word, WordStar, MultiMate, 
PageMaker, and any other 
program that supports TIFF, 
PIX, or EPS files. 

The program has more 
than 250 math and Greek sym- 
bols. MathEdit's macro facil- 
ity lets you assign a symbol or 
entire equation to one 
keystroke. 

Square roots, parentheses, 
division signs, and other de- 
limiters automatically adjust 
to the size that's needed for 
each equation, according to 
the company. 

MathEdit 2.0 requires 
400K bytes of RAM and a 
graphics card to run on your 
IBM PC. 
Price: $199. 

Contact: K-Talk Communi- 
cations, Inc., 30 West First 
Ave., Suite 100, Columbus, 
OH 43201, (614) 294-3535. 
Inquiry 1176. 




Professional Edition • Main Kenu 



F2 ► Insert A Function 

F3 ► Basic Functions Menu 

F4 ► TrLg. log, and Mist, Functions 

FS ► Accent Characters 

F6 ¥ Deli raters 

F7 ► Exit/Save Equation 

F8 > Math/Scientific Characters 



13 r Filo Operations 
?10 ► Layout and Spacing 
Shift Fl ► Setup Options 
Shift F2 I Cancel (Undo) 
Shift F8 > Greek Characters 
Shift F9 I Alt/Ctrl Keys. Macros 
Shift-FlOl Zoom 



(RETURN to close braces. 



MathEdit lets you create complex arithmetic equations and 
export them to a variety of applications. 



Avalon Publisher 
forSPARCstations 

Elan Computer Group 
says its new desktop pub- 
lishing system for the Sun 
SPARCstation, Hewlett-Pack- 
ard 9000, and DECstation 
provides pagination, graphics, 
page/document layout, and 
word processing under a Mac- 
like interface. 

Avalon Publisher supports 
PostScript printers and other 
typesetters, plus the HP 
LaserJet family of laser 




printers. Features supported 
for page makeup include multi- 
ple threads for newspapers; 
text flow around graphics; text 
templates; and the ability to 
name and manipulate objects, 
paragraphs, and graphics as 
groups. 

The drawing package sup- 
ports Bezier curves, several 
types of fill patterns, and the 
ability to scale various bit-map 
formats (e.g., raster, raw bit- 
map, MacPaint, PCX, and 
TIFF). Graphics can flow 
with text or remain stationary. 

Elan is offering Avalon 
Publisher with a floating li- 
cense, which makes it avail- 
able to everyone on your net- 
work but requires you to 
purchase only enough licenses 
for concurrent use. The sys- 
tem requires 18 MB of disk 
space, 8 MB of main mem- 
ory, and the X 1 1 Windowing 
System. 

Price: $1295; $995 for each 
additional concurrent license. 
Contact: Elan Computer 
Group, Inc., 888 Villa St., 
Third Floor, Mountain 
View, CA 94041, (415) 
964-2200. 
Inquiry 1178. 



Wave4 Bridges 
Desktop and 
Dedicated Systems 

Bestinfo says its Wave4 
publishing system for 
OS/2 Presentation Manager 
bridges the gap between low- 
cost, low-powered desktop 
applications and high-end tech- 
nologies like Penta and Atex. 
With Wave4 and the multitask- 
ing capabilities of OS/2, sev- 
eral people can work on the 
same document, pages, and 
articles without file corruption 
or work-flow conflicts. 

The program integrates 
proprietary Hell and Scitex 
color imaging and PostScript 
color imaging. For production 
people, the program supports 
masking, automatic head fit- 
ting and sizing, rotation of 
images and frames at any ori- 
entation, and image zooming 
independent of the frame or 
page. 

Price: $12,000 to $95,000. 
Contact: Bestinfo, Inc., 
1400 North Providence Rd., 
Media, PA 19063, (800) 346- 
7920 or (215) 891-6500. 
Inquiry 1177. 



Avalon Publisher brings desktop publishing under the XI 1 
windowing system to the SPARCstation, DECstation, and Hewlett- 
Packard 9000. 



Island's Desktop 

Publishing 

for Open Desktop 

Island Graphics' Productiv- 
ity Series 2.0 combines the 
company's word processing, 
painting, and drawing pro- 
grams under one package for 
desktop publishing under SCO 
Open Desktop. The program 
is available for the IBM PC, 
Open Look on Sun worksta- 
tions, and OSF/Motif on 
Apollo and Hewlett-Packard 
workstations. 
Price: $995. 

Contact: Island Graphics 
Corp., 4000 Civic Center Dr. , 
San Rafael, CA 94903, (800) 
255-4499 or (415) 491-1000. 
Inquiry 1179. 



72PC-14 BYTE- DECEMBER 1990 



Circle 644 on Reader Service Card 



Easy to use desktop mapping for companies on the move. 



Ryder Truck Rental, Inc. uses ATLAS mapping software to define 
and optimize sales territories, track and report revenues, and add 
impact to board room presentations. And they're on the move. 

Desktop mapping and the road to success. 

Whether your business is big or small, ATLAS software moves 
you ahead of the crowd. Now it's simple to analyze market poten- 
tial, locate prospects by inputting addresses, site new retail stores, 
and perform scores of other useful applications. What's more, you 
can add punch to your next meeting by printing quality maps on 
almost any output device. 

Mapping the easy way. 

A built-in, dBASE compatible database manager allows you to 
select geographic regions and associated data-then pop-up useful 
summary statistics. Create pin and thematic maps by street, block, 
ZIP, county, or any set of custom territories. 

Call for a free demo diskette. 

Strategic Mapping, Inc. offers desktop mapping solutions for the 
PC and MAC-ranging from ATLAS*GRAPHICS and 
ATLAS*MapMaker for presentations to ATLAS*GIS, 
a full-featured geographic information system. See how 
thousands of businesses put themselves on the map 
with ATLAS software. Call today for your free demo 
diskette: (408) 985-7400, FAX (408) 985-0859. 



't't't't't 

MacUser 

Jan90 








M 



Capture data by zip code and 
summarize by county to highlight areas 
of opportunity. 

Resellers inquiries invited. 



Leaders in Desktop Mapping since 1983. 
STRATEGIC MAPPING, INC.4030Moorpark Avenue, Suite 250, San Jose. CA 951 17 (408) 985-7400 FAX: (408) 985-0859 






FUJITSU RX730O Model A 

Super-Fast Desktop Laser Printer 

■ Emulates Epson FX-80, Diablo 630 & LaserJet Plus 

■ 18 pages/min 1300 dpi 12.5MB RAM 

■ Choice of Serial or Centronics-Parallel interface 

■ Includes Installation i 



'Effl^W 



(List $6,995.00) 

LARGE CAPACITY PAPER HOPPER ALSO AVAILABLE J 



Number Me Computer's PEPPER PR0 1024 

Hi-Res Interface Boards 

REDRAWS SCREEN 20 TIMES FASTER! 
Great for CAD, engineers, and 
other heavy-duty graphics users 

■ On-board TI-TMS3410 graphics processor 

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■ 2-year manufacturer's warranty 

■ Works with popular software $ ' 
(List $2495.00) 



INDISPENSABLE FOR DESKTOP PUBLISHERS! 

■ Flatbed— bound books/sheets up to 8.5 x 11.7 

■ Private Label: "Wang"— equiv. to Ricoh RS-312 
Scans full page 300 dpi in 14 sec, 150 dpi in 7 sec 
Scans in 64 gray levels as well as bSw line art 
Software compatible w/Windows 2.01 or newer 
Software generates PCX or TIF files $C| 

■ Includes interface card & software Ui. 



15" Amdek Hi-Res Monitor 

i Monochrome— paper-white 
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- Automatic mode switching 
Includes drivers for all popu- 
lar software, display card. 30- 
"" day I M E wa rra nty . New. 
(List Price $999.00) /ME Price: St 79 



Micposof t Bookshelf 



CO-ROM 10-VOLREFERENCE LIBRARY 



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■ 1 Parallel Port 
& 1 Serial Port 

■ 7 Expansion Slot; 

■ MS-DOS 3.3 
1 1.2MB Floppy Drive 
1 102-key Keyboard 
I 90-day IME Warranty. 




1 Z.5MHZ-1 MB-9GMB s 1 1 49 

AM New! Includes: 

■ Private Label (CPT) 12.5MHz 80286 

■ 1MB RAM (16MB addressable) 

■ Rexon-Labelled Keyboard "Keyboard Lock 

■ 96MB Maxtor Drive "One Wait State 
DTC 3280 Controller "3 Storage Bays . 



\ SPECIAL OFFERON 
; 10MhV CPU SYSTEMS 



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• 19" Xerox 2-Page Display.... add $170 

v • 13" EGA Color Monitor add $59 

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economy special nmHzmoHii—m, 



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Disk Manager software included! 



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Formatted 244MB 

Unformatted 280MB 

Interface SGI 

Height Full 

Ave. Seek Time 30ms 

IMEWarranty SO days 00 if used) 

Last List Price $2,265.00 

M Price $693 Of $59$ 



Recertified 

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INCLUDING: 

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■ HD/FD controller ■ 7 expansion slots 

■ 90-Day IME warranty ■ MS-DOS 3.3 

While supplies last only 373 



14" FLAT SCREEN 
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These terminals will substitute for: 
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ADDS Viewpoint A2; or (ANSI) DEC VT-52 or 100. 
M Resolution to 1188 x 416 

■ ASCI1 101- key keyboard 

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Circle 625 on Reader Service Card (RESELLERS: 626) 



WHAT'S NEW 



PROGRAMMING 



Visual PC-to- 
Mainframe 
Programming Tool 

Easel says its new visual 
programming tool simpli- 
fies the process of creating a 
PC application for accessing 
3270-based host systems. 
Called CommBuilder, the tool 
lets you build an application 
as you interact with the host 
computer. Generated code 
works with Easel/DOS or Ea- 
sel/2 (for OS/2), the com- 
pany's graphical application 
development system. 

As you access and interact 
with a 3270-based system, 
CommBuilder presents the 
host screen in a window. After 
the session is over, Comm- 
Builder automatically gener- 
ates the communications por- 
tion of the Easel code required 
by the application. You can 
use CommBuilder on-line or 
capture host screen images 
for later coding. 

As CommBuilder presents 
the host screen to you, it uses 
color coding to identify pro- 
tected fields, assigned fields, 
watch characters, and unpro- 
tected fields. The tool can in- 
terface with Layout/CUA for 
DOS, Easel's tool that lets you 
design and generate a graphi- 
cal user interface for Easel (the 
company hasn't yet released 
Layout/CUA for OS/2). You 
can use CommBuilder to as- 
sign links between host 
screens for programming an 
Easel application that 
navigates through several 
host screens. 

CommBuilder runs under 
DOS and generates code for 
use with Easel/DOS or Ea- 
sel/2. It requires DOS 3.0 and 
1MB of RAM. 
Price: $1900; Easel/DOS 
and Easel/2, $7500 each. 
Contact: Easel Corp., 600 
West Cummings Park, Wo- 
burn, MA 01801, (617) 
938-8440. 
Inquiry 1181. 




Working with CommBuilder, you create the communications 
portion of your PC-to-3270 application by interacting directly 
with the host screens. 



Pare Place 
Opens Up 
Objectworks\C + + 

ParcPlace Systems has 
opened up Objectworks, 
the set of tools that helps you 
find, understand, and reuse 
existing C + + code. No 
longer are you required to use 
default tools like the Sun C 
compiler. Objectworks \ C + + 
2.0 supports traditional Unix 
tools for C preprocessing, C 
compiling, and linking, the 
company says. 

Objectworks helps you an- 
alyze C + + code, even if it's 
not your own. The Ob- 
jectworks \ C + + inheritance 
browser draws class inheri- 
tance trees and supports multi- 
ple inheritance, so that you 
can view existing class rela- 
tionships in graphical form. 
Also included is an error 
browser, a C + + Translator 
using AT&T's Language Sys- 
tem 2.1, and a source-level 
debugger. 

The optional Object- 
Kit\C + + includes AT&T's 
Standard Library and Stan- 
dard Library Extension, a col- 
lection of 15 general-purpose 
C + + libraries. It also has the 
NIHC + + libraries. 



Objectworks\C + + 2.0 
requires 12 MB for the Sun-3 
and SPARCstation. 
Price: $3000; Object- 
Kit\C + + ,$500. 
Contact: ParcPlace Systems, 
Inc., 1550 Plymouth St., 
Mountain View, CA 94043, 
(415) 691-6700. 
Inquiry 1182. 



STSC Plans APL for 
IBM's System/6000 

STSC , developer of APL, 
known for its ability to 
perform complex and ad hoc 
analyses on large quantities of 
data, says it will release a 
version of the language for the 
IBM RISC System/6000 by 
the end of this year or early 
1991. Currently available for 
the 386, DEC workstations, 
and the SPARCstation, APL 
is used for actuarial work, cur- 
rency trading, customer 
tracking, and other applica- 
tions, the company says. 

APL interfaces with lan- 
guages like assembly and C. 
STSC says APL excels at ma- 
trix manipulation and supports 
nested arrays within a single 
element of other arrays. 
Price: $3000 and up. 
Contact: STSC, Inc., 2115 
East Jefferson St. , Rockville, 
MD 20852, (301)984-5000. 
Inquiry 1184. 



Spinnaker 
Adds to Plus 

Spinnaker Software de- 
veloped the Plus Software 
Slot Developer's Kit for 
creating new object classes and 
customized extensions for the 
Plus programming language. 
You can use the kit to create 
applications that can run un- 
modified on the Mac and 
IBM PC with Windows or 
OS/2 Presentation Manager. 

Four categories of exten- 
sions are possible with the kit. 
Software Slot Objects add a 
new object class to Plus, with 
all properties of the new ob- 
ject defined by you. Once you 
create and compile the new 
object, it goes in the same 
folder as Plus, and you access 
it like any other object. An- 
other category, External 
Draw Objects, already have 
some properties defined in 
advance, since they are de- 
signed to display information 
on-screen. However, you deter- 
mine the source and form of 
the displayed information, 
whether it be a bar graph, 
chart, or other data 
representation. 

Two other categories, 
Software Slot Commands and 
Software Slot Functions, let 
you extend Plus. When you use 
these extensions to add new 
commands and functions, you 
can define an unlimited num- 
ber of arguments and custom- 
ized syntax, giving you 
greater flexibility than with 
external commands and ex- 
ternal functions, according 
to the company. 
Price: $695. 

Contact: Spinnaker Software 
Corp., 201 Broadway, Cam- 
bridge, MA 02139, (617) 
494-1200. 
Inquiry 1183. 



72PC-16 BYTE* DECEMBER 1990 




MetaWare Delivers 
The Essential Tool For 

c 



Way back in 1986, MetaWare delivered the first 32-bit protected- 
mode DOS compiler for the 386. Our High C compiler set the 
standard for professional software developers. High C DOS 386/486, 
Version 2.3, brings important features to extended DOS that 
our UNIX C customers have come to rely on for creating 
lightning-fast executable code: 



In an ever-changing, puzzling, multi-platform world, it's reassur- 
ing to know that: 



True Globally Optimizing Technology 



i 



/. 




Global Optimizations that increase speed of 
code execution include: constant and copy 
propagation, constant expression folding, local 
and global common subexpression elimination, 
removal of in variant expressions from loops, live/ 
dead analysis, dead code elimination, global register 
allocation, and tail merging. We've also included 
faster libraries with ANSI conformance and greater Micro- 
soft compatibility. These optimizations make Version 2.3 
generate46% better Whetstone code and 1 5% better Dhrystone 
code than our previous version. But one piece was still missing: 

True 32-Bit Source-Level Debugging 

Our customers really needed a Meta Ware-quality 32-bit, source- 
level debugger. It had to offer a friendly user interface with color or 
monochrome windows, featuring pull-down and pop-up menus. They 
needed to watch or edit data, registers, and breakpoints through 
windows that displayed: flags, memory in any format, variables, stack 
data, 387 registers, locals, globals, structs, pointers, modules, and 
more! We've delivered! Meta Ware's 386 protected-mode debugger 
features source-level symbolic debug capabilities. High C users can 
tackle even the largest DOS C programs and debug code on the host 
or a remote DOS machine, via a standard serial port. 



32-Bit 

Source-Level 

Debugger 



r^ 



Your Code is Portable to Other Platforms 

Many professional programmers are delighted to 
discover that their existing High C programs may 
be easily ported to many other popular platforms, 
including MS-DOS, FlexOS, OS/2, UNIX Sys- 
tem V 386/486, Sun 386/, Sun-3, Sun^, SPARC, 
and IBM AIX on PS/2, RT, i860, and 370, IBM 
AOS 4.3 on RT and 370, Am29K, Motorola 
680x0, and Intel i860. And we're already talk- 
ing with several of our OEMs about porting the 
debugger to these and other new platforms. 



Our customers who are already using the combi- 
nation of High C and the new debugger all agree that the 
new, 32-bit source-level debugger is the essential tool for the 
only compiler you need. 




MetaWare" 

INCORPORATED 



Compiler Products for 
Professional Software Developers 

High C @ • Professional Pascar 



2161 Delaware Ave. • Santa Cruz, CA • 95060-5706 • 408/429-6382 • Fax 408/429-9273 

MetaWare, High C, and Professional Pascal are registered trademarks of MetaWare Incorporated. Other names are trademarks of their respective companies. 

© Copyright 1990 MetaWare Incorporated 



Circle 631 on Reader Service Card 



DECEMBER 1990 -BYTE 72PC-17 



WHAT'S NEW 



EDITORS AND LIBRARIES 



Spreadsheet 
Functions in 
Your Database 

Raima, developer of C 
products for the design of 
databases that combine rela- 
tional- and network-model 
technologies, now has a li- 
brary of linkable functions for 
embedding spreadsheet capa- 
bility in your application. 

Applications created with 
the PowerCell Spreadsheet Li- 
brary let you analyze and 
otherwise manipulate data 
without having to export to a 
spreadsheet, perform the anal- 
ysis, and reimport the 
changed data to the database. 

The library can function 
as a stand-alone library, letting 
you add its capability to other 
applications. Built-in file ac- 
cess functions let you import 
and export data from WKS, 
WK1, DBF, and ASCII for- 
mats. The PowerCell Spread- 
sheet Library supports a vari- 
ety of operating systems, 
including DOS, Windows, 
OS/2, Unix, Xenix and SunOS. 
Price: $695 and up. 
Contact: Raima Corp., 3245 
146th Place SE, Suite 230, 
Bellevue, WA 98007, (206) 
747-5570. 
Inquiry 1185. 



CD: r, r )l 
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lilies 




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176.80 


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5127. 2Q 



With the PowerCell Spreadsheet Library, you Can develop 
database applications with built-in spreadsheets. 



TAGS Function 
for C, C + + Added 
to PI Edit 

PI Edit 4.0, a software 
development system for 
DOS, OS/2, and several ver- 
sions of Unix, lets you use 
third-party tools to make, 
link, debug, or execute your 
application, all from within 
the PI Edit environment. A 
new TAGS function goes 
through your source code and 
creates a database from 
which you can reference any 
function or element by name, 
without knowing its location. 
Initially available for C and 



gold Circle: :Hide(uoid) 

unsigned int TewpColor; // to save current color 



setcolor(getbkcolorO): 
Visible = false; 
ctrcletX, t t Radius); 
setcolor(TensColor) ; 



// set drawing color to background 

// drau in background color to erase 
// set color back to current color 



Under med sunuai 'etipUoIor' in function Circle: :thd e() M 

— mm 



-decl fstrea 

Cdecl fstrean 
_Cdecl fstrean (int); 
_Cdecl. fstrean (int _ 
_Cdecl "fstreanO: 

sbuf- _Cdecl rdbufO; 



C + + , the TAGS function 
should support dBASE and 
Pascal by the end of the year. 

For programmers with a 
Unix background, the new ver- 
sion has a vi keyboard inter- 
face, which lets you toggle be- 
tween vi and PI modes. 
While in vi mode, you still 
have access to all Pi's com- 
mands, Iliad Group says. 

Version 4.0 lets you save 
your workspace, quit, and re- 
turn to it in restored condi- 
tion, saving you time from hav- 
ing to get up to speed at the 
start of your next program- 
ming session. 

The MS-DOS version can 
remove itself from memory 
when it executes another ap- 
plication, storing itself in EMS 
or disk memory. Supported 
versions of Unix include SCO 
Unix and Xenix, Interactive 
Unix 386/ix, and AT&T 
systems. 

Price: MS-DOS version, 
$195; PI for OS/2, $249; PI for 
Unix, $349 and up. 
Contact: The Iliad Group, 
Inc., 77 Geary St., Fifth 
Floor, San Francisco, CA 
94108, (800) 473-2053 or 
(415) 563-2053. 
Inquiry 1186. 



PI Edit 4. 0, a software development system, lets you do all your 
programming in one environment. 



Develop for 
Windows Without a 
Low-Level Plunge 

KnowledgePro for Win- 
dows lets you create so- 
phisticated applications that 
can directly run other DOS 
and Windows applications 
without requiring you to delve 
into a low-level language. 

KnowledgePro handles the 
difficult memory management 
problems of Windows, letting 
you concentrate on the applica- 
tion, Knowledge Garden 
says. Windows screen objects, 
fonts, icons, and bit-mapped 
images can be handled using 
one-line commands. Topics, 
the basic building blocks of the 
program, lie in wait for a 
particular event to occur. 

Knowledge Garden says 
experienced Windows pro- 
grammers can use Knowl- 
edgePro to quickly prototype 
applications. 
Price: Windows version, 
$695; DOS version, $495. 
Contact: Knowledge Gar- 
den, Inc., 473 A Maiden 
Bridge Rd., Nassau, NY 
12123,(518)766-3000. 
Inquiry 1187. 

Viewpoint Systems' 
graphical-user-i nterf ace 
development tool lets you 
create applications for seam- 
lessly linking Windows 3.0 
applications with IBM main- 
frame data through Dynamic 
Data Exchange. 

I/F Builder 2.1 also lets 
you cut and paste 3270 main- 
frame data with an applica- 
tion for further analysis or 
graphing. The program sup- 
ports Microsoft Word and 
Excel for now. 
Price: $17,500; run-time 
component, I/F Manager, $395 
per workstation. 
Contact: Viewpoint Sys- 
tems, Inc., 1900SouthNor- 
folkSt.,Suite310, San 
Mateo, CA 94403, (415) 
578-1591. 
Inquiry 1188. 



72PC-18 BYTE- DECEMBER 1990 




Microcom Computers 



A HRW Technologies Company 




All Systems with Free 4 Month On-Site Warranty 



Custom Configuration Computer Systems 



Pre-Configured Computer Systems 



Standard System Features: 

* 1MB RAM Standard 

* Teac 5.25' 1.2 MB or 3.5' 1 .44 MB Diskette Drive 

* 1:1 Interleaved Hard/Floppy Drive Controller 

* Enhanced 101 -key Keyboard 

* 2 Serial & 1 Parallel Port & Real Time Clock/Calendar w/Battery 

* Small Footprint Casew/200 Watt Power Supply(14.9' W x 16.3" D x 6.8' H) 

* Tower Case w/230 Watt Power Supply (Standard for 386/25C & 386/33C) 



Our Commitment to Service & Quality 

* Free 4 Month On-Site Servicing Nationwide 
1 Year Warranty on Parts & Labor 
Toll-free Technical Service & Support 

No Surcharge on Credit Card Purchases 

* Comprehensive 72 Hour Burn-in Testing on All Systems 
All Systems Made with pride in the USA 

* Guaranteed 100% IBM Compatible 



MICROCOM 286/12 

286/12 System Features, Hard Drive, Monitor & Video Card 



Hard Drives: 
MB/Ms 



No Video 



Mono 
VGA-Mono 



Hires 



IDT 
42/28 



$799 



$899 
$1,024 



$1,349 



IDE 
80/18 



$1,049 



$1,149 
$1,274 



$1,599 



IDE 
105/18 



$1,099 



$1,199 
$1,324 



$1,649 



IDT" 
205/18 



$1,499 



$1,599 
$1,724 



$2,049 



ESDI 
340/18 



$2,099 



$2,199 
$2,324 



$2,649 



286/12 Xmas Special 

* 286/1 2 Standard System 

* 42 MB Hard Disk w/28 ms Access Time 

* 16-bit Hires 1024 x 768 Graphics Card 

* 14' Color Hires Monitor (1024 x 768) 
Microsoft MS-DOS 3.30 or 4.01 
Free Mouse with This Special 



$1,299 




HJ99" 



MICROCOM 386SX/1 6 

386SX/16 System Features, Hard Drive, Monitor & Video Card 



Hard Drives: 
MB/Ms 



No Video 



Mono 
VGA-Mono 



Hires 



IDE 
42/28 



$999 



$1,099 
$1,224 



$1,549 



IDT 
80/18 



$1,249 



$1,349 
$1,474 



$1,799 



TDF 
105/18 



$1,299 



$1,399 
$1,524 



$1,849 



IDE 
205/18 



$1,699 



$1,799 
$1,924 



MICROCOM 386/25 

for 64 KB Cache, add $300 

386/25 System Features, Hard Drive, Monitor & Video Card 



$2,249 



ESDI 
340/18 



$2,299 



$2,399 
$2,524 



$2,849 



386SX/16 Xmas Special 

*386SX/16 Standard System 

* 42 MB Hard Disk w/28 ms Access Time 
1 6-bit Hires 1 024 x 768 Graphics Card 

* 14' Color Hires Monitor (1024 x 768) 
Microsoft MS-DOS 3.30 or 4.01 

* Free Mouse with This Special 




$1,999 
$2,299 



Hard Drives: 
MB/Ms 
No Video 



Mono 
VGA-Mono 



Hires 



42/28 



$1,399 
$1,499 



$1,624 
$1,949 



IDT 
80/18 



$1,649 
$1,749 



$1,874 
$2,199 



105/18 



$1,699 
$1,799 



$1,924 

$2,249 



IDT 
205/18 



$2,099 
$2,199 



$2,324 
$2,649 



~ESDT 
340/18 



$2,699 
$2,799 



$2,924 
$3,249 



MICROCOM 386/33C 

386/33C System Features, Tower Case, Hard Drive, Monitor & Video Card 



386/25 Xmas Special w/42 MB Hard Disk 
386/25 Xmas Special w/105 MB Hard Disk 

* 386/25 Standard System 

* 42 MB or 105 MB Hard Disk 

* 16-bit Hires 1024 x 768 Graphics Card 

* 14' Color Hires Monitor (1024 x 768) 

* Microsoft MS-DOS 3.30 or 4.01 

* Free Mouse with This Special 
w With 64 KB Cache - Add $300 




$2,699 



Hard Drives: 
MB/Ms 
No Video 



Mono 
VGA-Mono 



Hires 



IDT 
42/28 



$1,799 



$1 r 899 



$2,024 
$2,349 



IDE 
80/18 



$2,049 



$2,149 



$2,274 
$2,599 



IDE" 

105/18 



$2,099 



$2,199 



$2,324 
$2,649 



IDE 
205/18 



$2,499 



$2,599 



$2,724 
$3,049 



ESDI 
340/18 



$3,099 



$3,199 



$3^24 
$3,649 



386/33C Xmas Special 

* 386/33C Standard System wfTower Case 

* 1 05 MB Hard Disk w/Quick 18 ms Access Time 

* 1 6-bit Hires 1 024 x 768 Graphics Card 

* 1 4' Color Hires Monitor (1 024 x 768) 

* Microsoft MS-DOS 3.30 or 4.01 

* Free Mouse with This Special 




Options/Upgrades: 

Mini-size Desktop Tower Case Add $50 

Full-size Tower Case (Standard for 386/25C & 33C) Add $150 



$29.99 



Microcom Xmas Mouse 

Hi-Resolution 3-Button Microsoft-compatible Mouse 
Up to 432 dot per inch Resolution (Great for VGA) 



Microcom Computers 1 Customers Include: 

Xerox, GTE, Motorola, Raychem, General Electric, Eastman Kodak, Pacific Bell, SEGA of America, Toshiba, Genetech, Holiday Inn, U.S. Court of Appeals, NASA, 
U.S. FoodA Drug Administration, U.S. Dept. of Energy, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, U.C. Berkeley, U.C. San Francisco, 
Stanford University, Princeton University, University of Pittsburg, University of Vermont, Pacific Gas & Electric, Wells Fargo Bank, and many more. 



To Order - Call Toll Free 1-800-248-3398 

Open from 9:00 A.M. to 6:00 P.M. PST, Monday -Friday 
Microcom Computers 

48890 Milmont Drive, Fremont, CA 94537 - Tel: (415)623-3628 -Fax: (415)623-3620 
3650-18th Street, San Francisco, CA 94110 - Tel: (415)255-2288 -Fax: (415 255-8873 

Prices are subject to change without notice. Not responsible for typographical errors. CA residents please add 7.25% sales tax. No surcharge on credit card purchases. Personal and company 
checks require 2 weeks clearance. All trademarks acknowledged. Tower Is a registered trademark of NCR Corporation. Microcom Computers reserves the right to substitute any and all items with 
equivalent or better parts. All benchmarks and specifications are for your Information only and may vary from system to system. Prices do not Include shipping and handling. 



Circle 634 on Reader Service Card 



WHAT'S NEW 



GRAPHICS 



Sculpting and 
Texturing Made 
Simple for the Mac 

The new version of Sculpt 
3D with Textures, Byte by 
Byte's three-dimensional 
rendering program, lets you 
develop textures and position 
image maps by means of an in- 
terface approach. Sculpt uses 
a Tri-View windows system to 
let you scale, rotate, and 
freely position textures accu- 
rately onto a 3-D model. 

With Sculpt, you can im- 
port TIMM, PICT, and PRIM 
files to use as textures. You 
can also create solid textures 
from algorithmic or 3-D tex- 
tures and use them to com- 
pletely cover any object or 
space. Sculpt 3D lets you alter 
turbulence, irregularity, and 
inter-ring distance to create an 
unlimited number of tex- 
tures. A reference cursor inter- 
acts in all three dimensions 
simultaneously, the company 
reports. 

Sculpt 3D also features 
animation capabilities, includ- 
ing key frame and global ani- 
mation, motion paths, splined 
motion paths, and object 
metamorphosis. Sculpt' s capa- 
bilities are all provided with- 
in the Tri-View interface. 

Sculpt 3D runs on the Mac 
with at least 4 MB of RAM, a 
40-MB hard disk drive, an 
Apple or compatible 8-bit 
video card, System 6.0.5 or 
higher, and 32-Bit Color 
QuickDraw. 
Price: $2500. 

Contact: Byte by Byte, Ar- 
boretum Plaza II, 9442 Capital 
of Texas Hwy. N, Suite 150, 
Austin, TX 78759, (512) 
343-4357. 
Inquiry 1194. 




Sculpt 3D lets you animate objects once you 've modeled and 
rendered them. 



AT&T Takes You 
to RIO for Graphics 

The new version of 
AT&T's RIO graphics 
software, version 4.0, im- 
proves upon its predecessor by 
offering enhanced two- 
dimensional layout and slide- 
preparation capabilities. The 
company has also developed 
RIO Animator, an add-on 
module for RIO that provides 
vector-based 2-D animation 
with antialiased objects, text, 
gradients, and trans- 
parencies. 

RIO 4.0's multicolor gra- 
dient maps let you specify up 
to eight colors for coloring 
objects, text gradient maps, or 
backgrounds. You can also 
use hot keys for more efficient 
text editing, and you can im- 
port and output TIFF files. 
RIO 4.0 supports Color Post- 
Script as an output option. 

Other features of RIO 4.0 
include variable page format 
and added rulers and tick 
marks, for increased accuracy 
in the placement of objects 
within the page. 

The AT&T RIO package 
runs in Truevision TARGA and 
ATVista graphics environ- 
ments and requires 2 MB of 
RAM. 
Price: TARGA version, 



$1795; ATVista version, 
$2495; RIO Animator, 
$3000. 

Contact: AT&T Graphics 
Software Labs, 3520 Com- 
merce Crossing, Suite 300, 
Indianapolis, IN 46240, (317) 
844-4364. 
Inquiry 1196. 



Color Image Editing 
Comes to Windows 

Astral Development 
brings its color image 
editing program for the Mac 
to the PC with the release of 
Picture Publisher Plus for 
Microsoft Windows. The pro- 
gram allows for interactive 
editing and image placement. 
You can change the hue, satu- 
ration, and lightness of images. 
For page composition, you 
can crop, size, scale, rotate, 
and mirror using registration 
marks. You can edit pictures of 
any size and resolution, re- 
gardless of your system's mem- 
ory capacity, Astral says. 

Offered as a stand-alone 
program, it includes a utility 
for scanner calibration. 

Picture Publisher Plus 
runs on any VGA-based system 
with Windows 3.0. 



Price: $695. 

Contact: Astral Develop- 
ment Corp., Londonderry Sq.. 
Suite 1 12, Londonderry, NH 
03053, (603) 432-6800. 
Inquiry 1195. 



Render Me 
on the Mac 

Digital Arts brings its 
three-dimensional model- 
ing, animation, and render- 
ing software for the PC to the 
Mac with the Digital Artist 
Series for the Mac II family. 
Model, MacRenderMan, and 
Animate are designed for use 
by virtually any professional 
graphics user. 

Model supports spline- 
based modeling, object sculpt- 
ing, and advanced deforma- 
tion with gravity. Both 2-D and 
3-D commands are available 
from a set of pop-up, pull- 
down menus, and you can al- 
ternate between environments 
of different dimensions. 

MacRenderMan is a cus- 
tomized version of the Pixar 
MacRenderMan program. 
The Digital Arts software fea- 
tures Render Manager, which 
lets you interactively compose 
images by setting object 
placement, lights, and various 
shading and texturing param- 
eters,. You can save the images 
you create as TIFF, Post- 
Script, or PICT files. 

Once you've modeled and 
rendered the images, you can 
use Animate, which contains 
all the advanced animation ca- 
pabilities provided by Digital 
Arts' DGS products. 

These three programs 
from Digital Arts require 4 
MB of RAM and an 8-bit dis- 
play card. 

Price: Model, $2250; Mac- 
RenderMan, $1995; Animate, 
$2250. 

Contact: Digital Arts, 7050 
Convoy Court, San Diego, CA 
92111,(619)541-2055. 
Inquiry 1197. 



72PC-20 BYTE- DECEMBER 1990 




Dealer Sales: 
1-800-235-7359 



MYODA 



III 

IP LT5200 SERIES 



FREE: 3 BUTTOM MOUSE 
WITH EVERY LT5200 ORDER 



Flexibility of a Laptop with the true power and 
expandability of a high-performance Desktop 
computer. MYODA has designed & built these 
machines with the needs of today's demanding 
users in mind. Just look at our features & then 
compare them with other machines costing 
twice as much and you will see why we are the 
clear choice for professional users. We offer true 
expandability with TWO FULL SIXTEEN BIT 
SLOTS, MEMORY IS EXPANDABLE TO 8MB 
ON THE BOARD, VGA SCREEN.EXTERNAL 
VGA MONITOR PORT, EXTERNAL FLOPPY 
DRIVE PORT. There 's 
even a true 386-25 
running at WAIT STATE 
available with 32 KB 
CACHE MEMORY. & 
they a!! come with a 
CONNER.40 MB HDD 
&a3.5/1.44MBFDD 
AM I or Award BIOS. 




Laptop Accessories 

• External 5.25/1 .2MB 
floppy drive 

• Expansion chaste 2x8 bit, 
2x16 bit (For LT-3500 only) 

• Power inverter 

• External battery pack with 
12V inverter 

• Numeric keypad 
Fax-modem card 
12V inverter 



O MYODA . _ _- 
LT-3500 $1499 

Here is your chance to pick up on the biggest 
bargain in Laptops anywhere. The LT-3500 is 
packed with features. The 80286-12 MHz CPU 
runs at wait state, ready to blaze hrough those 
tough applications. There is also a 40 MB fast 
HDD & an internal 3.5 /1 .44MB diskette drive 

• Intel 80286 CPU wait state 

• 6/12 MHz clock speed 

• EGA GAS plasma display 
•1MB installed 4MB max 

• 3.5/1 .44MB floppy drive 

• 40MB(28ms) hard drive 

• 2 serial/1 parallel/CRT port 

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Model 


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Yes 

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$3699 
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iSlili 

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microprocessor 

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Installed Hard Drives: 

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• Intel 80386-25 
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purchase 
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MYODA 
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• Intel 80386-33 microprocessor 

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DOS, OS/2, UNIX, XENIX and 

NOVELL 

• CALL FOR PRICE 

Circle 639 on Reader Service Card (RESELLERS: 640) 



Case Upgrades 

Mini tower, Mid tower 

and Large tower 

Call for special pricing 



MYODA INC. 

1053 Shore Road. Naperville Illinois 60563 
Tel:[708) 369-51 99 Fax: (708) 3696068 



Mall Order Sales 1-800*562-1071 

Dealers/Vars Inquires: OEM Inquire: 

1 053 Shore Road Naperville Ulinios 60563 /Mex Chen Taipei Office 3F No. 1 9 1 Sec. 3 Roosevelt Rd 

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WHAT'S NEW 



USERS GROUPS 



The Good, the Bad, 
and the Ugly 
of HyperCard 2.0 

The recent reversals and 
stopgap measures in the 
continuing saga of the Hyper- 
Card distribution strategy are 
leading users to ask, "What 
does Claris want?" 

Apple's announcement that 
HyperCard will be bundled 
with the new Macs in a run- 
time-only version sparked an 
outpouring of protest, caus- 
ing Apple and Claris to rethink 
their strategy. Apple's an- 
nouncement that the version of 
HyperCard 2.0 to be bundled 
with new Macs would not have 
scripting capabilities has 
been the object of lively dis- 
cussion in the Mac commu- 
nity. The ensuing protest from 
users caused Apple and 
Claris, which has taken over 
proprietorship of HyperCard, 
to reverse the earlier an- 
nouncement and bundle a 
full version with the new 
Macs. 

At the regular Thursday 
night meeting of BMUG, Inc. , 
the impending release of Hy- 
perCard 2.0 was the most dis- 
cussed topic of the meeting. 
Amid all the rumors and spec- 
ulation, one person's com- 
ment illustrated just how per- 
sonally users take Hyper- 
Card, which was designed to 
bring hypertext authoring to 
anyone who owns a Mac. As 
users wondered how much 
the scripting version of Hyper- 



Card might cost, someone 
from the audience suggested, 
"Let's just not buy it. 
[Apple] will get the idea we 
don't like them messing with 
our program." 

Claris apparently heard, 
and listened to, the protests of 
stack developers and users. 
The company later said a full 
version will be shipped, but 
to enter scripting mode, you'll 
have to make a minor change 
to the home stack. However, 
it's not clear if this last-min- 
ute change in strategy will 
mollify HyperCard devel- 
opers. 

At least one HyperCard 
expert is calling the latest turn 
in this drama "pathetic." 

David Drucker, a Hyper- 
Card consultant since 1987 and 
a member of the Boston 
Computer Society's MacStack- 
Group, says the decision by 
Claris to put an opaque button 
over the scripting choices on 
the home stack connotes "a de- 
spicable attitude." Drucker 
said the company is "still put- 
ting it out with the attitude 
that what you don't know is 
good for you." He also said 
the opaque button represents 
"the exact opposite of 
empowerment." 

The official Claris line is 
that the opaque button scheme 
will prevent new users from 
destroying or altering stacks. 
But Drucker says that if a 
person is that concerned about 
data integrity, it's up to the 
developer to protect the stack, 
which is easily done with a 
one-line command. 



What's Going On in Your Users Group? 



Any visitors lately? What 
happened at your last general 
meeting? BYTE magazine is 
interested in hearing about 
the products you see and 
what their developers are 
saying. Phone the BYTE 
news department at (603) 



924-2630 or send a fax to 
(603) 924-2550. You can 
also send a copy of your news 
story to One Phoenix Mill 
Lane, Peterborough, NH 
03458, or send E-mail to 
"dave.news" on BIX or to 
"BYTE" on MCI Mail. 



Despite the waffling of 
Claris on this issue, Drucker 
sees the company's acquisi- 
tion of the upgrade and devel- 
opment responsibilities of 
HyperCard as good news, in 
general. "If HyperCard had 
to end up in a place, this 
[Claris] is the best place." 

According to Drucker, 
now that Claris has taken over 
HyperCard, users can look 
for network support, spread- 
sheet capabilities, and the in- 
corporation of the XTND file- 
format conversion technol- 
ogy into future versions of 
HyperCard. 

But Drucker says the 
opaque button announcement 
left him "amused and irri- 
tated at the same time." 

"Apple's giving it over to 
Claris is still a good sign," he 
said. "As long as they 
[Claris] don't pull any more 
boneheaded things like this." 
—Dave Andrews and 
Kandy Arnold 



BBS for 
Vietnam Vets 

A Vietnam veteran named 
Larry Horn has started a 
new project for Vietnam vet- 
erans to contact each other. 
According to Horn, there 
isn't an easy way for veterans 
to contact other veterans. He 
is organizing a computerized 
project to list and refer veter- 
ans through a national BBS. 
The primary goal is a na- 
tional veterans' reunion center 
that will serve veterans of all 
eras. 

If you want to help in the 
financing of the project or reg- 
ister as a vet, you should 
write to the project. If you 
want to register, you need to 
include a self -addressed, 
stamped envelope. 
Contact: Vietnam Veterans 
Registry, Inc., P.O. Box 430, 
Bridgton, ME 04009, (207) 
647-8608. 



Nanobytes 

At a Berkeley Macintosh 
Users Group meeting, 
Esther Dyson, editor and 
publisher of the newsletter 
Release 1. 0, spoke in hushed 
tones about General Magic, 
the Apple spin-off that is 
supposedly developing a 
new class of communica- 
tions products. 

Presumably because of 
nondisclosure, Dyson said 
she couldn't comment if 
she'd heard anything about 
the new company's product, 
which could be a new class of 
personal intelligent commu- 
nicators. However, she did 
say, "When I'm alone at 
night, I think about General 
Magic." 

At the same meeting, Dyson 
also said, "There are a lot of 
women industry observers, 
but not a lot of women indus- 
try managers. You can't leg- 
islate it. Legislation helps, 
but the old guys have to die 
off." 

Jeff Cherniss, president of 
Advanced Software, said be- 
fore he demonstrated his 
document-comparison pro- 
gram for the Mac, "Our 
office was burgled over the 
weekend. The thief took 
Pluses over the 386s." 

A report in Microscope, the 
Mile High Computer Re- 
source Organization's news- 
letter, says Windows 3.0 is 
causing some users to lose 
more than their patience. 
Users with exceptionally 
large hard disk drives (more 
than 1024 cylinders), drives 
formatted by non-FDISK 
programs, or systems with 
mismatched components 
might encounter problems, 
including the destruction of 
hard disk systems. If you're 
concerned about your sys- 
tem's safety, call technical 
support at (206) 637-7098. 



72PC-22 BYTE- DECEMBER 1990 



Buy with 



Confidence 




In an effort to make your 
telephone purchasing a more 
successful and pleasurable 
activity, The Microcomputer 
Marketing Council of the 
Direct Marketing Association, 
Inc. offers this advice, "A 
knowledgeable buyer will be a 
successful buyer." These are 
specific facts you should know 
about the prospective seller 
before placing an order: 

Ask These Important 
Questions 

• How long has the company 
been in business? 

• Does the company offer 
technical assistance? 

• Is there a service facility ? 

• Are manufacturer s warran- 
ties handled through the 
company? 

• Does the seller have formal 
return and refund policies? 

• Is there an additional charge 
for use of credit cards? 

• Are credit card charges held 
until time of shipment? 

• What are shipping costs for 
items ordered? 



Reputable computer dealers 
will answer all these questions 
to your satisfaction. Don't 
settle for less when buying your 
computer hardware, software, 
peripherals and supplies. 

Purchasing Guidelines 

• State as completely and ac- 
curately as you can what 
merchandise you want in- 
cluding brand name, model 
number, catalog number. 

• Establish that the item is in 
stock and confirm shipping 
date. 

• Confirm that the price is as 
advertised . 

• Obtain an order number 
and identification of the 
sales representative. 

Make a record of your 
order, noting exact price in- 
cluding shipping, date of 
order, promised shipping 
date and order number. 

If you ever have a problem, 
remember to deal first with the 
seller. If you cannot resolve the 
problem, write to MAIL 
ORDER ACTION LINE, c/o 
DMA, 6 E. 43rd St., New York, 
NY 10017. 



This message is brought to you 
by: 

the MICROCOMPUTER 

MARKETING COUNCIL 

of the Direct Marketing 

Association, Inc. 

6 E. 43rd St., 

New York, NY 10017 

MMC 

MICROCOMPUTER 
MARKETING COUNCIL 

of the Direct Marketing Association, Inc. 



Cc) Direct Marketing Association, Inc. 1988 




BET ON A DERBY WINNER. . . 



d Kk&B8t&> 1 




9 _ _- ! -■ . 







BettffvwxKUK 

niit-in-Qpe. 



386/33C-200 PRO 



Intel 80386-33, 32-bit 
4M RAM 64K Cache 
200M Hard Drive 15ms 

NewSystem 

$3,395.00 
286/12-40 KEY 



Intel 80286-12, 1M RAM 
40M Hard Drive 28ms 
Eight-In-One by Spinnaker 

Dexxa Mouse w/ Paint 

$1,495.00 



386SX-40PRO 



Intel 80386SX 

2MRAM 

40M Hard Drive 28ms 

$1,895.00 
386/25C-65PRO 



Intel 80386-25, 32-bit 
4M RAM 64K Cache 
65M Hard Drive 25ms 

$2,695.00 



p rbyT B ^ 



386SX-100PRO 



Intel 80386SX 

2MRAM 

100M Hard Drive, 25ms 

NewSystem 

$2,195.00 

286/12-65 KEY 



Intel 80286-12, 1M RAM 
65M Hard Drive, 33ms 
Eight-In-One by Spinnaker 

i Dexxa Mouse w/ Paint l 

$1,595.00 



386SX-65PRO 



Intel 80386SX 

2MRAM 

65M Hard Drive 25ms 

$1,995.00 
386/25C-100PRO 



Intel 80386-25, 32-bit 
4M RAM 64K Cache 
100M Hard Drive 25ms 

$2,895.00 

- 30 Day Money Back Guarantee 
72 Hour Burn-in Testing 
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Hours; 9:00 to 6:00 M-Sat Cen 
Shipping Charge: Keys: $35.00 
Pros: $45.00 



ALL DER 



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1.2M 5.25" and 1.44M 3.5" 
2 Serial/Parallel/Game Ports 
MS-DOS v4.01/GW BASIC 



16-bit VGA 1024X768 w/5 12K 
VGA 1024X768 Color Monitor 
101 Key Ironies Keyboard 



KEYS feature desktop cases ■ PROS feature mid-size towers 



386SX-40KEY 

Intel 80386SX,2M RAM 
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Eight-In-One by Spinnaker 

Dexxa Mouse w/ Paint 

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386/25-65 PRO 



Intel 80386-25, 32-bit 

4MRAM 

65M Hard Drive 25ms 

$2,495.00 
386/33C-65 PRO 

Intel 80386-33, 32-bit 
4M RAM 64K Cache 
65M Hard Drive 25ms 

$2,795.00 

100% IBM Compatible 
Toll Free Tech Support 
One Year Warranty 
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386SX-65KEY 

Intel 80386SX,2M RAM 
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386/25-100 PRO 



Intel 80386-25, 32-bit 

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Circle 61 7 on Reader Service ( 
(RESELLERS: 618) 



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718 - 15th Avenue / East Moline / Illinois / 61244 / (309) 755-2662 



1 YEAR for $42rQ0! 

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EXPERT ADVICE 
COMPUTING AT CHAOS MANOR 



Jerry Pournelle 




Working Smart 



Diagnostic equipment, 
portable computers, 
and better ways of 
working on the road 



This month we had the oddest 
pair of computer failures I ever 
heard of. They're also instruc- 
tive. First, the Cheetah 486: 
Alex was working with QEMM-386 and 
Desqview, trying to get the largest pos- 
sible working memory space— what in 
CP/M days we called a transient pro- 
gram area— by packing mouse drivers, 
buffers, and other such stuff up i nto the 
area between 640K bytes and 1 mega- 
byte, what we're learning to call high 
memory; the more you can stuff up there, 
the larger the TPA you'll have. Alas, 
sometimes this can be tedious work. 

It's tedious because most video board 
manufacturers do not tell you what areas 
of high memory they are going to usurp, 
nor indeed how large their BIOS is. You 
can learn only by trial and error. In gen- 
eral, the faster the video board, the more 
likely it is to be a memory hog; and if it 
uses the Tseng Laboratories' chips and 
has five crystals on-board, it's likely to 
be not only very fast and very reliable, 
but also capricious in its memory wants. 

For example, the Micro Labs video 
board in the Cheetah 486 is extremely 
fast, has five crystals, uses Tseng chips, 
and is wonderful for those who want a 
high-end board for graphics or CAD; but 
it also grabs high-memory areas without 
warning, which can crash systems using 
QEMM-386, as I found out when the 
Railroad Tycoon game locked up tighter 
than a drum. 

The only remedy is to exclude the right 
memory areas from QEMM-386 in the 
CONFIG.SYS, reset, and see if the sys- 
tem crashes. If it does, do a hardware re- 
set, change the CONFIG.SYS, and do a 



software reset; test for crash; and so 
forth. Now, of course, you can just ex- 
clude vast areas of memory, but that de- 
feats the purpose of using QEMM-386. 
It's better to do the trial and error. 

Failure Modes 

Doi ng this makes you reset the machine 
often, which shouldn't be a problem; but 
suddenly the Cheetah 486 wouldn't come 
up. It reported a memory error on start- 
up; and it did that every time. Very con- 
sistent. 

I called Gene Sumrall of Cheetah. In- 
cidentally, Cheetah was recently bought 
by Northgate Computer Systems. They 
also hired key Cheetah people, including 
Gene and Ron Sartore. Northgate 's Art 
Lazare says he'll keep Cheetah intact as a 
high-end product line, which means that 
buyers will get Cheetah engineering 
backed by Northgate technical support 
and financial resources; that's going to 
be one formidable high-end system. 

Gene was understandably upset. My 
Cheetah 486 was an early production 
model, and it had been tested nine ways 
to Sunday before being sent to me. 

"Video board," Gene said. "When 
something like that happens, it's gener- 
ally the video board." 

"Right," I said, and got out my trusty 
Video Seven board, which, if not as fast 
as the Micro Labs board, is about as reli- 
able as they come. It took about 2 min- 
utes to put in the Video Seven board and 
turn on the machine. 

I got the same error reading. Call 
Gene again. 

The Cheetah 486 is built up with a 
motherboard capable of going up to some 
incredible speed and a board that carries 
the i486 chip and its associated glue 
chips. This lets you swap for a faster sys- 
tem when faster i486 chips become avail- 
able. Cheetah sent a new CPU board by 
Federal Express. I swapped. Same error. 

By now, Gene was ready to tear out his 
hair. "Can you take all the boards out," 
he said. 



That was no problem, although I kept 
wondering what the machine would do 
with no CPU. However, the Cheetah 
motherboard has a small LCD that tells 
precisely what is going on i n the boot-up 
process. We were hung at stage 26 (it 
should go to FF), and apparently that's 
well before the system ever gets to the 
i486 chip. I pulled all the boards. 

"Same error," I reported. "Stops at 
26." 

Long silence. "I'll call you back." 

The next step sounded a little weird. 
"Take the machine, take the boards out 
of it, turn it upside down, and beat on it," 
I was told. "Ron [Cheetah guru Ron Sar- 
tore] says there may be a little bit of metal 
shorting the address lines." 

Well, OK, I thought. I turned the ma- 
chine over and tapped it. Then I tried the 
vacuum cleaner, used canned air from 
the cleanup kit, and looked at every 
board slot with a strong light. I thought I 
found a bit of metal. Gloat. Turn on the 
machine. "Same problem." 

The next step was a new motherboard, 
and to be sure it was installed right, they 
sent in Larry Aldridge, the local Chee- 
tah distributor. Incidentally, Larry is 
also going to work for Northgate, as a di- 
rector of product development. He deliv- 
ered the motherboard. Installed it, and 
turned on the machine. 

Same error. 

"Power supply," Larry said. "Except 
that I never heard of this kind failing." 
He borrowed my voltmeter and fooled 
around a bit. "Something's pulling down 
the regulated voltage," he decided. But 
we couldn't figure what. It looked like 
there was nothing for it but to replace the 
power supply, too. Then Larry had an 
inspiration. 

"Keyboard." 

"Keyboard?" I shook my head. 
"OK." We disconnected the keyboard 
and got out another. Turn on the ma- 
chine. The LCD went past 26, on up. 
The hard disk clicked over. The machine 
booted fine. Clearly, some kind of short 



DECEMBER 1990 -BYTE 73 



CHAOS MANOR 



in the keyboard was pulling the power 
low, which made the machine believe it 
had a memory error. 

There was only one problem: that key- 
board is a Northgate OmniKey/Plus in 
the "Pournelle configuration," with the 
Backspace key next to the P, where God 
intended it to be. There aren't many of 
those in the world, and I sure hated the 
idea that one of mine (I have four) didn't 
work properly. 

Inspection showed that the keyboard is 
held together with six screws. I opened it 
up. Everything is modular, and nothing 
falls apart; no problem. As I removed the 
keyboard from the case, something fell 
out. A scrap of metal, I think; it vanished 
behind the cushion of the couch. Mean- 
while, other stuff fell out, nutshells, 
crumbs, bits of popcorn. I shook every- 
thing out, vacuumed it, and put it back 
together, said a quiet prayer, and plugged 
it back into the Cheetah. 

No problem. Everything works fine 
and has for a couple of weeks now. 

Meanwhile, we solved a second prob- 
lem: the old Zenith Z-248, one of the 
early 286 machines, still does service in 
education, but it recently began having 



i 



he major 

moral of the story 

is clear: if you have a 

problem, it could be 

anything. We knew that 

back in CP/Mdays. 



problems on boot-up. If it ever got past 
the boot problems it was all right, but as 
Bill Godbout says, "If the error rate is 
high enough to measure, it's too high." 

Zenith has built-in diagnostics in their 
ROM monitor, but running that all night 
didn't find anything. I didn't have time 
to do much more with the machine, so I 
sent it to the local Heath/Zenith store. 
Alas, they couldn't find anything wrong 
with it at all; but when I got it back here 
and put it on the bench, the same problem 



developed. Then, by accident, I moved 
the 110-volt power cord— and the ma- 
chine rebooted. 

Turns out there's something wrong in- 
side the power cord. You can't see any- 
thing wrong by inspection; and, natu- 
rally, we didn't send that power cord out 
to Heath/Zenith with the machine. Sigh. 

There are two morals to the story, one 
major and one minor. The minor one is, 
go clean your keyboards out. If you're 
not sure that you can get them back to- 
gether, it's probably best not to take them 
apart. But Northgate keyboards are no 
problem, and you can at least vacuum the 
others. I've also found that washing key- 
boards out with warm water (I just take 
mine into the shower) and drying with 
low heat from a hair dryer will fix sticky 
keys and generally spruce up their ap- 
pearance, as well as remove foreign ob- 
jects. 

The major moral of the story is clear: 
if you have a problem, it could be any- 
thing. We knew that back in CP/M days. 

Diagnostics 

All this got me looking at diagnostics. 
Alex and Barry Workman recommend 



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74 BYTE* DECEMBER 1990 




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Everything Y)u Ever V&nted In UNIX. 

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Everybody appreciates a good 
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76 BYTE- DECEMBER 1990 



two products: a software diagnostics 
package called Checklt, and a hardware 
card called Kick start. 

Checklt, from Touchstone Software, 
produces detailed reports, does exhaus- 
tive memory tests, and generally does 
about all a software diagnostics package 
can do. It's the kind of thing that you 
don't need often, but when you do need 
it, you need it bad. Of course, it can oper- 
ate only if the computer is working. 

Kick start I, from Landmark Research 
International, works on dead computers. 
Machines that use 286 and higher chips 
generate what are called power-on self 
test codes during the start-up process. 
Some of these may be interpreted and put 
up on the screen by the BIOS, but most 
are not, and anyway the machine may not 
get that far. The Kick start board displays 
the POST codes through LEDs on the 
board itself. You can then look in the sup- 
plied documents to see what they mean. 

Alas, not all clones use the standard 
POST codes. Landmark has documented 
all they could find, but with some clones, 
all you can do is look up the standards 
and guess. That will probably be helpful, 
but it's better if you are getting standard 
information. 

By the time you read this, there will be 
a Kickstart II, which will check that 
power is within 5 percent of standard 
(Kickstart I just looks to see that there is 
power) and will use an LCD rather than 
LEDs. Barry Workman says the current 
one is plenty good: he has to maintain 
systems for many clients and would hate 
to live without Kickstart. 

The company also makes diagnostic 
disks to test the alignment of floppy disk 
drives; if you get a lot of retry errors, you 
might give that a try. Of course, nowa- 
days the remedy for floppy disk drive 
problems is to use a head cleaning kit, 
and if that doesn't work, just replace the 
drive. They're cheap enough. 

Organizing Your Thoughts 

It was already plenty good, but Syman- 
tec has improved GrandView a lot. New 
features of version 2.0 include the ability 
to import and export Q&A Write files — 
that helps me a lot— and new screen orga- 
nization. One problem with an outline 
program is that as you indent farther and 
farther, you eventually get all the way 
over to the right, with no room for fur- 
ther work. GrandView has always had a 
hoist command, which fills the screen 
with what you're working on, but that's 
not always optimum either; sometimes 
you want to see some of the other sub- 
heads in relation to what you're entering 
now. Anyway, the new version solves 



that problem nicely. 

In fact, GrandView is good enough 
that I could use it to write this column. 
Most of the word processing commands 
work as you'd expect, and there's mouse 
support. Like Q&A Write, GrandView 
incorporates many of the old WordStar 
Control-key commands, meaning that 
touch-typists don't have to bother with 
cursor keys and PageDown and Control- 
cursor keys, and the other stuff that tries 
to get your fingers of f the home keys. 

I only installed GrandView 2.0 last 
week, but I find that I'm using it a lot 
more than I did the old one; mind you, I 
used the old version quite a bit. All my 
old outlines read right into the new ver- 
sion without problems. 

If you do much expository writing and 
you haven't tried an outline program, 
you may have the wrong idea about what 
they do. I certainly did: my previous ex- 
perience with outlines came from high 
school, when I was required to write and 
turn in an outline before I could write an 
essay. 

No doubt the exercise was good for my 
soul and helped me organize my thoughts 
in later years, but at the time I hated out- 
lines passionately; consequently, when 
outline programs first appeared, I dis- 
missed them with my most cynical sneer. 
I'd probably still be doing that if Jim 
Baen, my once and future editor and pub- 
lisher, hadn't persuaded me to give them 
a try. Jim was right: outline programs 
really are useful. 

You don't use them as my high school 
teachers demanded, as a kind of prelimi- 
nary draft when you already know what 
you're going to say. That may work for 
some people, but I find it's about as easy 
in that case simply to tear into the sub- 
ject, write everything I know, and, with 
the magic of word processors, edit the re- 
sulting mess into coherence. No: an out- 
line program comes into its own when 
you haven't the foggiest notion of what 
you're going to say. 

As an example, in addition to the re- 
port on the U.S.S.R. I did for BYTE, I'm 
working up a much longer version that I 
intend to integrate with another essay on 
the strategy of technology in this new 
age. That means I have to include first- 
hand impressions I got in Moscow, infor- 
mation I was given by people while I was 
there, reports from books and periodi- 
cals, and strategic stuff from my earlier 
works. The result is a haphazard jumble 
of thoughts in no discernible order. 

Item: pictures of young provincial con- 
scripts paying a ruble— 10 percent of 
their monthly salary— to have their pic- 
ture taken on Red Square in front of 




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CHAOS MANOR 



Lenin's tomb. These kids are proud and 
walk tall, and that has implications. 

Item: when we were in a working- 
class-district grocery store, we noted that 
there wasn't much for sale: plenty of po- 
tatoes and wheat flour and kasha, some 
butter, no vegetables at all. While we 
were there, two military trucks pulled 
up, and the officers bought several cases 
of milk and several gross of eggs, paying 
for the goods with loose cash from their 
pockets. The troops loaded the stuff onto 
the trucks and drove away. These weren't 
commissary officers: it was the company 
commander, a decorated airborne sol- 
dier of the Moscow garrison unit. An odd 
way to feed an elite military unit, and 
that too has implications. 

And so forth. The neat part about 
GrandView is that I can write about dis- 
connected items as I think of them. I can 
take my pile of photographs, leaf through 
them, and write whatever they remind 
me of; if during that process I remember 
something totally unconnected, it's no 
great trick at all to put that note in an ap- 
propriate place. Later, all this gets orga- 
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ful—and when it does, I'm more than 



i 



\fyou 

have to write anything 

at all complex and 

you haven 't tried 

GrandView, you're in 

for a pleasant surprise. 



halfway through the final essay. 

Outline programs aren't quite as use- 
ful for fiction, but I find I do use Grand- 
View for character notes. 

If you have to write anything at all 
complex and you haven't tried Grand- 
View, I think you're in for a pleasant sur- 
prise. Recommended. 

Organizing Your Life 

When you reach my age, you forget 
things. Actually, I suspect my memory 



never was as good as I like to think it 
was, but lately it's best described as 
wretched. The result is piles of little 
notes, scribbled on all sizes of paper. 
The important ones invariably get lost, 
and they surface only after it's just too 
late to call whomever I was supposed to 
call or do whatever job the note reminded 
me of. 

I have, to some extent, alleviated the 
problem by carrying a hardbound log- 
book and training myself to make most of 
my notes in that. I also use Scotch tape to 
glue into the logbook business cards, 
photos, and the scraps of paper that still 
turn up. In addition, I have computerized 
some permanent telephone, address, and 
memo files I add to from time to time; I 
print them and paste those pages in the 
front of each new logbook. The result is a 
fairly good chronological file of what 
I've done and who I've seen, as well as 
my telephone list. 

This system has its problems. One is 
that I go through two or three of those 
logbooks a year, and on trips I generally 
must carry at least the current book and 
its immediate predecessor; they weigh 
about as much as Sir Zed, the Sinclair 





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DECEMBER 1990 • B Y T E 79 



CHAOS MANOR 



Z88. Second, although I try to make a 
sort of combination index and table of 
contents of my logbooks, I don't get 
around to that very often, so I can spend 
quite a bit of time hunting for a business 
card if I can't remember exactly when I 
got it. 

Still in all, my system does work, be- 
cause it's built around the way I normally 
do things: it's free-form, doesn't make 
me design forms and stick to them, and 
has access by browsing; and despite all 



my computers and dozens of attempts to 
computerize my life, I find I always 
come back to my hardbound logbooks 
and Scotch tape. 

Still, hope springs eternal, and I keep 
hoping to find electronic ways that will 
take over at least part of the job; which 
brings us to Tornado. 

This isn't a new product. It was rec- 
ommended to me when it first came out, 
but that version didn't work with either 
SideKick or Desqview, so I didn't see 




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how it would do me any good. 

The latest version of Tornado works 
with both products, although there are a 
number of cautions about using it with 
SideKick (not to mention that if you have 
both Tornado and SideKick resident, 
you're going to have a pretty small TPA; 
no great matter, for I seldom use Side- 
Kick any longer, and then only in its own 
Desqview window). 

As for Desqview, Tornado will work 
either as a TSR program beneath some 
other program in a window or in a win- 
dow by itself. Micro Logic recommends 
the latter arrangement, and it seems rea- 
sonable to me. It's also possible to have 
multiple copies of Tornado running at the 
same time. 

Tornado is a character-based free- 
form memo database. Once it's in- 
stalled, you can make any text notes you 
please in any format you like. The result 
will be a number of little windows, each 
with some text in them. Their sizes will 
be appropriate to how much information 
you have put in them. The arrangement is 
controlled by you: think of the various 
note windows as a pile of scraps of paper 
of different sizes. If you pull a very large 
one out and put it on top, it will probably 
be the only one you see. On the other 
hand, if you put the big one on the bot- 
tom, you can lay out quite a few on top of 
it and then put more on top of them, until 
you have a jumble of notes, some visible 
and some partly so. 

One note will be on top, and that's the 
one you can write on. You can also create 
a note on a new scrap of paper and then 
leave it on top or bury it into the pile. 

Retrieval is simple enough. You can 
either browse through the notes or have 
the program search intelligently for 
some keyword or name. If it finds one, it 
will bring it to the lop; if it finds several, 
it will bring all of them up and give you 
the chance to do another search, or, al- 
ternatively, to search for all those with 
your first keyword but without some 
other keyword or phrase. 

You can also cause the program to date 
your notes from the system clock (it will 
insert the time, too, if you like). Alas, 
there's no setting to make it date notes 
"automagically"; you have to remember 
to press Escape-D when you edit the 
note. It will also add sequence numbers, 
although again not automatically. 

You can group your piles of notes, so 
that when you call up one of the group, 
you use the arrow keys to flip back and 
forth through the others (as if you'd 
paper-clipped a bunch of paper scraps to- 
gether). You can incorporate the contents 
of one note into another. There's a paste 



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Circle 231 on Reader Service Card (RESELLERS: 232) 




The price of our new 9600EX 
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Especially when you consider the 
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Features like V42bis, which compresses 
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Fact is, at $799, the 9600EX rivals the price 
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And that added performance saves you 
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Plus, like our entire family of 2400 modems, 
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Circle 350 on Reader Service Card (RESELLERS: 351) 



CHAOS MANOR 



feature that's useful if you use Tornado 
inside a word processor; with Desqview, 
you're better of fusing Desqview' s mark 
and transfer features. 

The broad features of Tornado are 
easy enough to learn; it took me about 
half an hour to go through the tutorial 
program and experiment until I was com- 
fortable with it. The text editor has the 
WordStar control commands, as well as 
the more obvious ones involving arrow 
keys; it's reasonably intuitive. There are 
a few surprises, but no real problems. 

The Tornado manual is adequate and 
generally well organized. Alas, there's a 
strong "Clear Only If Known" compo- 
nent to some of the instructions: for in- 
stance, they keep telling you that chang- 
ing the default window (notepaper) size 
is "easily accomplished," but they don't 
tell you how to do it, and it's not in either 
the index or the table of contents. It took 
no end of fooling around before I real- 
ized that you call up any window; press E 
for edit; Escape; use arrow keys to adjust 
the window size; press Fl to get "addi- 
tional menus" from within the edit 
menu; do not follow the instructions to 
press Escape-E, but instead merely press 



Q 



uite 



a few associates, both 

beginners and 

power users, swear by 

Tornado, and some find 

it indispensable. 



E; and then press Escape, and when it 
asks if you're sure (it doesn't say sure of 
what), tell it Yes. 

Even then, your windows will still col- 
lapse vertically if there's blank space at 
the end of them. This is, I suppose, to 
save space on-screen, but the result is 
that when you call up the window, there 
may be more text in it than you can see. It 
is easy enough to expand the note win- 
dow, but you have to do it. There are 
some other "features" that you can find 



only by poking about. 

Still, these are nits. Tornado isn't per- 
fect, but it's pretty good. If you 're look- 
ing for a way to keep your computer near 
the phone and make files of the stuff that 
now finds its way onto little scraps of 
paper, this program will do the job. Tor- 
nado has a big-brother program, Info 
Select, that works in a similar fashion 
but has increased capabilities and fea- 
tures. Quite a few associates and col- 
leagues, both beginners and power users, 
swear by Tornado, and some find it in- 
dispensable; in fact, the raves of several 
friends persuaded me to try it. 

So far, I like it fine. I'll let you know 
in a few months if I'm still using it. It's 
quite possible I will be. 

The Portable Problem 

The most obvious difficulty with using 
Tornado or any other software for orga- 
nizing your life is that you can't take it 
with you. If you don't travel much this is 
no problem, but, alas, many of us find 
we're on the road a great deal more than 
we like— and the need to make and ac- 
cess records and notes doesn't go away 
when we leave home. If anything it gets 



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a fraction of the time needed with other 
flowcharting or drawing programs. 

ABC Flowcharter's advanced link feature lets 
you break complicated procedures into smaller, 
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Ask your dealer for a demonstration or call 
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RDykore 

2215 Filbert St. 

San Francisco, CA 94123 

415-563-9175 



84 BYTE* DECEMBER 1990 



Circle 270 on Reader Service Card 



CSS/3 ™ Complete Statistical System with over 1 ,000 presenta- 
tion-quality graphs fully integrated with all procedures and on-screen 
graph customization ■ The largest selection of statistics in a single 
system; in-depth, comprehensive implementations of: Exploratory 
techniques; multi-way tables with banners; nonparametrics; dis- 
tribution fitting; multiple regression; general nonlinear estima- 
tion; logit/probit analysis; general ANCOVA/MANCOVA; stepwise 
discriminant analysis; log-linear analysis; factor analysis; cluster 
analysis; multidimensional scaling; canonical correlation; item 
analysis/reliability; suwival analysis; time series modeling; fore- 
casting; lags analysis; quality control; process analysis; experi- 
mental design (with Tagucbi); and much more ■ Manuals with 
comprehensive introductions to each procedure and examples ■ 
Integrated Stats Advisor expert system ■ Extensive data management 
facilities (powerful spreadsheet with formulas; relational merge; data 
verification; flexible programming language) ■ Optimized (plain 
English menus/mouse) user interface: even complex analyses require 
just few self-explanatory selections (CSS can be run without manual; 
Quick Start booklet explains all basic conventions) ■ Macros, batch/ 
commands also supported ■ All output displayed in Scrollsheets ™ 
(dynamic tables with pop-up windows and instant graphs) ■ 
Extremely large analysis designs (e.g., correlation matrices up to 
32,000x32,000) ■ Unlimited size of files; extended precision; 
unmatched speed (Assembler, C) ■ Exchanges data (and graphics) 
with many applications (incl. Excel®, Lotus 3®, dBASE IV®, SPSS®) ■ 
Highest resolution output on practically all printers (incl. HP, 
Postscript), plotters, recorders, typesetters ■ IBM compatibles, 640k 
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Quick CSS™ Subset of CSS/3: all basic statistical modules 
(incl. data management) and the full, presentation-quality graphics 
capabilities of CSS/3 ■ Price: $295. 

CSSlGRAPHICS™ A comprehensive graphics/chart- 
ing system with data management ■ All graphics capabilities of CSS/3 
and, in addition, extended on-screen drawing, 19 scalable fonts, 
special effects, icons, maps, multi-graphics management" Hundreds 
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of 3D graphs ■ Extensive selection of tools for graphical exploration 
of data; fitting; smoothing; spectral planes; overlaying; layered com- 
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Facilities to custom-design new graphs and add them permanently to 
menu ■ Import/export of graphs and data, 15 formats ■ Optimized 
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keystrokes: all graphs on this page can be produced from raw data in 
less than 20 minutes ■ Macros, batch/commands also supported ■ 
Unlimited size of files ■ Highest resolution output on all hardware 
(see CSS/3) ■ IBM compatibles, 640k or more ■ CS&GRAPHICS is 
included in CSS:SX\TISTICA (available separately for $495). 

Megafile Manager Comprehensive analytic data 
base management system ■ Unlimited size of files (up to 32,000 fields 
or 8 MB per record) ■ Megafile Manager is included in CSS/3 and 
CSS:STATISTICA (separately: $295). 

CSS:STATISTICA™ A fully integrated system that 
combines all the capabilities of CSS/3 and CSSiGRAPHICS into a single 
extremely comprehensive data analysis system ■ Price: $795. 

Domestic sh/h $7 per product; 1 4-day money back guarantee. 
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STATISTIC A/MaC™ A CSS-compatible, comprehensive data analysis 
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QlliCk CSS/MaC™ A subset of STATlSTlGVMac: ail basic statistical 
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CSS. CSS 3. CSS:GRAPHICS. Megafile Manager, Quick CSS, STATISTICA, StatSoft, dBase IV, Excel. Lotus. MacDraw. Macintosh. Postscript are trademarks of their respective companies; SPSS is a registered trademark of SPSS, Inc. 



CHAOS MANOR 



ITEMS DISCUSSED 1 


American Heritage 

Dictionary $89 


Info Select 


....$99.95 


MusicEase $295 


95 Tornado 


....$79.95 


Grandmaster, Inc. 


Houghton Mifflin Software 


Micro Logic Corp. 




P.O. Box 2567 


One Memorial Dr. 


P.O. Box 70 




Spokane, WA 99220 


Cambridge, MA 02142 


Hackensack, NJ07602 




(509) 747-6773 


(800) 633-4514 


(800) 342-5930 




Inquiry 1156. 


Inquiry 1149. 


(201)342-6518 








Inquiry 1153. 




TravelMate 2000 LT286 


Checklt $149 




with 20-MB hard disk drive . . . $3999 


Touchstone Software Corp. 


KickstartI 


$199 


Texas Instruments, Inc. 


909 Electric Ave. 


Kickstartll 


$599 


P.O. Box 2022230 


Seal Beach, CA 90740 


Landmark Research International 


Austin, TX 78720 


(800) 531-0450 


703 Grand Central St. 




(800) 527-3500 


(213) 598-7746 


Clearwater, FL 34616 




Inquiry 1157. 


Inquiry 1150. 


(800) 683-6696 








(813) 443-1331 




Zenith SupersPort SX 


Cheetah 486 


Inquiry 1154. 




with 40-MB hard disk drive . . . $5499 


(call for price) 






with 120-MB hard disk drive . . $6499 


Northgate Computer Systems 


LapLink 


...$149.95 


Zenith Data Systems 


7075 Flying Cloud Dr. 


Wizard Link for the Mac . . 


...$149.95 


1501 Feehanville Dr. 


Eden Prairie, MN 55344 


Traveling Software, Inc. 




Mt. Prospect, IL 60056 


(800) 548-1993 


18702 North Creek Pkwy. 




(800)553-0331 


Inquiry 1151. 


Bothell,WA 98011 




(708) 699-4800 




(800) 343-8080 




Inquiry 1158. 


GrandView2.0 $295 






Symantec Corp. 
10201 Torre Ave. 


Inquiry 1155. 


. 


ZQ-5200 $239.99 






Sharp Electronics Corp. 


Cupertino, CA 95014 






Sharp Plaza 


(800) 441-7234 






P.O. Box 650 


(408) 253-9600 






Mahwah, NJ 07430 


Inquiry 1152. 






(201) 529-8200 
Inquiry 1159. 



worse. That's when my hardbound log- 
book, carried with a roll of Scotch tape in 
a shoulder bag, comes into its own. 

Clearly, there are other methods. 
Some use the Day-Timer system, in which 
they make notes in a pocket-size diary 
for later hand transfer to a matching desk 
calendar/logbook. This works very well 
if you do it. But after investing consider- 
able money in Day-Timers, I found I'd 
get hopelessly behind in updating the 
desk copy, after which there wouldn't be 
any master schedule and I was thrown 
back on my memory. I gave it up. 

Others use an enormous book that ap- 
parently comes with a course on how to 
organize your life: everything goes into 
the book, and you don't have to transfer 
from it to anything else because you 
carry it all with you. I gather that those 
who've developed the proper habits like 
that system a lot; but I don't have the 
right habits, and I'm unlikely to acquire 
them, or for that matter to take the course 
that tells me how. 

For a while I was hoping I'd found the 
solution with gadgets: either the Sharp 
Wizard or the Casio Boss. Alas, neither 
really did the job. The Wizard was just a 



tad too large to slip into a pocket, but 
that's not fatal: people, including BYTE 
editor in chief Fred Langa, do manage to 
carry it. What was fatal for me was the 
ABCDE keyboard located off to the side 
of the screen. No matter how hard I tried, 
I simply could not write real notes with 
that keyboard. 

I worked at using that Wizard. I kept 
thinking one day something would click, 
and I'd really love it. Alas, it never hap- 
pened, and after a while the Wizard be- 
gan gathering dust. It's on a prominent 
shelf, so I can't forget to carry it on trips; 
but somehow I don't carry it, and when 
out of guilt I do take it, I've forgotten 
how to use it. I had much the same prob- 
lem, although for other reasons, with the 
Casio Boss. 

However: comes now the Sharp ZQ- 
5200; and while it's not all I'd like it to 
be, it does look to be good enough. 

The ZQ-5200 is in a clamshell case 
about the depth of a 3 !/2-inch floppy disk 
(twice that when opened, of course) and 
6 inches wide. The closed thickness is 
about that of a cigarette case. It has an 
LCD screen visible in any reasonable 
ambient light and a QWERTY keyboard 



below it. The whole thing is smaller and 
lighter and a heck of a lot easier to use 
than the old Wizard. 

The ZQ-5200 comes with Traveling 
Software's Do List and Expense pro- 
grams, which you could get as an add-on 
card with the Sharp Wizard. Other built- 
in functions are the calendar/schedule, 
world times, telephone directory, memo 
pad, and the like. The keys are grouped 
sensibly, with those directly controlling 
things up on the half with the screen, and 
text and calculator functions down on the 
keyboard half. There's no attempt at a 
numeric keypad: I use the numbers above 
the QWERTY keyboard. This isn't a 
problem for me, and I doubt it will be for 
anyone else. 

In general, the ZQ-5200 operates like 
the Wizard did, but the QWERTY key- 
board makes that a lot easier. Moreover, 
the Traveling Software link system that 
worked with Wizard works here: it's 
fairly easy to move data back and forth 
between the ZQ-5200 and your PC. 
Never having become a Wizard addict, I 
can't say for sure, but I'd bet that if you 
liked Wizard you'll love this. 

I certainly intend to carry the ZQ- 



86 BYTE* DECEMBER 1990 



DBMS Case Study 



Security for the Goodwill Games™* 




'he Problem 



■:;.;■ . 



The 1990 Goodwill Games: 
2500 athletes in 22 events at 
15 locations, drawing hundreds of thousands to watch 
them perform. A show-place for international good- 
will. A potential targetf or terrorists. A challenge for 
security agencies. 

With only 3,000 off-duty officers to fill 30,000 as- 
signments, there's no room for confusion in scheduling. 
And scheduling must respond to last minute changes, 
as event times slip, as dignitaries arrive on short notice, 
or as threats arise. Hand-scheduling can't meet the 
challenge. But the Games' Integrated Police Planning 
Group (IPPG) found that no automated system had 
ever been developed for securing such events. 

Automated Manpower 
On-line Scheduling 
(AMOS) matches personnel to scheduling require- 
ments, taking into account special training, language 
skills, and other factors. AMOS prepares an assign- 
ment sheet for each individual, explaining the 
assignment, when and where to report, how to get 
there - even where to park. 

AMOS responds to changes quickly. The database 
is large and complex, yet thanks to the innovative 




lication 



db_VISTAffl 

Database Management System 
Specifications 



I'M 



combined technology of the 
underlying db_VISTA 
database engine, search, 
match, and update times are 
negligible. Data integrity is 
assured by avoiding data 
redundancy. That means 
the information is reliable. 

The Solution 

AMOS was created by 

Raima's services subsidiary, 

Vista Development Corp., 

using the db_VISTA III 

DBMS. "We looked for 

months for a database that 

was fast, flexible, and could handle a huge volume of data 

while still maintaining speed," said Sgt. Alan Bernstein of the 

EPPG. "We also wanted to find a company that could not only 

furnish the product, but provide the development services." 

They discovered Raima and db_VISTA III. 

Your end users may not be fighting terrorists, but they still 
need fast, reliable information to get their jobs done. If you 
develop applications for MS-DOS, MS Windows, UNIX, 
QNX, OS/2, VMS, Macintosh, and other environments, 
db_VISTA III is the solution. 

Call 1-800-db-RAIMA (1-800-327-2462) 



Command center personnel can 
adjust schedules without delay or 
confusion, thanks to db_VISTA Ill's 
ability to handle large volumes of 
data with speed and accuracy. 



Circle 260 on Reader Service Card 



£ 



High performance. C language portability. 
I Complete C source code available, Mo royalties. 

Network data model. Relational B-trec indexing. Relational SQL query and report writer. 
Single & multi-user. Automatic recovery. Built-in referential integrity. Complete schema 
revision capability. Supports: VMS, UNIX, QNX, SunOS, XENIX, Macintosh, MS-DOS, 
MS Windows. OS/2 compatible. Most C Compilers and LANs supported. 

Raima Corporation 3245 146th Place S.E., Bellevue, WA 98007 USA (206)747-5570 Telex: 6503018237 MCI UW FAX: (206)747-1991 

International Distributors: Australia: 61 24197177 Austria: 4 30224 381861 Brazil: 55 II 829 1687 Central America: 5062 807 64 Denmark: 4 5 42 887249 France: 3 3 I 46092784 

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Copyright ©1990 Raima Corporation, All rights reserved. ' "Goodwill Games" is a trademark of the Turner Broadcasting Company. dh_ i.; registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. 



[XI RAIMA 

l^ll CORPORATION 



Circle 63 on Reader Service Card 



CHAOS MANOR 



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5200 and use it, and I expect to like it. 
However, I do have one request: I want 
Traveling Software to get together with 
Micro Logic and develop software that 
lets the ZQ-5200 transfer Tornado files 
simply and quickly. When that happens, 
I may actually get my life organized and 
keep it that way. 

TravelMate 2000, Part One 

We just got it, so I don't know how it 
will hold up; but Texas Instruments' Tra- 
velMate 2000 LT286 makes a terrific 
first impression. To begin with, it's 
light. The detachable battery gives it 
about 3 hours of life; without it, the inter- 
nal battery can run it for an hour. You 
must charge the internal battery without 
attaching the external, though. There's a 
20-MB hard disk drive and a bright back- 
lit screen. 

What there isn't is a floppy disk drive. 
You can buy an external 3 1 /2-inch floppy 
disk drive, or you can use the built-in 
Traveling Software LapLink system to 
connect to a desktop (or another laptop 
with floppy disks, which is what I've had 
to do). 

Zenith SupersPort SX 

We're in San Diego for the weekend, so I 
brought both the TravelMate 2000 and 
the Zenith SupersPort SX. I'm writing 
this on the SupersPort SX, because given 



the availability of both at your destina- 
tion, I think anyone would use it every 
time. Its screen is brighter, and the key- 
board is better. There's a built-in Sc- 
inch floppy disk drive, the 386SX chip 
with 2 MB of memory handles Desqview 
just fine, and the SupersPort SX is just 
an all-around better machine. Moreover, 
the battery lasts an honest 3 Vi hours, and 
you may get more. I find the SupersPort 
SX the closest thing yet to my home 
environment. 

What the SupersPort SX isn't is light. 
By the time you get it into a case— and 
it's heavy enough that you'll need a case 
with a shoulder strap— it's a good 17 
pounds, and if you put anything else in 
the case, such as the power converter, 
that's even more. For all its versatility, 
it's no heavier than its 286 predecessor— 
but it's no lighter, either. 

On the other hand, I carry it, because 
much as I curse it while walking 3 miles 
in the Dallas Airport— I'm sure they use 
a linear program to maximize the dis- 
tances you have to walk— as soon as I get 
to my destination, or for that matter to 
the Admiral's Club if there's much of a 
layover, I'm glad I have it. The Travel- 
Mate 2000' s screen is reasonably bright, 
but it's nothing compared to the Super- 
sPort SX's; that screen is not merely visi- 
ble, but easy to read in any lighting con- 
ditions I've ever encountered. 



In fact, the SupersPort SX would be 
good enough to be your only computer, a 
proposition I'm about to test: we have ac- 
quired part-time use of a beach house 
here in San Diego, a place I can go to get 
away from telephones and modems and 
UPS deliveries so I can write fiction. The 
SupersPort SX accepts an external moni- 
tor and keyboard, and next time we come 
down that's what I'm going to bring: 
either a Zenith Flat Technology Monitor 
or a Princeton Graphic Systems Ultra- 14 
high-resolution monitor (excellent: more 
on that one next month) and one of the 
"Pournelle configuration" keyboards. 
I'll leave monitor and keyboard here and 
carry the SupersPort SX back and forth. 

After all, I have good reason to know 
that Zenith laptops are rugged: you may 
recall that a porter dropped my previous 
one on the tarmac just before I boarded 
an airplane for Europe, and it not only 
survived despite a cracked case but per- 
formed flawlessly. Cracked case and all, 
that machine is still in use. The Super- 
sPort SX, meanwhile, has been carried 
through three western states, down here 
to the beach, out into the Mojave, up to 
Mars Hill (8000 feet) in Flagstaff, and 
over many a bumpy road; and it works 
just fine. 

The bottom line is that of all the lap- 
tops I've tried, I like this SupersPort SX 
the best, despite its weight; enough so 
that I put up with the weight. 

Meanwhile, Roberta has dibs on the 
TravelMate 2000, which weighs a bit 
more than her Toshiba T1000 but is im- 
mensely more powerful; and she isn't 
willing to carry a SupersPort. In a few 
months, I'll have a detailed report on 
how the TravelMate 2000 stands up to 
life at Chaos Manor. 

American Heritage Dictionary 

I'm about out of space, so this will have 
to be brief: it works fine. I've installed 
the American Heritage Dictionary pro- 
gram on the SupersPort SX, set up a 
512K-byte Desqview window for it, and 
opened the program. It's memory-resi- 
dent, invoked with Control-left shift plus 
a letter (e.g., D for dictionary or T for 
thesaurus), and it comes up instantly in 
its window. I then loaded Q&A Write in 
the same window and brought up AHED 
inside that. No problem. 

Unlike Word Finder, which can be 
specially configured to work with Q&A 
Write so that it looks up the word the cur- 
sor is on when you invoke Word Finder, 
AHED simply asks what word you want 
to work on; but when you tell it, AHED is 
fast and efficient. 

The definitions are right out of the 



88 BYTE* DECEMBER 1990 



Circle 64 on Reader Service Card 



CHAOS MANOR 



actual American Heritage Dictionary. 
Alas, there's little about word origins. 
However, the AHED program will look 
up anagrams or search with wild cards 
(if, for instance, you aren't sure how to 
spell the word); and it really is fast, 
much faster than you'd be able to look up 
the word in the printed volume. 

AHED comes with an adequate but 
not fancy word processing program, 
Writer; it's a very vanilla little thing with 
simple commands intended for people 
who bought the dictionary and didn't 
have any editor; a lot better than nothing, 
but under those circumstances, I'd rec- 
ommend getting PC-Write and paying 
the shareware fee. 

AHED has a Search feature: tell it 
"fire AND burn" and it will, quickly, 
find and list all words whose definitions 
contain both those words. It doesn't take 
long for a writer to think of a lot of uses 
for that. 

I have a few minor quibbles on inter- 
face, and I do wish they'd left in the full 
etymologies instead of cutting them to 
the bone, but otherwise AHED is the 
American Heritage Dictionary on-line in 
all its glory, and it works just fine. If you 
want a dictionary program, this is as 
good as any I've seen. Recommended. 

MusicEase 

I'm no music expert, but I know that 
printing and publishing music is slow and 
expensive. I recall one friend who com- 
posed for films; he had to hand-draw his 
scores using the Ozalid process. A good 
music program would have been a god- 
send. 

Grandmaster's MusicEase lets you 
enter notes from the keyboard, or, if you 
have a MIDI, you can play notes that it 
will record. The samples I have seen, 
and a couple I have produced, are sure in 
the same league as hand-engraved. 

Writing the program took Gary Rader, 
the program's music professor author, 
quite a while, since it involves scanning 
in dozens of symbols for the weird and 
wonderful notations musicians need. 
The program works, and it produces 
acceptable drafts; the laser printer output 
looks as good as the stuff in my wife's 
opera books. I claim no musical exper- 
tise, so all I can say is that it looks great; 
meanwhile, here's my condensation of 
the description Professor Rader gives of 
the capabilities: 

An unlimited number of connected 
staves; one or two voices per staff; un- 
limited number of notes (of unlimited 
range) per chord; dotted and doubly dot- 
ted notes/rests; treble, bass, alto, and 
tenor clefs; slanted beams; tied slurs; 







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phrase marks; cue notes; grace notes; ac- 
cidental signs; alternating stems; brack- 
ets and braces; and a partridge in a pear 
tree. 

It looks to me as if this program goes a 
long way toward doing for music com- 
posers what word processors did for 
writers. 

Winding Down 

There's so much to write about that I 
can't possibly get to it all, but first things 
first: John Eklund, curator of the History 
of Computers and Information Technol- 
ogy exhibit at the Smithsonian, just sent 
me a picture of Zeke II, my old friend 
who happens to be a CompuPro Z80, on 
display in their newest wing. Zeke looks 
happy enough, but I expect he gets lone- 
some. If you haven't been to the Smithso- 
nian lately, get over and say hello. I'm 
trying to get to Washington for a confer- 
ence on diamond film technology next 
month, and Til certainly drop by. 

I wanted to write a mini essay on why 
you should never buy a dedicated word 
processor because you get so much more 
bang for the buck from a computer: as for 
example the Gold Star XT clone, which 
sells for less than any dedicated word 
processor I know of, and yet is just as fast 
and a great deal more versatile. Better 
yet, get a good 386SX and you can have 
Desqview too. 



We're still working with the new DR 
DOS; they've about solved the problems 
of incompatibility with LANtastic. More 
on that when I learn more. 

The new Desqview and QEMM-386 
work fine with Windows 3.0; more on 
that next month. 

The book of the month is Arab and 
Jew: Wounded Spirits in a Promised Land 
by David Shipler (Penguin, 1987); really 
excellent. The CD-ROM of the month is 
Ludwig van Beethoven's Symphony 
Number 9, for the Macintosh, from The 
Voyager Company, 1351 Pacific Coast 
Hwy., Santa Monica, CA 90401; mag- 
nificently done. 

The game of the month is still Micro- 
prose's Railroad Tycoon; every time I 
think I've had enough, I find myself 
playing it again. ■ 

Jerry Pournelle holds a doctorate in psy- 
chology and is a science fiction writer 
who also earns a comfortable living writ- 
ing about computers present and future. 
Jerry welcomes readers* comments and 
opinions. Send a self-addressed, stamped 
envelope to Jerry Pournelle, do BYTE, 
One Phoenix Mill Lane, Peterborough, 
NH 03458. Please put your address on 
the letter as well as on the envelope. Due 
to the high volume of letters, Jerry cannot 
guarantee a personal reply. You can also 
contact him on BIX as "jerryp. " 



DECEMBER 1990 -BYTE 89 



you expect 



Printers, Computers, Peripherals, 
Copiers, typewriters and Facsimiles 

Panasonic, 

Office Automation/^Vj 



When you want corporate- size 
features in a desk to p packa ge. 

Speed, fonts, flexibility. Everything you 
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25 symbol sets (including legal), plus 
512K of memory, expandable to a full 
4.5MB. The 4420 personal laser printer. 
Corporate -size features. Personal price. 



The Panasonic 
Personal Laser. 




When you have several peo ple in 
your department , you need a 
printer that can handle them all. ■ 

Lots of speed, lots of capacity, lots of 
emulations. The KX-P4450i is meant for 
the whole department. It has dual -bin, 
high- capacity paper cassettes. And does 
a full 11 pages per minute even if every 
page is different. Each page will be crisp 
and clear, no matter which of the 28 
internal fonts you're using. And the 4450i 
emulates LaserJet Series II, as well as 
popular dot matrix and daisy wheel 
printers* This is one laser everyone will 
be happy to share. 



What makes the company look 
g ood makes you look g ood 

When appearance is all, choose the 
KX-P4455 with Adobe PostScript. With it, 
you can dramatically enhance every 
document with multiple fonts, varied type 
sizes, even images rotated and scaled to 
fit. At 11 pages per minute, and with 
superb print quality. The features you 
want most are standard. From 39 Adobe 
fonts, to dual-bin, high -capacity paper 
cassettes. Plus a wealth of optional 
typefaces. And its interfaces work beauti- 
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environments* With the 4455, you don't 
just print your documents, you publish 
them. 



The Panasonic 
Shared Laser. 




The Panasonic 
PostScript'Laser. 




FOR FURTHER INFORMATION, SEE THE PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS ON THE NEXT PAGE, OR CALL TOLL-FREE 1-800-742-8086. 



people A) business. 



TheKX-P4455 
Panasonic PostScript Laser. 

Printin g S peed- 11 pages per minute* * 

Compatibilit y: Adobe PostScript, HP LaserJet 

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Fonts: 39 Adobe Fonts* 

Pa per Handlin g: Two 250- Sheet Cassettes. 

Resolution: 300 Dots Per Inch. 

RAM: 2MB Standard, expandable to 4MB. 

Interfaces: RS- 232C/422A Serial, Centronics 

Parallel and Appletalk* 




TheKX-P4420 
Panasonic Personal Laser. 

Printin g S peed: 8 pages per minute* * 

Compatibilit y: HP LaserJet Series II 

emulation* 

Fonts: 22 Internal Fonts-11 available 

in both portrait and landscape. Two 

slots for optional font cards. 

Pa per Handlin g: 250-Sheet Cassette 

with Manual Feed. Face -up and 

face -down output. 

Resolution: 300 Dots Per Inch. 

RAM: 512K Standard, expandable 

to 4.5MB. 

Interfaces: Centronics Parallel; 

Optional RS-232C Serial. 




TheKX-P4450i 
Panasonic Shared Laser. 

Printin g S peed: 11 pages per minute* 
Compatibilit y: HP LaserJet Series II, 
Panasonic, Epson, IBM and Diablo 
emulations* 

Fonts: 28 Internal Fonts-14 available 
in both portrait and landscape. Two 
slots for optional font cards, 
Pa per Handlin g: Two 250-Sheet 
Cassettes with Manual Feed. 
Resolution: 300 Dots Per Inch- 
RAM: 512K Standard, expandable 
to 4.5MB. 

Interfaces: Centronics Parallel and 
RS-232C Serial. 




Printers, Computers. Peripherals. 
Copiers, typewriters and Facsimiles 

Panasonic 

Office Automation/^'^'^l 



* HP and LaserJet Series II, Epson, IBM, Diablo, Adobe and PostScript, MS-DOS, UNIX and Appletalk are registered trademarks or trademarks of Hewlett-Packard Co., Seiko Epson Corp., 
International Business Machines Inc., Xerox Corp., Adobe Systems Inc., Microsoft Corp., AT&T, and Apple Computer Inc., respectively. " * Letter size, text mode, 5.5% image area, all originals. 

[Specifications are subject to change witnout notice. ] 

LPF-BY circle 225 on Reader Service Card 



EXPERT ADVICE 
DOWN TO BUSINESS 



Wayne Rash Jr. 



♦ 



Getting Bigger 
Groupware 



High-end companies 
make groupware 
solutions into a fine art. 
But at what price? 



Last month I looked at group pro- 
ductivity and the newer group- 
ware vendors, as well as a way 
to create your own groupware 
solution. This month, I'll look at pack- 
ages from vendors that created the field 
of groupware. One of these firms, Wang, 
has made groupware into a fine art. 

In April 1989, I discussed earlier in- 
carnations of WordPerfect Office and 
Higgins. Both packages have been up- 
dated since then. I'm mentioning Wang's 
solution to group productivity for the 
first time, but it's a direction you may 
find worth investigating. 

Group productivity is a major reason 
that businesses use LANs. For routine 
uses, such as word processing, stand- 
alone computers work fine. But when 
several people have to work together, you 
need to find ways to support the interac- 
tion of the group as a whole. Where once 
you were satisfied when a document was 
generated, now you find that an entire 
workgroup must have access to it. This 
group access and the interaction that goes 
with it is one reason for the growth in 
group productivity software. 

The primary activity in a workgroup is 
communication. When several people 
are assigned to a task, they are expected 
to communicate with each other so that it 
will be a communal effort. If a work- 
group is set up so that the members are in 
close physical proximity, then communi- 
cation can be accomplished by talking. 
When they are physically separated, they 
need other means of communicating, 
such as E-mail. Useful groupware sup- 
ports this natural communication, while 

ILLUSTRATION: DAN REED © 1990 




enhancing it with such functions as file 
transfer and automated scheduling. 

In the Beginning and Now 

WordPerfect Office and Higgins helped 
start the trend toward groupware. Al- 
though initially they were rather limited 
in functionality, they did support excel- 
lent E-mail services, and their schedul- 
ing packages automated what was other- 
wise a tiresome process. Unfortunately, 
at that time, neither was a total solution. 

WordPerfect Office chained you to a 
single file server and wouldn't let you at- 
tach binary files to its E-mail. Higgins 
had the same single server limit, and it 
didn't let you incorporate specific exter- 
nal software into the menu system. Both 
packages have now been updated and are 
as full of features as groupware could be. 

Then there's Wang, a company long 
known for being ubiquitous in office 
automation. Wang looked at group pro- 
ductivity with a fresh slate. It analyzed 



the work people did and how they did it; 
it also looked at ways to get those people 
usually left out of the group productivity 
solution, such as managers, into the auto- 
mated group. Looking at the results of 
their studies, Wang engineers decided a 
couple of important things: 

• Managers can't type. 

• Managers are used to dealing with 
paper forms. 

Knowing how to type is usually neces- 
sary for successful computer use. But 
managers are used to pencils. So Wang 
invented a way to let people use a pencil 
to run their computers, at least with 
Wang Office and Wang Freestyle appli- 
cations. You're still on your own with 
third-party applications, though; if you 
go the pencil route, you can't take advan- 
tage of non- Wang-compatible software. 

Wang Office and Wang Freestyle are 
complementary office automation appli- 

DECEMBER 1990 -BYTE 93 



Circle 54 on Reader Service Card (RESELLERS: 55) 



CD-ROM 



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Guaranteed 
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U.S. History on CD-ROM 

107 UJS. History books with 1,000 
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U.S. Hstory on CD-ROM dsc $395 

Complete dive kit bunded with U.S. Htetory 895 

6 Disc CD-ROM Jukebox 

Pioneer DRM-600 Minichanger 

lectvioJogy, holds 6 CCMKJMcfscs fork tst ant access I477 

Buy the Minichanger, and SAVE $$$ 
on these best selling CD-ROM titles 

MS Bookshelf alttrie best seiing title $229 $149 

GfofefsEncydopedto2ivo(Lmes.vGApics $345 $299 

MS Ptogramrner's Library 2O0B pages $369 $289 

BlrdfeafAmefX^rduciespictuescrtdsoLncfc $99 $79 

Between Heaven &HeH II even stranger $99 $79 

U.S. History on CD-ROM 100 books, ljooo pics $395 $349 

CD-ROM Drives (ready to run) 

Hitachi Drives- aflmoaete, PC and Mac seal 

NEC CDR-72 or 82 CD-ROM Drive ext.nt.PC& Mac Col 
NEC CDR-35 CD-ROM Driveexternd.smatest. Bghtest $499 
Sun Moon Star CD-ROM Drive Bundte wttn 7 decs Cai 
PhipsCM221 CD-ROM Drive wfackingcfcc cartridge $649 
800 MEGABYTE WORM tessthan $0.18 perMB! 3^95 

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Erasable Optical Drives Cai 

Aba Oenon, CWnon, & Sony drives, Best Price -Cafl! 

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Clforaryor Ada or Shareware wab Bag 89 

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Medical Year Book on Disc til text of 1988 Year Books $125 
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Sherlock Holmes or Shakespeare on Disc 'compfear 99 

CIA World Foot Book perfect for htemoltond "business- 99 

Microsoft Stat Pack or Smdl Business Consultant 120 

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94 BYTE* DECEMBER 1990 



ITEMS 


DISCUSSED | 


Freestyle system $995 


Higgins 


(includes tablet and interface, 


eight users $695 


stylus and cables, tablet software, 


four-user expansion $349 


video software, voice option 


12-user expansion $995 


software, and local printer 


20-user expansion $ 1 495 


software for one workstation) 


Enable Software, Higgins Group 


Freestyle Fax Option $595 


1 150 Marina Village Pkwy. , 


Freestyle/LAN Office Interface 


Suite 101 


software $100 per workstation 


Alameda, CA 94501 


Freestyle/Light software $249 


(415) 865-9805 


Freestyle Scanner 


Inquiry 1222. 


software $200 




Freestyle Voice Option $795 


WordPerfect Office LAN 3.0 


(includes handset and board) 


five users $495 


LAN Office server software.. $795 


20 users $1595 


Wang SC300 Scanner $1400 


Office Connection Server $695 


Wang Laboratories, Inc. 


MHS Gateway $695 


1 Industrial Ave. 


WordPerfect Corp. 


Lowell, MA 01851 


1555 North Technology Way 


(508) 459-5000 


Orem, UT 84057 


Inquiry 1221. 


(801) 222-4455 




Inquiry 1223. 



cations that allow nearly all office work, 
from voice mail to routing, to be done on 
the computer. They support digital im- 
aging, so you can scan in your favorite 
forms and process them electronically. 
They also support digitized voice, so you 
can make comments while you write. 
They handle voice input in real time, so 
recipients of your message can hear you 
explain what's going on and see your an- 
notations appear on the screen as if you 
were writing them right then. 

Use Tools You're Familiar With 

Unlike the other groupware packages, 
the Wang solution includes hardware as 
well as software. Freestyle requires the 
use of the attached electronic pencil and 
tablet, and you can add a scanner, a fax 
server, and a telephone. A version of 
Freestyle, called Freestyle/Light, does 
not require specialized hardware. Wang 
Office provides the more traditional 
groupware functions, such as E-mail, 
but it also supports Freestyle. 

Let's say, for example, that I send 
BYTE editor Ken Sheldon my Comdex 
travel expense voucher over the BYTE 
LAN, so that he can approve it and I can 
get paid for my services. Ken would re- 
ceive the digitized image of my com- 
pleted and signed voucher in his E-mail. 
When he looked at the image and noted 
the expenses I'd recorded, he could also 
hear my voice over a Wang telephone at- 
tached to the computer, giving all the 
reasons why I might have exceeded the 
per diem. Ken could then sign his ap- 



proval on the voucher using the electron- 
ic pencil attached to the tablet. His signa- 
ture would show up on the screen and 
would be added to the digitized image. 

Once the voucher was signed, Ken 
could forward it to the proper department 
for payment, or somewhere else for fur- 
ther action. With Wang Office, you can 
also use an electronic pencil and tablet to 
make menu selections. Thus, if he chose 
to, Ken could complete the whole trans- 
action using those tools rather than hav- 
ing to type anything. Of course, the peo- 
ple on both ends must use the Wang 
system. As you might imagine, this pro- 
cess isn't simple to implement. 

An Alternative GUI 

While other groupware packages are 
built around menus, Wang uses a graphi- 
cal desktop metaphor. Documents are 
placed in file folders where they stay on 
your virtual desktop in the same types of 
piles that you have on your real desktop. 
If you're using groupware, though, this 
may be the only graphical user interface 
you have. 

I was not able to get WordPerfect 
Office to work with Microsoft Windows. 
Higgins is supposed to work with Win- 
dows and Desqview, but I haven't yet 
proven this for myself. 

Commitment 

To be an effective productivity solution, 
Wang Freestyle and Wang Office require 
an organizational commitment. While 
you don't have to buy every part of the 



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PC WEEK 



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include <stdio.h> 
#define NAMLEN 15 
^define NUMMARK 4 
struct person 



char name[NAMLEN] 
int mark[NUMMARK] 



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Of course, you have to make an orga- 
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Office and Higgins, too. Both packages 
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they are software, they can be run from 
any IBM PC-compatible computer. Hig- 
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WordPerfect offers individual licenses. 
You'll need to license every user you plan 
to have using these packages. If you only 
automate part of the group, the rest will 
be hard pressed to work. 

WordPerfect Office continues to be 
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Higgins is greatly improved over its 



earlier version. The menu structure is 
more carefully thought out, and its user 
interface is much improved. Unfortu- 
nately, I couldn't get the software to 
work with NetWare 386, and the docu- 
mentation was so weak that I couldn't 
figure out why. However, I was able to 
install it on an earlier version. 

WordPerfect Office's installation 
does not work flawlessly with NetWare 
386. You have to enter the user names 
manually because of differences be- 
tween versions 2.15 and 3.0. At least 
there is an alternative method, however, 
to perform the installation. 

Finding Groupware 

There's no question that a well-designed 
groupware package can enhance the pro- 
ductivity of your business. If you can get 
people to use the package, they will find 
that it makes their communications eas- 
ier and faster. And if your personnel are 
physically separated from each other, the 
benefits of groupware are even greater. 

Because all three of these packages 
can communicate over long distances 
using wide-area networks, fax gateways, 
or public E-mail networks, you can form 



workgroups in places where not too long 
ago you couldn't. This kind of software 
really does let groups work better togeth- 
er. Since it prevents the familiar time 
killers of telephone tag and synchroniz- 
ing meeting schedules, groupware can 
make the work more productive as well. 
While Wang has given u s a total solu- 
tion to group productivity, not all compa- 
nies need something so comprehensive. 
Some can work just as well with a nice E- 
mail package that provides a way to set 
up meetings and share information. All 
three of these packages offer those capa- 
bilities. ■ 

Wayne Rash Jr. is a contributing editor 
for BYTE and technical director of the 
Network Integration Group of American 
Management Systems, Inc. (Arlington, 
VA). He consults with the federal govern- 
ment on microcomputers and communi- 
cations. You can contact him on BIX as 
"waynerash, " or in the to.wayne con- 
ference. 

Your questions and comments are wel- 
come. Write to: Editor, BYTE, One 
Phoenix Mill Lane, Peterborough, NH 
03458. 



You not the l ook. 



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96 BYTE* DECEMBER 1990 



Circle 126 on Reader Service Card 



Ate everything 

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Circle 21 on Reader Service Card 



EXPERT ADVICE 

BEYOND DOS: WINDOWS AND OS/2 



Martin Heller 



I've Got DIBs 



Device-independent 
bit maps and 
palette management 
make the PC a 
serious color platform 



Time was, you could count the 
number of display options for 
the PC on the fingers of one 
hand, without letting go of your 
teacup. Now, a PC can be equipped with 
any of hundreds of displays, from porta- 
ble low-resolution gray-scale LCDs to 
colossal high-resolution 24-bit color 
monitors. 

Now consider its documentation's 
view of the Windows bit map: "a matrix 
of memory bits that, when copied to a de- 
vice, defines the color and pattern of a 
corresponding matrix of pixels on the de- 
vice's display surface." In other words, 
it's a memory image compatible with a 
specific display. The Windows 3.0 docu- 
mentation dryly says: "Each device has 
its own unique color format. In order to 
transfer a bit map from one device to an- 
other, use GetDIBits and SetDIBits." 

DIBs: Device-Independent Bit Maps 

The DI in GetDIBits stands for device- 
independent. Instead of mimicking the 
planar structure of a given display, the 
DIB format contains a Bitmapinfo data 
structure that describes the bit map, plus 
the actual array of bytes that defines the 
pixels of the bit map. All well and good, 
but that is not the end of the story. 

DIBs first surfaced in OS/2 1 . 1 as the 
Graphics Programming Interface bit 
map. The designers of Presentation Man- 
ager understood the problems of the 
Windows 2.0 bit map and wanted to 
avoid them. The OS/2 1.1 Bitmapinfo 
structure specifies the width and height 
of the bit map in pels (i.e., picture ele- 




ments—called pixels in the Windows 
documentation and pels in the OS/2 doc- 
umentation), the number of bit planes, 
and the number of bits per pel within a 
plane. It can also contain a color table to 
accommodate devices like the VGA that 
can display a certain number of colors 
from a larger palette— in the case of 
VGA, 256 colors out of 256,000. 

The OS/2 1 . 1 Bitmapinfo structure is 
fine as far as it goes, but it doesn't go far 
enough. Bit maps can be very large: A 
256-color bit map at 640 by 480 pels is 
about 300K bytes. That number is inde- 
pendent of the image. Without compres- 
sion, even an all-black bit map will be 
that big. 

The Windows 3.0 Bitmapinfo struc- 
ture, which carries over into OS/2 2.0 as 
the Bitmapinfo2 structure, allows for 
run-length-encoded images with 4 or 8 
bits per pixel. While not as effective as 
the Ziv-Lempel compression that Graph- 
ics Interchange Format (GIF) images 



use, RLE compression will reduce large 
areas of a single color to a few bytes. 

The new structure also specifies the 
resolution for which the DIB was cre- 
ated, the number of color indexes actu- 
ally used by the bit map, and the number 
of colors considered important for dis- 
playing the bit map. Windows 3.0 allows 
images with 1, 4, 8, or 24 bits per pixel 
and restricts the number of planes to 1. 

OS/2 2 . adds some extra fields to the 
DIB format. These govern, among other 
things, recording order (i.e., direction of 
scan when a bit map paints), color encod- 
ing, and halftoning. Windows 3.0 does 
not use these fields. Even OS/2 2.0 does 
not use them all yet. Although it does 
support halftoning, it has only one option 
for recording order (bottom-to-top) and 
one for color encoding (RGB structures). 

Getting DIBs 

Assuming you have installed Windows 
3.0, you can find a small collection of 



ILLUSTRATION: NURIT BOCHNER© 1990 



DECEMBER 1990 -BYTE 101 



BEYOND DOS 



DIB images in your Windows directory. 
They have the .BMP extension and serve 
as wallpaper for the Windows desktop. 
You can find more DIB images on BIX in 
the microsoft conference, generally in 
ZIP files. You can also convert GIF 
images to OS/2 1 . 1 bit maps (which are 
also readable from Windows) using Gra- 
ham Welland's GIF2BMP, which you 
can download from the "ibm.os2 list- 
ings" area on BIX. 
Don't panic if you don't have OS/2: 



GIF2BMP is supplied as a bound execut- 
able file that will run on DOS 3.3 and 
higher and on any version of OS/2. Many 
GIF images are in the "photo listings" 
area on BIX, as well as the "ibm.os2" 
area and the microsoft conference; you 
can find thousands of GIF images in 
CompuServe's PICS forum areas, al- 
though downloading them can be costly. 
If you have access to clip art in PCX 
format, you can convert it to BMP format 
using PC Paintbrush for Windows 3.0. 



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To convert other formats (e.g., IFF, 
TIFF, and TARGA), you may have to re- 
sort to a utility program, such as HiJaak 
or TGL+. If you are converting TIFF 
files, be aware that there are several 
levels and types of TIFF format, and that 
not every TIFF reader supports every va- 
riety of file. For instance, HiJaak is un- 
able to read level 5 color TIFF files. 

Palette Management 

I mentioned palettes briefly when I was 
describing the Bitmapinfo structure, but 
I didn't go into all the implications of 
supporting a selectable palette. For start- 
ers, I'll consider a 256-color VGA dis- 
play, such as a Video Seven video RAM 
card with 5 12K bytes of memory. 

Windows 2.x and OS/2 1.x load such a 
display with a default palette. To paint a 
bit map without palette management, you 
have a choice of getting best-match solid 
colors or best-match dithered colors. The 
solid-color image will look posterized 
because of the false colors and loss of 
shading, and the dithered image will 
look very grainy. Such restrictions are 
quite obvious in Windows 2.x and OS/2 
1.x GIF viewers and in other programs 
that try to display 256-color images. 

Under Windows 3.0 and OS/2 2.0, 
programs can control the palette using 
the system's palette manager. The sys- 
tem reserves 20 colors for its own use so 
that menus and icons will always be visi- 
ble; on a 256-color display, the remain- 
ing 236 colors are available. If you have 
the Windows 3.0 Software Development 
Kit (SDK), you can see the palette change 
if you run the SHOWDIB and MYPAL 
sample programs and display some 256- 
color images; otherwise, you can display 
images with Windows PBRUSH. 

Suppose two windows want different 
palettes. The palette manager gives pri- 
ority to the active (foreground) window; 
background windows can take the leav- 
ings. You can see this happen by putting 
up two images with different palettes and 
bringing them to the front alternately. 
You'll see the active image snap into its 
correct colors, the background image be- 
come posterized as the palette changes, 
and the background image adjust itself to 
the new palette as well as possible. 

On a 24-bit "true-color" display, the 
palette manager does very little. And on 
a 4-bit (16-color) display, there aren't 
any colors left over from the system pal- 
ette. Applications have to be aware of 
what sort of display they're running on 
and what sort of DIB they're displaying 
to do the right thing— but it isn't all that 
complicated if you start from the SDK 
examples. 

continued 



102 BYTE* DECEMBER 1990 Circle 292 on Reader Service Card (RESELLERS: 293) 



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Circle 193 on Reader Service Card (RESELLERS: 194) 



BEYOND DOS 



Getting Up to Speed 

I recently added DIB display and print- 
ing to EnPlot and Room Planner, two 
Windows 3.0 applications I've written. 
(EnPlot is a data-visualization and data- 
analysis program for scientists and engi- 
neers; Room Planner is a room-layout 
package for the hospitality industry.) To 
do that, I copied the SDK examples, 
modified the code somewhat to preserve 
my applications' mapping and back- 
ground modes, and wrote a few "glue 
routines." It took me about two days to 
add DIB support to Room Planner, and 
another day to add it to EnPlot. 

A big issue I had to address was what 
size the bit map should be on the screen. 
The natural size of a bit map is its dimen- 
sion in pixels. But I wanted my applica- 
tions to be WYSIWYG, and the resolu- 
tion of a laser printer is about four times 
the resolution of a screen, so that a bit- 
map image that is full-screen covers 
about l /i 6 -page when it is printed. 

Rather than explicitly scale the image 
to each resolution, I took advantage of 
Windows mapping modes. Room Plan- 
ner uses MM.ISOTROPIC mode, with 
the window extent set big enough to show 



the room dimensions in units of tenths of 
a foot; with this system, a bit map that is 
100 by 200 pixels will be drawn the same 
size as a platform that measures 10 by 20 
feet, no matter what the device resolu- 
tion. 

There are about half a dozen ways of 
getting the device-independent bit map 
from disk to screen. I chose to read in the 
file (being careful of the 64K-byte limit 
on far pointers), keep it in memory in 
DIB format, create a palette for it, and 
then send it to the screen or printer with 
StretchDIBits, since this is the only 
Graphics Device Interface function that 
correctly converts colors (i.e., to shades 
of gray) and scales the bit map as needed. 

W hen drawing to the screen, I set the 
background mode to transparent, select 
and realize the palette, call StretchDI- 
Bits, and then restore the old palette and 
background mode. When drawing to the 
printer, I skip the palette manager calls. 
After I've drawn the bit map, I release its 
memory. 

If I were drawing the same bit map 
over and over, I would probably convert 
the DIB to a screen-compatible memory 
bit map of the correct size once with Set- 



DIBits, and then I would BitBlt the con- 
verted bit map to the screen as needed, 
avoiding multiple conversions and gain- 
ing a little speed. As it is, my application 
may be drawing multiple bit maps that 
could not all reside in memory simulta- 
neously, so the StretchDIBits method 
is as good as anything. 

What Does It All Mean? 

Now that Windows 3.0 (and OS/2 2.0) 
support device-independent bit maps and 
palette management, the PC is ready to 
become a serious color platform. 

Not everyone can afford a 24-bit color 
display, but an 8-bit Super VGA with pal- 
ette management behind it can do a more 
than acceptable job of image display. 
Color separation, animation, and image- 
processing software aren't far behind. ■ 

Martin Heller develops software and 
writes about technical computer applica- 
tions. He holds a Ph. D. in physics. He 
can be reached on BIX as "mheller. " 

Your questions and comments are wel- 
come. Write to: Editor, BYTE, One 
Phoenix Mill Lane, Peterborough, NH 
03458. 



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EXPERT ADVICE 
MACINATIONS ■ Don Crabb 



♦ 



Inspiration at 
the Year's End 



The Mac markets 
changed during 1990, 
and new markets 
are developing 



How time flies. The first year of 
the new decade whipped by as 
fast as a screen update on a 
Mac Ilf x. It's time to evaluate 
what's happened to the computing com- 
munity, including the Mac's position 
within it. In the IBM-compatible world, 
the Rest of Them have been cranking out 
486 systems at higher clock speeds, and 
Windows 3.0 is a major improvement as 
far as DOS-based graphical user inter- 
faces (GUIs) go. 

Apple, after some dithering about, 
took muster and waged the battle of the 
market share on two fronts. It took the 
high ground in March with its introduc- 
tion of the Mac Ilf x, the first-ever Mac 
clocked at 40 MHz. In October, Apple 
began the blitzkrieg on the low end with 
three new low-cost Macs. Just as impor- 
tant, the company slashed prices on the 
existing models. 

Apple's attack plan so far has been im- 
pressive, but it's not without flaws. The 
Mac Ilf x's much-touted SCSI DMA will 
not •work with anything but A/UX. Sys- 
tem 7.0 still hasn't seen the light of day. 
The features on the low-cost Macs are 
so-so, including their pricing. If Apple is 
indeed in the market-share battle for the 
long haul, I wonder whether it will have 
the nerve to reduce prices further if the 
situation warrants it. In other words, 
we've gone through another year of some 
improvements to the Mac and its soft- 
ware, but we're still waiting for the next 
Mac revolution. I'm getting pretty itchy 
waiting for it to come. 

The one place I see a difference is not 
in the volleys from the big guns over- 

ILLUSTRATION: JOHN BREAKEY © 1990 




head, but when I look in the trenches 
where the small Mac developers hunker 
down. Try as we might, we just can't kill 
these little guys. We entice them with 
promises of greater profits (Windows 
3.0), hotter development systems (Next- 
Step), and other baubles, but they stick to 
the Mac like glue. 

Whatever the reason, it's these folks 
who make the most interesting Mac soft- 
ware today, and who typically define 
new software categories. These develop- 
ers think about more than just adding 
more features to a word processor or bet- 
ter kerning to a page-layout system. They 
think about what might be possible with 
a Mac. 

The Mac Gets Inspired 

Not surprisingly, one of the newer Mac 
products I've found is called Inspiration 
2.0. It's from a tiny family-owned com- 
pany called Ceres Software in Portland, 
Oregon, and it's been around for a year 



now, largely ignored. I spent a pleasant 
time conversing with its creator, Don 
Helfgott. He calls his program a thought 
processor, but that doesn't do it justice. 

Inspiration 2.0 takes the Mac's ability 
to give you a consistent and meaningful 
GUI and lets you brainstorm, cranking 
out ideas by the bushel basket. It then or- 
ganizes the ideas in a way that helps you 
realize what, if anything, you've really 
invented. Inspiration 2.0 is sort of a vi- 
sual diagraming and outlining tool inter- 
weaved with a simple word processor. 
It's the first computer aid to creative 
thinking I've tried that actually works— 
and I've tried them all. 

The theory behind Inspiration 2.0 
goes something like this. Databases, 
word processors, and spreadsheets store 
and access information in ways that don't 
help us relate information more clearly, 
because they fail to distinguish between 
right-brain thinking (i.e., creativity, 
images, comprehension, imagination, 

DECEMBER 1990 'BYTE 105 



MACINATIONS 



Factoring 
Poly nomlals 




Inspiration 2. combines visual 
diagraming and outlining with a simple 
word processor. This Inspiration 
flowchart outlines the general algorithm 
for factoring a polynomial, as shown 
in listing 1. 



visualization, music, and daydreaming) 
and left-brain thinking (i.e., logic, se- 
quence, reasoning, and analysis). Inspi- 
ration 2.0 works by filling the gap be- 
tween these two kinds of thinking. 

Other programs have promised to ac- 
centuate the synergy between the right 
and left brains. Neil Larson's Maxthink, 
early versions of Dave Winer's Think- 
Tank outliner, ODS's Consultant, and 
a myriad of other shareware have all 
skipped through this software minefield 
before. None of them really pulled it off, 
however, because they just didn't have a 
good model to implement. 

Inspiration 2.0 has a good model, and 
that's why it succeeds. Rather than try- 
ing to be all things to all thinkers, the 
Helfgotts have pinned down their cus- 
tomers—writers, entrepreneurs, creative 
directors, analysts, planners, educators, 
and consultants. 

They did not make Inspiration 2.0 
some kind of unwieldy general manage- 
ment tool, or imbue it with powerful fea- 
tures that its target audience will not 
need. In short, they didn't kitchen-sink 
this product by trying to make it fit the 
needs of a general presentation tool, a 
business graphics package, or a free- 
form charting tool. 

The only thing that Inspiration 2.0 as- 
sumes is that you think visually. If you 
never leave the mental domain of num- 
bers and text, Inspiration 2.0 won't do a 
thing for you. But if you think in terms of 
relationships and their organization, this 
program must be tried to be appreciated. 

I've spent the last month doing just 
that. In fact, I've fallen into its organiza- 



Listing 


1 : This listing was derived from the Inspiration flowchart shown 


in the figure. 


Factoring polynomials 


Is there a common factor of all terms? 


Count number of terms 




Binomial 




Difference of two squares 




a2 - b2 = 


(a + b) 


(a -b) 




Sum of two cubes 




a3 + b3 = 


(a + b) 


(a2 - ab + b2) 




Difference of two cubes 




a3 - b3 = 


(a - b) 


(a2 + ab + b2) 




Trinomial 




Trial and error or AC method 




Four terms 




Factor by grouping 




Factor out common factor 



tional metaphors so easily that it's some- 
times hard to go back to a more tradi- 
tional outliner like More or Acta. I'm 
now using Inspiration 2.0 in my intro- 
ductory programming class (in which I 
teach HyperCard 2.0 and HyperTalk) to 
help my students invent and categorize 
algorithms and get them into a form that 
will suggest code to them. 

One way Inspiration 2.0 does that is by 
letting them come at both ends of a pro- 
gramming problem at the same time. My 
students learn about top-down design and 
bottom-up testing right from the start, 
but one thing they often miss is the inter- 
action between the two. Because Inspira- 
tion 2.0 can present your information 
either as a free-form chart or as an out- 
line, you can use the chart to plan your 
global program segments (top-down de- 
sign) and the outliner to punch out the 
code necessary for each segment (bot- 
tom-up testing). 

In a flowchart created with Inspiration 
2.0 (shown at left), the general algorithm 
for factoring a polynomial has been out- 
lined. To code individual segments of 
this algorithm, you switch to Inspira- 
tion's outline view, where you can bang 
out and reorganize all the code state- 
ments (see listing 1). This sort of view 
change doesn't really scream to be no- 
ticed, but it's exactly the kind of subtle 
capability that makes Inspiration 2.0 so 
useful. 

Inspiration 2.0 isn't flashy, it isn't full 
of multimedia bells and whistles, it 
doesn't fit any traditional business com- 
puting category, and it's not expensive. 
Yet it's exactly the kind of software that 
made the Mac a ground-breaking ma- 
chine and keeps me hoping for better 
things. It's one more reason why the Mac 
can easily play the power, performance, 
and usable facility game with any desk- 
top computer. 

Tip of the Month: Software Bridge 

If you have to work between a Mac and 
the rest of the world— whether that world 
includes other Macs or PCs, whether on 
a network or running stand-alone— you 
need some good file filters or format 
converters. And if most of your work is 
with text on vastly different word proces- 
sors, you need world-class translators. 
The only company I know that provides 
such high-class translators is Systems 
Compatibility. It makes the Software 
Bridge for the PC and the Mac. 

The Software Bridge costs $129, pack- 
ing together a set of Apple File Exchange 
translators that cover 24 different word 
processor formats in one of 380 possible 
translator pairings. You can choose from 



106 BYTE* DECEMBER 1990 





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24-bit Color is Just One 



MACINATIONS 




The Hercules Graphics Station 
Card gives you the real picture and 
power to spare. Power to run Windows 3.0 
and beyond. 

With 1024K of VRAM for 16- and 24-bit 
color, up to 16.7 million colors are within 
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Only the Hercules Graphics Station 
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© CiH'i)hi IHI. Hritilts Ciipim kituliu Ik . 921 Piiiti Sunt Bnkeltf . 
U 94711. Hetciltj lit Hwilts Juries Stuiii CiU irt UiliiiAs il Uttcilu 
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mtu. ill in iiiiflilulti' till Utrults. 

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ITEMS DISCUSSED 



Inspiration 2.0 $199 

Ceres Software 

2520 Southwest Hamilton St. 

Portland, OR 97201 

(503)245-9011 

Inquiry 1146. 



Software Bridge 

Systems Compatibility Corp. 

401 North Wabash Ave. , 

Suite 600 

Chicago, IL 60611 

(800) 333-1395 

(312)329-0700 

Inquiry 1147. 



.$129 



Word 3. Ox and 4.0, MacWrite II, Micro- 
soft RTF, WordPerfect, ASCII, and 
DCA/RFT on the Mac, with dozens 
more PC formats supported. You can 
translate your files between Mac and PC 
formats or across platforms. The Soft- 
ware Bridge AFE translators all work 
like the ones from Apple, Data Viz, or 
Claris that you might already be using on 
your Mac. 

Unlike the Apple and DataViz transla- 
tors, the Software Bridge doesn't leave 
anything untranslated when it's done 
with your file. You'll retain the exact 
same formatting (e.g., boldface, under- 
lined text, indents, tabs, headers, foot- 
ers, fonts, and styles) in your translated 
copy as you had in the original. Graphics 
incorporated into the original Mac docu- 
ments are also translated exactly into 
other Mac formats. 

The Software Bridge translators auto- 
matically identify the file format before 
making the change, and they never limit 
you to one-way conversions. I've used the 
Software Bridge to convert files back and 
forth many times without any translation 
artifacts. 

I've never been very happy with the 
file translators that I've used from Apple 
and DataViz, since they always seem to 
leave untranslated residue. The Software 
Bridge for the Mac seems to fix these 
problems for just about any combination 
of file formats you might encounter. ■ 

Don Crabb is the director of laboratories 
and a senior lecturer for the computer 
science department at the University of 
Chicago. He is also a contributing editor 
for BYTE. He can be reached on BIX as 
"deer abb." 

Your questions and comments are wel- 
come. Write to: Editor, BYTE, One 
Phoenix Mill Lane, Peterborough, NH 
03458. 



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Circle 65 on Reader Service Card 




Call me a lyre. 

(Or, how we wrote the book on PC mail order.) 

Truth tends to be stranger than fiction in the telltail 
town of Marlow, NH (pop. 564!). That's why you'll 
often find the local color gathered 'round the 
ancient sage as he recounts in vivid detail how our forest 
glade was transformed into a PC paradise. 

For, in days of yore, buying software and peripherals 
by mail was a perilous task, fraught 
with danger and uncertainty. Only 
those well versed in the black arts 
dared risk such unpredictable 
delivery and uncertain compatibility. 

Then one day the enlightened 
Order of the Connection appeared 
majestically on the scene, bringing 




the classic virtues of toll-free tech support, prompt 
shipping;:and way-under-retail prices to the brave new 
world of the IBM PC. Since that glorious day bur humble 
home has served as a beacon of light to noble users in 
cottages, condos, and corporations throughout America. 
That'll be the day. 

It's not every day of the week you get offered your very 
own 1991 PC Connection Calendar. This very timely 

offer includes 13 classic illustrations 
of our legendary mascots, all your 
favorite holidays, and fascinating 
historical facts about the fiefdom of 
Marlow, NH. This wondrous wall 
calendar is free to everyone who 
places an order of $750 or more 
between now and February 28. 



A 



Mark time with the PC Connection Calendar featuring 
our very own day-tripping mascots. Offer not available 
to accounts on net terms. One per customer. 




©COPYRIGHT PC CONNECTION, INC., 1990. PC CONNECTION AND THE RACCOON CHARACTERS) ARE REGISTERED TRADEMARKS OF PC CONNECTION, INC.. MARLOW. NH. 



Trying to find the 



1990 World Class Award for 
Best Mail-Order Company 



PCWMILD 




1990 

WORLD CLASS 

AWARD 



D 3V2" format available from us. Specify 

when ordering. 

B package includes both 5 1 /4" and 3V2" 

disks. 

e 3V2" format available from manufacturer 

by request. Call us for details. 

CP— copy-protected; NCP— not copy-protected. 

The four-digit number next to each product 
is the product's ITEM NUMBER. Please refer 
to this number when ordering. Thank you. 

SOFTWARE 

We only carry the latest versions of products. 
Version numbers in our ads are current at 
press time. 

Products listed here in red are Microsoft 
Windows Applications. 





Adobe Systems ... NCP 

7902 DAdobe Type Manager for Windows with 
Microsoft Windows 3. 0- Automatically convert 
Windows 3.0 screen displays and dot matrix 
printed output to crisp, legible text at any point 



size. And Windows 3.0 itself is the Graphical 
User interface that is revolutionizing the PC 
industry. We're packing them together for a 
limited time at a great price $149. 



6591 
7547 
7902 

6590 
7392 



1332 



Adobe Systems ... NCP 

B Illustrator Windows 1 .0 $279. 

BAdobe Type Manager for Windows 59. 
DAdobe Type Manager for Windows and 

Microsoft Windows 3.0 149. 

BStreamline Windows 1.0 229. 

BAdobe PostScript Cartridge 249. 

(Entire Adobe Type Library, from 1 to 133 
is available. Call for more information.) 
Aldus ... NCP 
□ PageMaker 3.01 499. 




Avery ... NCP 

Fast & easy label printing. Design labels using 
special fonts, designs & clip-art. Includes 
pre-set layouts for Avery brand labels. 

6006 BLabel Pro 1.0 (Laser) $49. 

7336 BLabel Pro 1 .0 for Dot Matrix 49. 



Alpha Software ... NCP 

5104 BAIpha Four 1.1 319. 

Application Techniques ... NCP 

1214 BPizazz Plus 2.0 69. 

ASD Software ... NCP 

7847 HPIanisofM.0 145. 

Ashton-Tate ... NCP 

6580 MultiMate 4.0 299. 

4450 DdBASEIV 1.1 499. 

Asymetrix ... NCP 
7384 BToolbook 1.0 for Windows 309. 

Avery ... NCP 

6006 BLabel Pro 1 .0 (Laser) 49. 

7336 BLabel Pro LOforDot Matrix 49. 

Bastech ... CP (5 copies) 
4665 El Bastech Utilities 2.07 25. 

Bitstream ... NCP 

7568 BFaceLift 1.0 for Windows 2. x/3. . 59. 
8040 BFaceLift for WordPerfect 5.0/5.1. . 59. 

7569 DCompanion Value Packfor FaceLift 1 .0 

(includes 25 typefaces) 125. 

BCollections: Newsletters, Flyers, Books 
& Manuals, Reports and Proposals, 
Presentations or Spreadsheets each 1 29. 

BFontware each 89. 

Bloc Publishing ... NCP 

1447 BFormTool Gold 3.0 55. 

8086 BPersonal Law Firm 1.1 59. 

6245 BPop Drop Plus 1 .0 59. 

8087 BRam Pack (Pop Drop Plus and 
Above Disk) 85. 

4594 BFormFiller 3.0 89. 

Borland International ... NCP 

7346 DTurboC++ 1.0 145. 

7357 □ Turbo C+ + 1 .0 Professional 219. 

7356 DTurbo Pascal Professional 2nd Ed. 179. 

5335 DTurbo Pascal 5.5 109. 

6242 BQuattro Pro 1 .0 325. 

1514 BParadox3.5 569. 

Broderbund ... NCP 

1434 HNew Print Shop 39. 

1416 BNew Print Shop Companion .... 33. 

ButtonWare ... NCP 
6419 HPC-File5.0 89. 



Caere ... NCP 

6004 BOmnipage386 2.1 599. 

Central Point ... NCP 

5039 BPC Tools Deluxe 6.0 95. 

5038 DCopy II PC 5.0 29. 

8114 BBackup 6.0 65. 

Checkfree 
6360 CheckFree (electronic checking srv.) . 25. 

Chipsoft ... NCP 
1663 BTurboTax 8.0 for 1990 Taxes 45. 

CompuServe 
7546 DOS Membership Kit 23. 

Concentric Data Systems ... NCP 
6575 BR & R Relational Report Writer 3B 109. 

Corel Systems ... NCP 
5506 DCorelDRAW! 1 .2 329. 

Custom Applications ... NCP 
7474 DFreedom of Press 2.2 255. 

D AC Easy ... NCP 

1748 BAccounting 4.0 89. 

1751 HBonus Pak 4.1 129. 




Bloc Publishing ... NCP 

With FormTool Gold ; design any form in 
minutes. With FormFiller 3.0, accurately 
plug in your data. It ; s a perfect forms team. 

1447 HFonnTool Cold 3.0 $55. 

4594®FormFUler3.0 89. 



best upgrade path? 



Data Storm ... NCP 

4798 BPROCOMM PLUS 1.1 $65. 

DCA ... NCP 
7936 BCrosstalk Communicator 1.0 .... 59. 

2908 DCrosstalkXVI 3.71 119. 

5611 DCrosstalk for Windows 1.1 129. 

Delrina Technology ... NCP 
7351 BPerFORMPRO 1.0 for Windows. 299. 

Dow Jones ... NCP 
5494 H News/Retrieval 24. 

Fifth Generation Systems ... NCP 

7725 BDirect Access 5.0 59. 

8804 BBrooklyn Bridge 3.0 89. 

8729 BMaceVaccinel.O 89. 

2762 DMace Utilities 1990 99. 

7795 BDisklock 1 .0 109. 

3950 BFastback Plus 2.1 119. 

FNN Data Broadcasting ... NCP 
7005 BNewsReal 1 .0 99. 

FormWorx ... NCP 
5810 □ FormWorx with Fill & File 2.5 .... 85. 
7311 HForm Publisher for Windows 1.2. 145. 

Fox Software ... NCP 

2233 (HFoxbase Plus 2.1 199. 

6188 eFoxPro 1 .02 489. 

Franklin Software ... NCP 

7071 BLanguage Master 2.0 59. 

741 6 H Language Master 3.0 for Windows 59 . 

Funk Software ... NCP 

2228 DSideways 3.3 52. 

7380 3RD. Queue 1.0 (print spooler) .. . 55. 
4479 DAIIways 1 .2 (for 1-2-3 or Symphony) 115. 

Generic Software ... NCP 
2265 OGeneric CADD Level 3 5.0 225. 

Great American Software ... NCP 
4880 DOne Write Plus Acct. Sys. 2.06. . 179. 

5825 BMoney Matters 1.0 55. 

4879 DPayroll for Accounting System 2.0 89. 
7378 DFinancial Manager 479. 

Harvard Associates ... NCP 
2324 BlPC Logo 3.0 59. 

hDC Computer Corp. ... NCP 

7389 HWindows Express 3.0 55. 

7383 BFirstAppsl.O 55. 




Corel Systems ... NCP 

5506 DCorelDRAW! f.2-The world's leading 
PC illustration software now comes with 
even more value: CorelTRACE ; over 100 
typefaces, over 300 dip-art images ; a Pantone 
license-all bundled in for free $329. 



Hilgraeve ... NCP 

2323 BHyper ACCESS/5 1.1 (DOS& OS/2) $11 5. 

IBM ... NCP 
6599 DCurrenM.1 239. 

Individual Software ... NCP 
2415 BTyping Instructor Encore 3.0 .... 19. 
6222 BResume Maker 1.1 29. 

Inset Systems ... NCP 

7298 BHijaak2.0 99. 

7300 BlnsetPlusHijaak 125. 

Intuit ... NCP 
2426 BQuicken4.0 39. 

Isogon ... NCP 
7478 BFontSpace 2.0 59. 

Laser Go ... NCP 
7635 DGo Script Plus 3.0 189. 

LaserTools ... NCP 
6882 BPrintCache 2.3 99. 

Lord Publishing ... NCP 
5191 BRonstadt's Financials 1.02 75. 




Great American Software ... NCP 

4880 DOne Write Plus kcountingSysteml.Ob- 
Complete small business accounting that 
provides easy set-up and operation. Includes 3 
best-selling programs-Master (GL) ; Accounts 
Receivable and Accounts Payable . . . $179. 



Lotus ... NCP 

5417 □ 1-2-3 3.1 429. 

5653 □ 1-2-3 2.2 349. 

5134 BMagellan2.0 119. 

MECA ... NCP 

4529 BCheckwrite Plus 1.1 29. 

4603 B Andrew Tobias' Tax Cut-1990 Taxes 49. 

7002 BHome Lawyer 1 .0 69. 

2798 DManaging Your Money 6.0 135. 

Microcom ... NCP 

7649 BVirex1.1 79. 

6234 DCarbonCopy Plus 5.2 119. 

Micrografx ... NCP 
7683 DCharisma 1 .0 349. 

Micro Logic ... NCP 
6787 B Info Select 1.1 55. 

1-800/776-7777 



MMC 



PC Connection 

6 Mill Street 
Marlow, NH 03456 



790B 



SALES 603/446-7721 FAX 603/446-7791 





Chipsoft ... NCP 

1663 ® TurboTax 8.0 for 1990 Taxes-Tht best- 
selling easy-to-use and complete software for 
preparing individual tax returns. TurboTax 
provides on-line help ; IRS instructions and 
comprehensive tax assistance $45. 



Microlytics ... NCP 

2731 DGOfer2.0 45. 

Microsoft ... NCP 

7882 DProductivity Pack for Windows. . . 45. 

7010 DWindows 3.0 99. 

7388 BProjectfor Windows 1.0 469. 

7387 BPowerPoint for Windows 1.0 329. 

2904 DWorks2.0 99. 

2901 DWord 5.0 209. 

6195 BWord for Windows 1.1 329. 

2856 BExcel2.1 329. 

2894 DQuickBASIC 4.5 69. 

2853 BC Compiler 6.0 339. 

Multisoft ... NCP 
4925 DPC-Kwik Power Pak 1 .5 79. 

Nolo Press ... NCP 

5122 DForthe Record 2.0 35. 

2982 DWillMaker4.0 39. 

Norton-Lambert ... NCP 

4928 DCIose-Up Customer/Terminal 3.0 135. 

4929 DCIose-UpSupport/ACS3.0 165. 



■Ml S> 4 




nil 

Bitstream ... NCP 

Fast & easy-to-use ; Fa 
printer fonts to any si 
to give you prof essioi 
756Z®FaceLift1.0for 
mO®FaceLift1.0for 


ceLift scales screen & 
it. Includes 13 typefaces 
lal documents instantly. 
Windows Z.x/5.0 . $59. 
WordPerfect 5.0/5.1. 59. 



®: 



ALL ITEMS SUBJECTTO AVAILABILITY. PRICES SUBJECTTO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. 



Or a faster way 




Software Ventures ... NCP 

6889 \*\MicroPhone II for Windows-Tckcom 
software that ; s "a joy to use ; ;; says PC 
Computing. With Watch Me mode to auto- 
mate script creation ; and portability with 
MicroPhone scripts on the Mac $215. 



PC Globe ... NCP 

5902 DPC Globe4.0 39. 

5900 DPCUSA2.0 39. 

Personics ... NCP 

4384 HUltravision 2.0 79. 

7475 HMacro Editor/Debugger 1.0. .. . 135. 
7048 B Monarch 1.0 (Data Mgmt. Tool) . 319. 

PowerUp ... NCP 

7860 HCalendar Creator Plus 3.0 45. 

7858 H Express Publisher 2.0 89. 

Precision Software .. . NCP 

8102 HSuperbase2 1.2 219. 

6600 HSuperbase 4 for Windows 1.2 . . 469. 

Qualitas ... NCP 

7539 D386MAX 5.0 75. 

7967 Blue MAX 1.0(386 PS/2) (3 1 / 2 " only) . 85. 

Quarterdeck ... NCP 

6422 DQRAM1.0 49. 

3221 DExpanded Memory Mgr. 386 5.1 . 59. 

3220 DDESQView2.3 79. 

4586 DDESQView386 5.1 129. 



Reality 




Reality Technologies ... NCP 

6572 H WealthBuilder by Money Magazine 1.1- 
Save & invest wisely. Set financial goals & 
achieve them. Plan for retirement a child ; s 
education ; a home. Optimize your portfolio 
& track all of your investments $145. 



Reality Technologies ... NCP 

7891 HWealthStarter 1.0 $49. 

6572 HWealthBuilder 1.1 145. 

Reference Software ... NCP 

4396 HGrammatik IV 1 .0 52. 

7483 HGrammatik for Windows 1.0 52. 

Revolution Software ... NCP 
4480 SVGA Dimmer 2.01 (screen saver) . 29. 

RightSoft ... NCP 
4155 HRightWriter4.0 55. 

Samna ... NCP 
5799 HAmi Professional 1 .2 309. 

Sitka/TOPS ... NCP 

6675 DTOPS Network Bundle 3.0 159. 

3720 Flashcard 2.1 (AppleTalk network card; 

1 year warranty) 155. 

6649 Hlnbox (20 user) (electronic mail) . 219. 

Softlogic Solutions ... NCP 
3542 DSoftware Carousel 4.0 55. 

Software Publishing ... NCP 
7769 HPFSPreface 1 .0 (with Viruscan) . . 49. 
3499 DPFS:First Publisher 3.0 

(with Deluxe Paint II) 99. 

3478 DPFS:First Choice 3.02 

(with Prodigy) 105. 

3496 DProfessional Write 2.2 

(with Professional File) 179. 

3495 HProfessional Plan 1.01 69. 

3482 D Harvard Graphics 2.3 359. 

4766 HFirst Choice Network 299. 

7507 HProfessional Writer Network 2.0. 349. 
7513 HProfessional File Network 2.0 .. . 379. 

3483 HHarvard Graphics Network 2.0 . 599. 
4342 HFirst Graphics 1 .0 99. 

Software Ventures ... NCP 
6889 HMicroPhone II for Windows 215. 

Solution Systems .. . NCP 
7977 HBrief 3.0 (Programmer's Editor) . 155. 

Spinnaker ... NCP 

7604 HPLUS for Windows 1.0 289. 

4441 DResume Kit 1 .32 25. 

4446 DEight In One 2.0 39. 

Systat ... NCP 
7415 HSystat/SyGraph 5.0 649. 

Symantec ... NCP 

3152 HNorton Commander 3.0 105. 

6397 HThe Norton Backup 1.1 105. 

3146 HThe Norton Utilities 5.0 125. 

3425 DQ&A3.0 229. 

3431 DTimeline 4.0 469. 

Systems Compatibility ... NCP 

6564 DSoftware Bridge 4.1 79. 

6570 DSoftware Bridge LAN 4.1 155. 

TIMESLIPS ... NCP 

2987 DTimeslips III 4.0 195. 

4277 DTimeslips III Network 399. 

6994 DPercentEdge 1 .0 , 69. 

Timeworks ... NCP 
6253 HPublish-lt! 1.1 115. 

Touchstone Software ... NCP 
7420 HChecklt3.0 89. 

Traveling Software .. . NCP 
5179 HLapLinklll3.0 95. 

True BASIC ... NCP 
3561 HTrue BASIC 2.1 52. 

Vericomp ... NCP 
6771 HMemory Master 1.1 45. 




MECA ... NCP 

4603 ^Andrew Tobias' Tax Cwr-New power 
for handling your 1990 taxes. Import data 
from Quicken and/or TurboTax ; read last 
year ; s Tax Cut data ; and print your return- 
all with new versatility $49. 



Volkswriter ... NCP 

6246 nVolkswriter-4 1.02 109. 

West Lake Data Corp. ... NCP 
7577 DPC-FullBak-K 1.12 52. 

7574 ePathMinder+ 1.0 79. 

7575 ElValuePak (7'nc/udes 4 programs). . 69. 
WordPerfect Corp. ... NCP 

7781 HLetterPerfect 1.0 135. 

3804 DWordPerfect 5.1 265. 

6685 HDrawPerfect 1.1 279. 

WordStar International ... NCP 

6791 DWordStarProf. 6.0 279. 

7605 DWordStar 6.0 Network 345. 

Xerox ... NCP 
7796 H Ventura Publisher for Windows 3.0 569. 

XTREE ... NCP 
6161 HXTreePro Gold 1 .4 85. 

ZSoft ... NCP 

7016 HPC Paintbrush IV Plus 1 .0 119. 

7014 HPC Paintbrush Plusfor Windows 1.12 89. 




Software Publishing ... NCP 

Holiday Bundles- "Free for all promotion! ;; 

7769 ^Preface (with Viruscan) $49. 

3499 DFirst Publisher (with Deluxe Paint II). 99. 

3478 DFirst Choice (with Prodigy) 105. 

3496 DProfessional Wnte(w/Profcssional Tile) 179. 



®: 



to do complex math? 




Broderbund ... CP 

8068 B Where in the World is Cartnen Sandiego 
Deluxe Mtion-Chasc Carmen & her band of 
thieves through 45 countries. Video & audio 
enhanced with location graphics provided 
by the National Geographic Society . . $52. 



RECREATIONAL/EDUCATIONAL 



6030 
8081 

8079 

1464 

5701 
8068 

5851 

5698 
8112 
6881 
8109 
5804 



Accolade ... CP 

□Test Drive II: The Duel 32. 

□Jack Nicklaus' Unlimited Golf & 

Course Design 39. 

HSearchforthe King 39. 

Bible Research Systems ... NCP 

□The Word 4.3 (KJorNIV) 159. 

Broderbund ... CP 

HWhere/Time Carmen Sandiego? . 32. 

HWhere in the World is Carmen 

Sandiego Deluxe Edition 52. 

HSimCity 33. 

Electronic Arts ... NCP 

eAbrams Battletank 11 . 

□TV Sports Basketball 39. 

□ Populous 39. 

□ Harpoon 45. 

H Deluxe Paint II (Enhanced) 89. 




Toyogo ... NCP 

7676 @Go Mister Deluxe-Chaos Manor Users 
Choice Award 1990 (Byte 4/90). Unites the 
Go playing abilities of Go Master, the corner- 
opening tutorial Joseki ; s Genius ; and the life 
and death consultant, Tactical Wizard. $88. 



HyperGlot ... NCP 

7849 DWord Torture- French $29. 

7853 DWord Torture - Spanish 29. 

Lucas Film . .. CP 

8113 HPipe Dream 19. 

7583 Dlndiana Jones &L.C 35. 

5803 DTheir Finest Hour (Battle of Britain) 42. 

Microsoft ... NCP 
7881 □Entertainment Pk for Windows 1.0 29. 
2858 □Flight Simulator 4.0 39. 

Microsoft Press (Books) 
8127 Working with Word for Windows ... 20. 

8126 Running with DOS 4th Edition 20. 

8129 Running Windows (2nd Edition) ... 22. 
8136 Running Microsoft Excel 22. 

Parlor Software ... CP 
3159 nBridge Parlor 2.3 49. 

Penton Overseas .. . NCP 

HVocabuLearn/ce Levels I & II (French, 

Italian, German, Spanish, Russian, 

Hebrew and Japanese) each 39. 

Sierra On-Line ... CP 

6023 HLeisure Suit Larry III 39. 

6796 HCodename: Iceman 39. 

6972 HConquestsof Camelot 39. 

5106 HSpace Quest III 39. 

7972 DKing's Quest V 45. 

Spectrum Holobyte ... NCP 

3467 HTetris 22. 

5993 HWelltris 22. 

5817 HVette 25. 

7602 HFaces 32. 

Spinnaker ... NCP 
5580 DSargon IV (Chess Game) 32. 

Software Toolworks ... NCP 

6436 ElHunt for Red October 20. 

4659 HChessmaster 2100 (CP) 35. 

4534 HMavis Beacon Typing 35. 

7372 eWorld Atlas 42. 

7879 HU.S.A. Atlas 42. 

Stone & Assoc. ... NCP 
7564 HYoung Math (ages 5 to 8) 22. 

3434 HKids Stuff (ages 2 to 6) 22. 

3435 a Letters, Numbers, Words (ages 2-6) 22. 

3436 BMemory Lane (ages 2 to6) 22. 

5231 HPhonics Plus 22. 

3439 H2nd Math (ages 7 to 16) 27. 

3433 HAIgebra Plus Vol 1 (ages 13+) ... 27. 

Toyogo ... NCP 

7676 HNemesisGo Master Deluxe 88. 

True BASIC, Inc. ... NCP 

El Kemeny/Kurtz Math Series, each 45. 

HARDWARE 

Manufacturer's standard limited 
warranty period for items shown is 
listed after each company name. 
Some products in their line may 
have different warranty periods. 

1-800/776-7777 




"■■-""'-'•■ ?"c.V 



Microsoft ... NCP 

7881 DEnterminment Pack for Windows 1.0-A 
collection of games and a screen saver made 
especially for Microsoft Windows 3.0. The 
perfect gift for any Windows user! ... $29. 



7108 
6811 
7107 
7106 

1299 
8041 
4107 
4105 
6979 



7001 

7061 
7135 
6998 
6999 
6995 
7026 



American Power ... 2 years 

APC Smart-UPS 400 339. 

360SX (stand-by power source). . . 219. 
450 AT (stand-by power source). . . 279. 
520ES (stand-by power source). . . 329. 
AST Research ... 2 years 

SixPakPlus384kC/S/P 179. 

SixPak286 0k 105. 

RAMpage Plus 286 512k 419. 

RAMpage Plus MC 512k 419. 

VGA Plus Video Card (256K 

expandable to 512K) 199. 

Boca Research ... 5 years 
BOCARAM/AT PLUS (0-8 Meg) 

(LIM 4.0 extended) 125. 

BOC ARAM/XT OK (0-2 Meg, LIM 4.0) 99. 
TophAT (16-bit backfill 51 2K to 640K) 99. 

l/OBoardforAT 59. 

I/O Board for MicroChannel S/S/P . 109. 
SuperVGA (800 x 600, 16/8 bit) . . . 115. 
1 2 4 VG A ( 16 bit non-interlaced) . . 149. 




MMC 



PC Connection 790B 

6 Mill Street 

Marlow, NH 03456 

SALES 603/446-7721 FAX 603/446-7791 



CH Products ... lyear 

Pick the stick the pros use, & the thrills are on 
us. HightStick w/FREE Falcon! New two-port ; 
automatic gamecards complete the package. 

8119 HightStick wfFalcon & GameCardlll $79. 

8120 HightStick w/Falcon 61 GameCardMCA 95. 



.®: 



Or what odd glitch 



The InteP Math Coprocessor, 

helps save you time. r 




Intel ... 5 years 

80187XL & 80l87XLTMath CoProcessors-Kuns 
up to 50% taster than other 80287 math chips. 
The 80287X1, works in virtually every 80286- 
based PC ; and the 80287X1 J is made 
especially for Compaq LTE/286. . each $199. 



Bravo Communications ... 2 years 

7400 2 Pos. Laser Compatible Switch Box 109. 
Brother International ... 1 year 

5787 HL-8e Laser Printer (HP2comp.). 1399. 

Canon ... 1 year 
7894 BJ-10e BubbleJet Printer^. 6 lb.). 349. 
7896 Sheetfeederfor BJ-10e 75. 

CH Products .. . 1 year 
7341 Gamecard III Plus (for MicroChannel) 49. 
7935 Gamecard III -Automatic 33. 

8119 FlightStickw/Falcon&GameCardlll . 79. 

8120 RightStick w/Falcon & GameCard MCA 95. 
7345 Rollermouse (Trackball) serial 85. bus 99. 

Compucable ... 2 years 

1604 2-Position switch box 25. 

1605 3-Position switch box 35. 

Cuesta Systems ... 1 year 

1608 400 Watt DataSaver 429. 

5130 600 Watt DataSaver 599. 

Curtis ... lifetime 
1704 Universal Printer Stand PS-1 18. 



!teWM»aitf386Whdps . 




Intel ... 5 years 

2346 Inboard 386/PC with Free Samna Ami- 
Gives you 80386 processing power ; 1 Mb 
RAM ; and Samna ; s powerful Windows- 
based word processor (regularly at $129). 
30 Day Money Back Guarantee $519. 



1694 EmeraldSP-2 $36. 

1708 Ruby-Plus SPF-2 Plus 65. 

7358 Command Center 93. 

Glass Filter Plus (specify size) . . ea. 65. 

Data Technology ... 1 year 
6249 5280 (AT Floppy/Hard Controller). . 119. 
6248 7280 (AT Floppy/Hard Controller) . 129. 

Datadesk ... 3 years 
6901 Switchboard 175. 

Epson ... 1 year 

We are an authorized Epson Service Center. 
1906 FX-850 (80 col., 264 cps, 9 pin) . . . call 
1904 FX-1050(736co/., 264 cps, 9 pin). . call 

5183 LQ-510 (80 col., 180 cps, 24 pin). . . call 
1930 LQ-850 (80 col., 264 cps, 24 pin) . . call 
1917 LQ-1050 (136 col., 264 cps, 24 pin) call 

5184 LX-810 (80 col., 180 cps, 9 pin) .... call 
1052 Printer-to-IBM cable(6feefj 15. 

7775 Equity LT286e Laptop 1995. 

7774 Equity LT386SX Laptop 3069. 

Removable Hard Drives for Epson Laptops 

7776 20 Meg . . 499. 7777 40 Meg . . 699. 




Intel ... 5 years 

Above Boards-mi Quarterdeck QRAM 
and Manifest with any Above Board or 
piggyback; now through December 31 ; 
1990! see Intel listing for prices. 



5th Generation . .. 1 year 

7157 Logical Connection Plus 512k. . . . 599. 
Hayes ... 2 years 

2307 Smartmodem 2400 349. 

8049 JT-FAX 9600B 499. 

7391 Ultra 9600 Modem 899. 

Hewlett-Packard ... 1 year 

7976 DeskJet 500 (w/ink cartridge) .... 599. 

6754 LaserJet III (w/toner) 1699. 

6582 LaserJet I IP (w/t oner) 1069. 

Intel ... 5 years 

6421 2400B MNP Internal Modem 199. 

4696 2400B Internal Modem 159. 

2352 2400B Internal Modem 2 (for PS/2) 249. 

5119 2400 Baud External Modem 179. 

6420 2400EX MNP Modem 229. 

7880 9600EX Modem 549. 

2346 Inboard 386/PC w/1 Meg (wftree Ami) 519. 
2348 Inboard 386/PC w/1 Meg Piggyback 349. 
4646 Inboard 386/PC w/4 Meg Piggyback 669. 

4266 Above Board Plus 512k 369. 

4267 Above Board Plus I/O 512k 399. 




Intel ... 5 years 

7880 9600EX Afa/e/w-Provides ultra-fast data 
communications without sacrificing compat- 
ibility. Supports V.32 & V.42 9600 bps opera- 
tion; as well as MNP Level/5 and Hayes 
compatible 2400/1200/300 bps modes . $549. 



5336 
5342 
4272 
5396 
7782 
7552 

7385 

4750 

2371 

2372 

4121 

2375 

2374 

2582 
7899 

4518 

5800 
5802 
7912 
5831 
7581 
7862 

5464 
7768 
5151 
6029 
4297 
4794 
7975 

5990 

4762 



7595 
6668 



Above Board Plus 8 2 Meg 599. 

Above Board Plus 8 I/O 2 Meg . . . 629. 

Above Board 2 Plus 512k 469. 

Above Board MC 32 0k 359. 

SatisFAXtion (fax board) 399. 

NetPort (3 year warranty) 489. 

MATH COPROCESSORS 

80287XL (16 MHz 80286 CPU's)... 199. 

80387SX (16 MHz 80386SX CPU's) 309. 

80387 (16 MHz 80386 CPU's) 349. 

80387-20 (20 MHz 80386 CPU's) 399. 
80387-25 (25 MHz80386 CPU's) 429. 

8087 (4.77 MHz 8088 CPU's) 89. 

8087-2 (8 MHz 8088 CPU's) 129. 

Kensington Microware ... 1 year 

Master Piece Plus 109. 

Expert Mouse serial. . 119. bus. . 129. 
Keytronic ... 3 years 

101 Plus Keyboard 99. 

Kraft ... 5 years 

3 button Thunder Joystick 29. 

Trackball 59. 

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KI30 Joystick 29. 

TopTrack (Laptop Trackball) 79. 

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C9 Mouse for PS/2's 69. 

C9 Mouse with Windows 149. 

HiREZ Mouse (C9) 85. 

Trackman (Trackball) serial 85. bus 89. 
ScanMan Plus (hand scanner) ... 185. 
Scan Man Plus (MicroChannel) . . . 219. 

ScanMan 256 319. 

Magnavox ... 1 year 
CM9032 (73" l/G^Mon/fo/; 

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LaserJet IIP or III 175. 

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LaserJet 1 1 or IID 357. 

Beyond Memory Board for PS/2 

Model 70 (2 Meg) 265. 

Microsoft ... lifetime 

Microsoft Mouse 89. 

Mouse with Paintbrush 109. 

Mouse with Windows 3.0 149. 

MicroSpeed ... 1 year 

PC-TRAC Trackball (incl. copy of Welftris) 

serial 75. 6008 bus 85. 

Inport 79. 6330 PS/2 79. 

Mouse Systems ... lifetime 
Trackball (1 yr. wrnty.) serial 75. bus 85. 

PC Mouse III 99. 

NEC ... 2 years 

Multisync 2 A (VGA Monitor) 499. 

Multisync 3D Monitor 689. 

Orchid Technologies ... 4 years 

Peanut VGA (256k) 129. 

ProDesigner VGA II (1024 x 768). . 299. 

ProDesigner/e (256k) 209. 

8 /ie Memory Card (1 Meg) 349. 

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Turbo Cool 300 165. 

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Pacific Data Products ... 1 year 
25 Cartridges in One! (for U II, IIP, IID) 275. 

25 Cartridges in One! (for U III) 349. 

Memory upgrade for LaserJet IIP/Ill 
1 Meg . . . 149. 7055 2 Meg .. . 199. 
3 Meg . . . 279. 7759 4 Meg . . . 339. 
Memory upgrade for LaserJet II 

1 Meg ... 179. 6838 2 Meg .. . 249. 
Memory for Tec Engine Laser Printers 

2 Meg . . . 219. 7633 4 Meg . . . 369. 
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LaserJet IIP/Ill) 379. 

Pacific Page with free 2 Meg 

Memory Board (for LaserJet II) . . . 379. 

Outlines I. 209. 7631 Outlines II . 209. 



6831 Plotter in a Cartridge (LJ IIP, IID, III) $249. 

6832 Plotter in a Cartridge (for LJ II) 249. 

6835 Headlines in a Cartridge (U II, IIFj IID) 209. 
7324 Pacific Print (for Novell LANS) .... 235. 

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3101 1200 Baud Internal Modem 65. 

3100 1200 Baud External Modem (mini) . 77. 
3103 2400 Baud Internal Modem 135. 

3102 2400 Baud External Modem 179. 

5286 2400 Baud Int. MNP Modem (Lev. 5) 175. 
5285 2400 Baud Ext. MNP Modem (Lev. 5) 209. 
4542 2400 Baud Internal Modem for PS/2. 229. 

8132 PM2400 Pocket Modem 99. 

7934 PM9600SA 489. 

PSION .. 1year 

7086 MC600 Mobile Computer 2149. 

7090 512K Flash EPROM 309. 

7962 3V2" External Drive 299. 

Reflection Technology .. 1 year 
7127 Private Eye (virtual display) 499. 

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4561 Safe250W 199. 

6747 Safe 400S (Slimline) 399. 




MicroSpeed ... lyear 

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requires a desk space less than 4 inches wide. 
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7271 Inport 79. 6330 PS/Z 79. 



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7913 Safe650W 459. 

7914 Safe800W 599. 

4560 Safe 1200W 739. 

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4899 Nylon Laptop Carrying Case 55. 

7028 Foliopac 79. 

6037 Premier Leather Carrying Case. . . 199. 

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5140 TheComplete Page Scanner 549. 

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w/ReadRight Personal OCR Software 289. 
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BC-200 (200W Battery Backup). .. 179. 
BC-325 (325W Battery Backup). . . 219. 
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BC^200(1200W LAN Backup)... 649. 

CCI6- 1 2 (Command Console) 69. 

LC-1200 (1200W Line Conditioner) 159. 

LS-600 (600W Line Stabilizer) 85. 

LS-604 (600W Line Stabilizer w/ORC 

Voltage Protection) 99. 

Isobar 6-6 (6 outlets, 6 ft. cord) 59. 

Isobar 8-12 (8 outlets, 12 ft. cord) . . 69. 
Isobar 8RM (with remote control) .. 79. 
Isoblok IB-2-0 (2 outlets, no cord) . . 29. 
Isotel (4 outlets, R J II protection) ... 59. 




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3778 Vega VGA $155. 

5883 1024i VGA (includes 512k) 219. 

4931 VRAM VGA512k 379. 



DRIVES 

IOMEGA ... 1 year 

5116 Bernoulli II Single 44 Meg Internal 995. 

5117 Bernoulli II Dual 44 Meg External 1969. 
5113 44 Meg Cartridge Tripak (5 1 M "). . . 249. 

2500 PC2B Controller 229. 

2503 PC4B Controller (MicroChannel) . . 299. 
7551 Bernoulli II Transportable 44 Meg . 997. 

Mountain Computer ... 2 years 
2917 40-60 Meg Interna! Tape Drive . . . 259. 
2916 40-60M Ext. Tape Drive 

(w/power supply) 489. 

5500 80-152M Int. Tape Drive 629. 

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6153 DC2120 Tape Cartridge (5 pack) . . 135. 




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8132 PM2400 Pockt Ata-2400bps perform- 
ance in a tiny package. Attaches to and draws 
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5011 360k External 179. 

7727 360k External for PS/2 189. 

5009 1.2 Meg External 209 

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6425 Hardcard II 40 Meg (19 ms) 399. 

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OUR POLICY 

9 We accept VISA and MASTERCARD only. 

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(in the U.S.). 

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Note: Accounts on net terms pay actual shipping. 
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» For heavy hardware items such as printers, monitors, 
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* For all other items, add $3 per order to cover UPS 
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© (X)PYRIGHT PC (X)NNECT10N, INC.. 1990. PC (XJNNECnON. PCTV AND THE RACXXON OiARACTEF^S) ARE REGISTERED TT^ 



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EXPERT ADVICE 

THE UNIX /bin ■ David Fiedler 




Back to the 
Workstations II 



An overview of 
personal computers, 
workstations, and how 
they are colliding 
in the marketplace 



What with all the new high- 
resolution Unix worksta- 
tions and the move toward 
open systems, some people 
are already proclaiming the death of the 
personal computer. They have a point, 
but it's not that Unix will be taking over 
the world or that you'll be forced to give 
up DOS after New Year's Day. And PCs 
as you have come to know them (and in 
some cases love them) are not going 
away. They're just going to get better. 

No Computer Is an Island 

The point is that the world of computers 
has been changed forever by the intro- 
duction of networking. Whether you're 
using Novell or Network File System 
(NFS) in your office and BIX or a BBS at 
home, almost all machines these days 
can be hooked up to others. It's almost 
essential for obtaining and sharing the 
information resources that people are 
finding necessary. 

People generally think of LANs when 
they're talking about networks. How- 
ever, today's computers must be able to 
hook up to wide-area networks, such as 
Usenet or Internet, as well as general- 
purpose information networks such as 
BIX or CompuServe. These allow you 
not only to retrieve information stored 
in value-added databases, but also to in- 
teract with hundreds of thousands of 
other users. In many cases, you can ask a 
question in the morning in a conference 
(also called newsgroup or forum) dedi- 
cated to a particular subject and have 
answers from knowledgeable users later 




on that same day. 

This capability is often underestimat- 
ed by people who have never seen it in 
action. Imagine having the power to ac- 
cess industry experts (and get written re- 
sponses) without paying any more than 
normal communications charges! 

The future will bring even more inten- 
sity into this area, because— at least in 
North America— everyone is getting 
wired with fiber optics and coaxial cable 
(right now, it's just carrying cable TV). 
This will eventually allow companies to 
offer high-speed digital data communi- 
cations to homes and offices, so that 
you'll be able to just plug your computer 
onto the network (without a modem) and 
connect to anybody, anywhere. Sounds 
futuristic, but it's coming. 

The 1-Minute LANager 

Despite this movement in the world of 
dial-up databases, the really exciting 
things for the office are happening in 



LANs. As I mentioned in this column a 
year ago, Sun's version of Unix intro- 
duced local-area networking in the form 
of NFS, which was quickly brought to 
Berkeley Unix. In a LAN, you hook up 
machines via Ethernet cable, using in- 
dustry-standard protocols such as TCP/ 
IP, so they can communicate with each 
other at a speed approaching that of a 
hard disk. NFS allows you to access a file 
from anywhere on a LAN, without hav- 
ing to know which machine the file is 
located on. 

Networking wasn't limited to just one 
vendor, since other manufacturers (nota- 
bly Digital Equipment Corp.) also based 
their products on Berkeley Unix. Even 
more important, NFS was ported to 
other operating systems, so PCs and 
mainframes could also hook up to the 
LAN. AT&T countered with its Remote 
File System, which didn't catch on well. 
But its new version of Unix, System V 
release 4, will have both NFS and RFS, 



ILLUSTRATION: DAVID MONTIEL © 1990 



DECEMBER 1990 • B Y T E 119 



THE UNIX /bin 



which neatly wraps things up for every- 
body. 

Of course, the power of LANs isn't 
just in the ability to share databases and 
print resources, although that's been 
about the limit of many PC LAN instal- 
lations. Networks also give you the op- 
tion of configuring powerful servers that 
can be accessed by workstations without 
expensive disks of their own. Thus, these 
diskless workstations can be made rela- 
tively powerful (say, with high-resolu- 
tion graphics and good CPU perfor- 
mance) while still being economical 
enough to put one on everyone's desk. 
This gives people a lot of computing 
power so they can be more productive. 

The Mac Factor 

While there are many people who think 
of PCs as "computers that run DOS," 
many Macintosh users out there would 
disagree. In many ways, the Mac has a lot 
more going for it than PCs and their 
clones— at least when you're discussing 
networks, workstations, PCs, and Unix. 
The Mac can be a real workstation, 
even by my rigorous definition, when it's 
running A/UX 2.0, Apple's latest ver- 



sion of Unix. By all accounts (I haven't 
had the chance to work with it yet), 
A/UX 2.0 is the environment that Apple 
was promising when it first released 
A/UX: an operating system that runs real 
Unix, the X Window System, and virtu- 
ally any Macintosh application. 

It does all this, remarkably, without 
giving up that user interface that has 
made the Macintosh so popular. Not only 
that, but an optional software emulator 
allows you to run DOS applications from 
A/UX as well. For a great many people, 
this can be the best of all worlds. 

Workstations vs. PCs 

So where does this all lead? The work- 
station market has already been fairly 
well defined. It's that huge list of prod- 
ucts typified by offerings from Sun, HP/ 
Apollo, DEC, IBM, Data General, Sony 
Microsystems, and a host of others. This 
group of formidable competitors has 
been chasing after basically the same 
customers (although the market for 
workstations has itself been expanding). 
Factor that in with the return of reason- 
able pricing for RAM chips and the 
plethora of powerful £PUs, and the net 



result is that workstation prices have 
dropped dramatically. 

In the PC market, you have the same 
price drop for memory, and certainly 
more powerful CPUs are common. The 
i486 and 68040 are probably the leaders 
in the high-end PC market, while less ex- 
pensive 386SX chips and 386 clones are 
rapidly bringing down prices for that 
level of power. High-resolution VGA 
boards are already fairly standard in the 
PC arena. Again, Macs have enjoyed this 
advantage from the beginning. 

Microsoft Windows 3.0 is introducing 
large numbers of PC users to the elegance 
and ease of a graphical user interface 
(GUI), even if it isn't quite as elegant as 
some users might like. PCs of all types 
are networked these days, so everyone is 
familiar with the concepts of LANs, 
Ethernet, and file servers. And the Unix 
operating system is becoming so main- 
stream that everyone from PC users to 
MIS managers seems to have at least a 
nodding familiarity with it. 

It's the Best of Times 

Clearly, it's time for the revolution. With 
workstation prices starting below $5000 



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THE UNIX /bin 



and plenty of PCs priced over that, cost is 
no longer the issue. You're about to see 
PCs turn into workstations, and worksta- 
tions turn into PCs. The only things 
holding back the inevitable tide are old 
habits and operating-system religion. As 
I write this column, Sun is starting an ad- 
vertising campaign aimed at PC owners, 
based on exactly the points I mentioned 
in my October column. 

In the next few months, I expect to fi- 
nally see some real diskless workstations 
based on PC technology: They'll be in- 
expensive (under $2500), single-box 
computers based around a 386 or i486 
CPU, with built-in Ethernet, mouse, 
serial, and parallel ports. They will 
come with a certain amount of software 
in ROM, which will drive the ports and 
display, running X Window or perhaps a 
higher-level GUI. 

The rest of the software will be deliv- 
ered on disk for installation on the serv- 
er. This will include DOS and Unix, as 
well as software that will connect them 
transparently. I hope and expect to see 
Apple introduce the same types of prod- 
ucts, perhaps by making a lower-cost 
Macintosh with enough of A/UX built in 



that the cost and complexity doesn't go 
too high. 

Next, you'll have to go the other way 
around. That would be something like 
this: a RISC-based workstation (possibly 
built around SPARC and SCSI architec- 
ture) that has the usual Unix workstation 
capabilities, plus a separate 386 proces- 
sor with its own memory and AT expan- 
sion slots, and a VGA display that could 
be just another window on the screen. 
The 386 would run DOS on its own so it 
wouldn't slow down Unix (or vice versa), 
but you could share files between the two 
operating systems the way VP/ix does 
now. The price would be competitive 
with both high-end PCs and current 
workstations. 

Computers from Mars 

Think I've finally inhaled too much sol- 
der smoke? The workstation I just men- 
tioned is already a reality. I will skip the 
most obvious jokes and simply tell you 
that the machine is called the Mariner 4i 
and it's from Mars Microsystems. You 
can buy the color version for less than 
$9000 including a disk drive. The DOS 
module is an extra $2000. 



Yes, I know it sounds almost too good 
to be true. No, I haven't personally tried 
or seen one yet, although the folks at 
Mars swear that I'm going to be one of 
the first to receive an evaluation unit. 
You can communicate with Mars (I 
couldn't resist that one) at P.O. Box 
1080, Mars, PA 16046, (412) 934-1040, 
fax (412) 934-1060, or E-mail at uunet! 
marsmcrolbr. 

This is oneof those occasions where 
"if it didn't exist, I would have had to in- 
vent it," since the Mariner really does 
exactly fit the scenario as I outlined it. 
Things are starting to happen almost as 
fast as they can be predicted, which 
means we're in for an interesting decade 
for sure. ■ 

David Fiedler is executive producer of 
Unix Video Quarterly and coauthor of 
the book Unix System Administration. 
He has helped start several Unix-related 
publications. You can reach him on BIX 
as u fiedler. " 

Your questions and comments are wel- 
come. Write to: Editor , BYTE, One 
Phoenix Mill Lane, Peterborough, NH 
03458. 



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122 BYTE- DECEMBER 1990 



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EXPERT ADVICE 

NETWORKS ■ Mark L. Van Name and Bill Catchings 



♦ 



KICKING 

and Screaming 
into the Present 



DEC'S LANworks 
for OS/2 is the latest 
of the firm's grudging 
steps to embrace PC 
networking standards 



Once upon a time, standards for 
using and linking computers 
came blasting from corporate 
MIS departments like missives 
from above. Those days are gone. To- 
day's standards arise from the micro- 
computers that sit on our desktops. Mini- 
computer vendors have been slow to 
recognize this change, and they've paid 
for their slowness with decreased sales. 

Networking was one area where many 
minicomputer vendors thought they were 
safe. After all, Digital Equipment Corp. 
and others have long had their own pro- 
prietary networking products. No need 
to make VAXes adhere to microcomputer 
LAN standards; just move the VAX stan- 
dards to the microcomputers, and all will 
be well. 

This strategy led to DEC's first PC 
networking products, PCSA (Personal 
Computer System Architecture) and 
DEPCA, DEC'S proprietary Ethernet PC 
Adapter. PCSA was basically DECnet, 
the VAX networking standard, for the 
PC. To run PCSA on a PC, you needed a 
DEPCA or a 3Com Ethernet board. With 
those products, PC users could work 
with files stored on a VAX, print on VAX 
printers, and log onto the VAX. 

DEC provided these file and print ser- 
vices by using DECnet in conjunction 
with two PC standards: the NetBIOS and 
SMB (Server Message Block) protocols. 
Those two protocols are at the base of PC 
LAN operating systems like 3Com's 
3 + Open. By following them, DEC was 
able to use a standard PC file-service re- 
director on top of its own DECnet proto- 




col stack. Unfortunately, PCSA can't es- 
cape its DECnet origins: Client PCs must 
run a DECnet protocol stack. Few, if 
any, PC LAN users run DECnet as their 
main transport protocol, so their normal 
LAN software won't work with the VAX; 
when they run DECnet, they can't use 
their standard LAN servers. 

PCSA's requirement of either a DEC 
or a 3Com Ethernet board is also a prob- 
lem for PC users accustomed to being 
able to shop around for the cheapest or 
fastest Ethernet card available. PCSA 
could have avoided this by following the 
Microsoft/3Com Network Driver Inter- 
face Specification, but it didn't. NDIS 
defines an interface with which Ethernet 
board device drivers can communicate 
with higher-level protocol stacks. By 
supporting NDIS, PCSA would have 
been able to work with any NDIS-com- 
patible board. 

DEC also didn't look too closely at 
typical PC LAN operating-system pric- 



ing schemes when it wrote the PCSA 
price book. While most PC LAN operat- 
ing-system vendors, such as Novell, 
charge per server license, DEC charges 
for PCSA per client license. DEC actu- 
ally bundles the VAX server software li- 
cense with every VAX. You then pay 
$215 for each PC that you want to attach. 
A fee of $215 per PC license is cheap as 
long as you don't hook up too many PCs, 
but the story changes when you connect a 
lot of systems. PC buyers who expect to 
spend $3000 to $5000 per server for soft- 
ware and then hook as many clients as 
possible to that server will not be happy 
when PCSA' s cost for 50 PCs comes in at 
over $10,000. 

The problem with PCSA was that DEC 
ignored a simple fact: Microcomputer 
users outnumber minicomputer users by 
a substantial margin, and that margin is 
growing. Therefore, the right way to link 
a minicomputer to a microcomputer is 
to bring the microcomputer networking 



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standard to the minicomputer, not the 
other way around. 

Another Perspective 

Novell figured this out well before DEC, 
and the result was NetWare VMS. Net- 
Ware VMS lets a VAX act as just another 
server on a NetWare LAN. With it, PCs 
running client NetWare software can 
read and write VAX files, print to VAX 
printers, and even manage VAX servers 
just as they would any standard NetWare 
PC server. NetWare VMS even adds a 
terminal service, which is not available 
on regular NetWare servers, for those 
who need to use their PCs as VAX ter- 
minals. 

Unfortunately, NetWare VMS has a 
few serious problems. We noted one of 
the biggest ones in an earlier column: 
The product is based on older NetWare 
technology that is now out of date. Newer 
NetWare features, such as the ability to 
store Macintosh files on the server, are 
not present under NetWare VMS. The 
product's performance is also not great; 
on our simple file transfer tests, for ex- 
ample, NetWare VMS ran significantly 
slower than PCSA. 

The most potentially devastating prob- 
lem, however, is that NetWare VMS and 
normal PC NetWare use slightly differ- 
ent implementations of Ethernet. Conse- 
quently , if you have an existing NetWare 
LAN and you decide to add a VAX to it, 
you can't use the same client driver soft- 
ware on your PCs to talk to both the VAX 
and your standard NetWare servers. You 
can work around this problem by con- 
verting all your current NetWare client 
PCs to DEC'S type of Ethernet, but that 
means running different software on all 
the client and server PCs. You can also 
use a NetWare bridge to handle the trans- 
lation, but that, too, is a hassle. 

Little Steps Forward 

We expect Novell to fix these problems 
someday, but right now they're major 
ones for existing NetWare sites. Mean- 
while, DEC is not standing still: It is 
slowly migrating its products toward PC 
standards. 

One of the first such steps was purely 
cosmetic: DEC renamed PCSA to LAN- 
works for DOS and replaced DEPCA 
with its EtherWorks boards. The next 
step was far more significant: DEC an- 
nounced a VAX-Macintosh networking 
product, LANworks for Macintosh, that 
adheres closely to Apple's current net- 
working standards (see our October Net- 
Works column). With LANworks for 
Macintosh, DEC took a giant step toward 
the microcomputer-dominated future by 



126 BYTE- DECEMBER 1990 



Circle 218 on Reader Service Card 



SmartCache Plus: the grow-as-you-go 
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embracing the existing Mac software 
networking standards. 

As we write this column, DEC is about 
to announce its first new PC networking 
product in some time: version 1.1 of 
LAN works for OS/2. Unfortunately, 
this new release, while more in tune with 
PC standards than DEC's previous PC 



A 



shard 

as it might be for a 

minicomputer company 

to believe, PC servers 

will often contain data 

that VAX users 
might want to access. 



networking offerings, still has a long way 
to go. 

From the PC perspective, the major 
positive feature of LAN works for OS/2 
is that it now conforms to the NDIS stan- 
dard. It should, therefore, work with any 
NDIS-compatible Ethernet adapter. The 
biggest drawback is that LANworks for 
OS/2 still uses DECnet. At first glance, 
DECnet's presence seems to mean that, 
yet again, you must choose between talk- 
ing to a VAX server and talking to a stan- 
dard PC server. 

Fortunately, that's not necessarily the 
case. First, it's at least theoretically pos- 
sible for a client LANworks for OS/2 PC 
to run two different protocol stacks at the 
same time and thereby work with both 
VAX and PC servers at once. For exam- 
ple, by running both DECnet and Net- 
BEUI (NetBIOS Extended User Inter- 
face), a client PC could work with both a 
VAX server and a standard OS/2 LAN 
Manager server. We don't know of any 
software that currently provides this abil- 
ity for OS/2 clients, but it is possible. 

LANworks for OS/2 does include a 
second way for client OS/2 PCs to talk to 
both VAX and OS/2 LAN Manager serv- 
ers: Put DECnet on the OS/2 server. 
This feature is available because you can 
buy both client and server LANworks for 
OS/2 1 . 1 software. (The server package 
is based on Microsoft's LAN Manager 
2.0.) In this approach, the PC server, not 
the clients, runs both DECnet and Net- 



BEUI. Those clients that are content to 
ignore the VAX can continue to use their 
normal NetBEUI software, while those 
that want to see both the VAX and the PC 
server run DECnet. The server can han- 
dle both types of requests. 

This solution is obviously not perfect, 
but it indicates DEC's grudging accep- 
tance that client PCs might want to talk 
with both VAXes and other servers. To 
embrace the PC standards entirely would 
mean abandoning DECnet on PCs in 
favor of NetBEUI and/or Novell's SPX/ 
IPX, a move that we don't think DEC is 
anywhere near ready to make. 

Even without that step, however, 
there's room for improvement in LAN- 
works for OS/2. For one thing, the VAX 
should be able to be both a client and a 
server. As hard as it might be for a mini- 
computer company to believe, PC serv- 
ers will often contain data that VAX 
users might want to access. 

LANworks for OS/2 also follows the 
same client-based pricing scheme as 
DEC's DOS and Mac products. The cli- 
ent software runs $215 per system, while 
the OS/2 server software is $325 per sys- 
tem. If you want to run a single OS/2 PC 
as both client and server, you have to buy 
both licenses. 

Still Not Far Enough 

LANworks for OS/2 is a small step for- 
ward, but it's not enough. DEC seems 
aware of this, because the firm is work- 
ing on alternatives to the DECnet proto- 
col stack. We have heard about only one 
for sure— TCP/IP, which is due early in 
1991— but we hope that NetBEUI sup- 
port is in the works as well. DEC is also 
developing a LANworks product for its 
VAX Unix operating system, Ultrix, and 
the firm plans to bring LANworks for 
DOS in sync with its OS/2 offering by 
adding NDIS support to the DOS prod- 
uct. 

Clearly, the people at DEC are slowly 
coming to recognize the importance of 
adhering to microcomputer networking 
standards. We hope that they, as well as 
the other large-system vendors, continue 
to do so, and do so fast enough to survive 
the ongoing blitz of the little systems. ■ 

Mark L. Van Name and Bill Catchings are 
BYTE contributing editors. Both are also 
independent computer consultants and 
freelance writers based in Raleigh, North 
Carolina. You can reach them on BIX as 
"mvanname " and "wbc3, " respectively. 
Your questions and comments are wel- 
come. Write to: Editor, BYTE, One 
Phoenix Mill Lane, Peterborough , NH 
03458. 



128 BYTE- DECEMBER 1990 




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HARDWARE 

AT 12 MHZ (exp. 4 meg wait) $ 165. 

XTtOMHZTurbo(exp.Owait) $ 69. 

Power Supply 200 Watt ........$ 49. 

Power Supply 150 Watt -.$ 39. 

XTCasejw/hardware) $ 34. 

Baby AT Case (w/hardware) $ 52. 

AT Case (Full Size) $ 59. 

Keyboard 84 Key (tactile touch) $ 40. 

Keyboard 101 key (tactile touch) . .$ 54. 

Multi I/O Card $ 34. 

Floppy Controller Card $ 21. 

FHDC{1.44/1.2/720K/360K) , .$ 45. 

ATI/0 . .$ 32. 

SerialCard .$ 20. 

Parallel Card .$ 20. 

Game Card $ 20. 

LAPTOPS -continued 

ZENITH LAPTOPS 

Minisport 2MB RAM NOTE BOOK .$CALL 

Supersport184 . $1150. 

Supersport 184-2 $1650. 

Supersport28620MB ,$2450. 

Supersport 286 40MB ,$2650. 

386SX 40MB $3850. 

NEC LAPTOPS 

Prospeed 286 20MB , .$1650 

Prospeed 286 40MB .$2425. 

Prospeed 386SX $2650. 

Prospeed 386 40MB $3550. 




HARD DISK DRIVES 

SEAGATE 

20MB 65MSST225w/XT Controller $229. 

20MB 35MSST125W/XT Controller $ 299. 

30MB 65MSST238w/XT Controller . . $239. 

30MB 35MSST1 38 w/XT Controller . $ 345. 

40MB28MSST251-1 , $339. 

80MB 28MSST4096 Full Height ,$ 535. 

HARD DRIVE CARDS 

XT MFM(20mg Controller) .. $ 55, 

XT RLL27x(30mg Controller) $ 59. 

ATMFM2:1 Controller $ 79. 

ATMFM 1:1 Controller . $105. 

AT RLL 1:1 Controller . $ 110. 

FLOPPY DISK DRIVES 

TOSHIBA 

360K5.25"HH Black . . .' $ 59 

720K 3.5" HHw/5.25" Mount $ 64 

1.2MB 5.25" HH Grey $ 69, 

1.44MB 3.5" HH Grey w/5.25" Mount , , $ 75. 

TEAC 

360K 5.25" HH Black $ 59. 

720K 3.5" HH w/5.25" Mount $ 64. 

12MB 5,25" HH Grey $ 69. 

1.44MB 3.5" HH Grey w/5.25" Mount $ 75. 

FUJITSU 

360K5.25 . . $ 59. 

1.2,5.25 $ 69. 

SONY 

720K3.5 , $64. 

1.44,3.5 . .... .$75. 

MODEMS 

Mastercom-1200B (internal) $ 44. 

Mastercom - 2400B internal) $ 75. 

US Robotics, Courier HST/9600B $615. 

SOFTWARE 

WordPerfect 5.1 $CALL 

Lotus 1-2-32.2/3.0 ,$0ALL 

MicrosoftALL 

MOUSE 

Genius Mouse, GM6X $ 

Genius Mouse F301 .$ 50. 

Logitech Mouse C9 $CALL 

INTEL 

ALL CO-PROCESSORS . , . . . $$CALL 




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6/12 MHz Motherboard 

'80286 CPU 

■ Norton Si Rating 15.3 
'0 Wait State 

■ 1.2MB High Capacity Floppy 

• 1 Meg RAM Expandable to 4 MB 

■ Serial Port/Parallel Port 
•1.2MB Floppy Controller 

• 8 Expansion Slots 

• 6-16 Bit, 2-8 Bit Slots 
■200 Watt Power Supply 
■AT Style Keyboard 
•Mono Card /Parallel Port 

• Monochrome Amber Monitor 



$675. 



XT Power System 



4.77/10 MHz Motherboard 

8088-10 CPU 
(1)360K Floppy Drive 
640/K RAM/Floppy Controller 
8 Expansion Slots 
1 50 Watt P.S./AT Style Keyboard 
Serial/Parallel/Clock & Game Port 
Mono Card/Parallel Port 
Monochrome Amber Monitor 



•16 MHz Motherboard 

•80386SXCPU 

• 1 Meg RAM (80 nsec.) Installed 
•1.2MB or 1.44MB Floppy Drive 

• 2 Serial Ports 

• 1 Parallel Port 

• 80387SX Co-processor Socket 

• Floppy Drive Controller 
• Hard Drive Controller 
•8 Expansion Slots 
•5-16 Bit, 3-8 Bit 

•RAM Upgradable to 8 Meg 
•200 Watt Power Supply 

• 101 Key Enhanced Keyboard 

• Clock/Calendar w/ Battery Backup 

• Mono Card/Parallel Port 

• Monochrome Amber Monitor 
•AC Power Pad 



$849. 



•20/25 MHz Motherboard 

•80386 CPU 
•AMI Bios 

• 1 Meg RAM/Upgrade to 8 Meg 

• 1 .2MB/1.44 High Capacity Drives 

• 2 Serial Ports/1 Parallel Port 

• 80387 Co-processor Socket 

• Floppy/Hard Drive Controller 

• 8 Expansion Slots 
•2-32 Bit, 5-16 Bit. 1-8 Bit 

• 230 Watt Power Supply 

• 101 Key Enhanced Keyboard 

• Clock/Calendar w/ Battery Backup 

• Mono Card/Parallel Port 

• Monochrome Amber Monitor 

• AC Power Pad 

$ 1,275. 20MHz 
$ 1 ,375. 25MHz 



•33 MHz Motherboard 

•64K Cache Memory 
•80386 CPU 

• AMI Bios 

• 1 Meg RAM (80 nsec) Installed 

• 1.2MB/1.44 High Capacity Drives 

• 2 Serial Ports / 1 Parallel Port 

• 80387 Co-processor Socket 

• Floppy/Hard Drive Controller 

• 8 Expansion Slots 
•2-32 Bit, 5-16 Bit, 1-8 Bit 

• RAM Upgradableto 8 Meg 
•230 Watt Power Supply 

• 101 Key Enhanced Keyboard 

• Clock/Calendar w/ Battery Backup 

• Mono Card/Parallel Port 

• Monochrome Amber Monitor 

• AC Power Pad 

$1,749. 



•25 MHz Motherboard 

•80486 CPU 

• AMI Bios 

• 4 Meg RAM 

• 1.2MB/1.44 High Capacity Drives 

• 2 Serial Ports 

• 1 Parallel Port 

• 80487 Co-processor Socket 

• Floppy/Hard Drive Controller 

• 8 Expansion Slots 
•2-32 Bit, 5-16 Bit 1-8 Bit 
•RAM Upgradable to 16 Meg 
•230 Watt Power Supply 

• 101 Key Enhanced Keyboard 

• Reset Button / Keyboard Lock 

• LED Power & Turbo Indicators 

• Clock/Calendar w/Batteiy Backup 

• AC Power Pad 

$ 3,900. 



$459. 



HARD DRIVE OPTIONS 



■ 20MB Seagate Hard Drive .... $175. 

30MB Seagate Hard Drive .... $185. 

40MB Seagate Hard Drive .... $339. 

80MB Seagate Hard Drive .... $525. 



MONITOR OPTIONS 



Monochrome Amber Monitor 

Mono Card/Parallel Port $108. 

EGA Monitor 

EGA Card $419. 

VGA Monitor 

VGA+16Card+512K ....... $436. 



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Circle 152 on Reader Service Card 



Short Takes 



BYTE editors' hands-on views of new and developing products 



Step 486/50 



Muse 



ProLine Backup System 
Amiga 3000UX 



Hardcard IIXL 




The Experimental Step 486/50 Redefines Cool 



Everex has joined the rac- 
ing circuit with its Step 
486/50. Although the com- 
pany won't actually bring this 
product to market, it is a tech- 
nological showpiece with a su- 
percooled engine that pushes 
Intel's i486 CPU to a scorch- 
ing 50 MHz. 

At the heart of the new 
machine is Velox Computer 
Technology's ICECap, which 
is a sophisticated temperature 
and voltage control system that 
lets Everex boost CPU clock 
speed to 50 MHz without 
overheating the CPU. The 
ICECap IC module, which 
encases the i486, plugs directly 
into the CPU socket and main- 
tains the i486 at a chilly 0°C. 

The Step 486/50 isn't ex- 
actly a true 50-MHz system. 
The ICECap sits on a modified 
Step 486/25 motherboard that 
clocks the CPU at 50 MHz and 
the rest of the motherboard at 
25 MHz. Everex also had to 
add extra wait states between 
the external 128K-byte pro- 
cessor cache and the CPU. 
Even with these handicaps, 
however, the Step 486/50 gave 
an impressive performance. 
The Step 486/50 held a 28 



percent edge over the Step 
486/33 on the CPU tests, and 
it posted roughly 50 percent 
higher results on the floating- 
point tests. The FPU tests 
benefited because more of the 
tests run within the i486's on- 
board cache. Had Everex 
tuned its external pro-cessor 
cache for 50 MHz, both num- 
bers would have been higher. 
Remove the Step system's 
cover and you can't miss the 
ICECap. The module rises 
from the CPU socket like a 
high-rise office building, tow- 
ering 3 inches above the moth- 
erboard. The system is made 
up of three stacked com- 
ponents — a thermoelectric 
cooler, aheatsink, and a fan — 
and on-board control circuitry 
that keeps voltage up and 
temperature down. 



For Velox, merely prevent- 
ing the i486 from overheating 
isn't enough. The company 
claims that cooling the CPU to 
the bottom of its operating 
temperature range increases 
reliability and lets the chip run 
35 percent faster. Since it 
doesn't have to worry about 
overheating the CPU, Velox 
also maximizes power input at 
the i486's peak of 5.2 volts. 
This reduces propagation de- 
lay and, Velox claims, im- 
proves performance by an- 
other 15 percent. 

Heat sinks and fans are 
common, but Velox is the first 
microcomputer company to 
use a Peltier effect device — a 
thermoelectric cooling system 
based on the principle that 
passing a current between two 
physically connected, dissimi- 



THE FACTS 


Step 486/50 


Velox Computer 




Technology, Inc. 


Everex Systems, Inc. 


2334 Walsh Ave. 


48431 MilmontDr. 


Santa Clara, C A 95051 


Fremont, CA 94538 


(408)727-6100 


(800) 356-4283 


Inquiry 1161. 


Inquiry 1160. 





lar materials produces cooling 
on one side and heat on the 
other. 

The Velox device has four 
components. At the top and 
bottom of the Peltier device, an 
aluminum oxide "cold plate" 
and "hot plate" transfer heat 
from the i486 to the heat sink. 

Sandwiched between the 
plates are two semiconductors 
that do the work. These semi- 
conductors have opposite elec- 
trical properties, and they are 
arranged in such a way that, 
when you apply voltage to the 
system, electrons in both ma- 
terials flow from the cold plate 
to the hot plate. This carries 
heat away from the CPU and 
into the heat sink. The fan then 
blows air down into the cool- 
ing fins, dissipating the heat 
inside the system unit case. 
Velox claims that the ICECap 
raises the temperature inside 
an AT case by I to 3 degrees. 

To keep the CPU tempera- 
ture constant, a thermal sensor 
generates a control signal 
when the chip temperature 
rises above freezing. The sys- 
tem also includes a dual clock 
speed generator that ramps up 
clock cycles as the CPU tem- 
perature drops and lets the 
CPU operate at normal speeds 
if the ICECap fails. 

After running for several 
days, the ICECap remained 
surprisingly cool. The mother- 
board, hacked to accommo- 
date a 50-MHz CPU, wasn't 
pretty. And the system had 
trouble running several appli- 
cations, including PageMaker 
and Lotus 1-2-3. 

In the future, you'll proba- 
bly see the ICECap in systems 
from other vendors. In a mar- 
ket full of clone vendors des- 
perate to differentiate their 
products, the ICECap is sure 
to attract attention. And for the 
extra $600 it's likely to add to 
the price of a 486 system, us- 
ers may bite. 

— Rob Mitchell 



132 BYTE • DECEMBER 1990 



Finally 

There's Muse 
for the Mac 



M 



use calls itself a nat- 
ural-language interface 
program, but a more accurate 
description might be "query by 
English-like commands." You 
load your data by creating 
databooks, which represent a 
collection of up to 64,000 
homogeneous or heterogene- 
ous data structures, each of 
which can be tables of infor- 
mation that range into mega- 
bytes (with available hard disk 
storage). You can reference 15 
of these databooks at once. 
One way of thinking of data- 
books in conventional terms 
would be as a relational data- 
base. Databooks are how Muse 
stores things. 

You import or create data in 
workbooks, which look like 
spreadsheets with labeled 
axes. You can manually place 
information or import it in 
WKS, WK1, WK3, DIF, 
SYLK, or DBF formats. It's 
also possible to import it in 
comma, space, or tab-delim- 
ited formats. You can import 
fixed-field ASCII. Workbooks 
may have definitions and re- 
lations that apply only to the 
data within that workbook at- 
tached to them. 

Muse can create charts from 
numeric data. It's also possible 
to create two-dimensional or 




THE FACTS 


Muse 


Occam Research Corp. 


$695 


85 Main St. 




Watertown, MA 02172 


Requirements: 


(617)923-3545 


A Mac with System 6.0.3 


Inquiry 1162. 


or higher and 2 MB of 




RAM. A hard disk drive is 




recommended. 





3-D (or animated series of 
both) charts. Other chart pos- 
sibilities are bar, column, x,y, 
scatter, line, 3-D surface, per- 
centage, pie, 3-D spline, 3-D 
ribbon, log-log, log-linear, 
stacked bar, stacked column, 
high-low-close, contour map, 
duaLy-axis, and combinations. 
Automatic axis labeling is 
performed with auto-sizing of 
the legends. While graphs are 
displayed on the Mac screen 
in color, printing them on a 
LaserWriter substitutes pat- 



terns for colors. The resulting 
charts were as good as any- 
thing I have seen from WingZ, 
DeltaGraph, or Excel. 

Scripts are the records of 
questions and answers posed 
to Muse. It's basically a col- 
lection of boxes (with one box 
for your questions and anoth- 
er box for Muse's answers) 
stacked on top of each other. 
You can save or modify them 
just like plain text. 

I looked at an early beta 
copy of Muse. It would run 



only on a Mac II with an FPU 
and 4 MB of RAM, although 
Occam said that the release 
version should be able to run 
on a Mac SE or Plus with 2 
MB as a minimum (if slow) 
configuration. While the beta 
version I saw is certain to 
change, the basic functionality 
of the program came through 
rather well. The illustration 
shows how a simple single- 
variable query produced a 
single answer in the script 
window. When multiple-vari- 
able queries are made, a work- 
book window containing the 
results is produced. I tried dif- 
ferent forms of queries, and all 
produced well-formatted and 
useful answers. 

However, I thought the cur- 
rent system of error checking 
left something to be desired. If 
you pose a query with less than 
the needed number of vari- 
ables, for instance, Muse sim- 
ply shoots back "underde- 
fined." It would be far more 
useful to have some idea of 
what it was that Muse actually 
needed for the query to be 
defined, perhaps with a scroll- 
ing list of available choices. I 
expect to see this resolved in 
further beta testing. 

Muse is the first attempt on 
the Mac to make data useful 
by being easily obtainable. Oc- 
cam seems to be on the right 
track thus far, and I look for- 
ward to seeing a final copy of 
the product. 

— Laurence H. Loeb 



DATs a Classy Backup System 



The ProLine DATaVault, a 
toaster-shaped SCSI digi- 
tal audiotape-recording system 
(DAT) drive, packs 1 .3 giga- 
bytes of data onto a tiny 4-mm 
cartridge. Pop in Tecmar's 
new Proserve software, an 
innovative client-server pro- 
gram suite, and you've got the 



ProLine Backup System, a 

comprehensive — but pricey — 
tape backup solution for a Net- 
Ware LAN. 

Installing the DATaVault 
on a NetWare 286 server was 
a mixture of ups and downs. 
Could I piggyback the drive 
onto the server's existing Fu- 



ture Domain SCSI host bus 
adapter? No, I had to use the 
Tecmar-supplied Adaptec 
controller — somewhat redun- 
dantly, in this case. (It's a stan- 
dard Adaptec device, though, 
so if you're already using one 
of those, you won ' t have to add 
a second.) That, in turn, meant 



I ' d have to add a new driver to 
NetWare. Like its NetWare 
386 cousin, the driver links 
dynamically with NetWare. 

The driver's installation 
program scans the NetWare 
executable file; reports the 
IRQ, I/O, and RAM settings 
that are consumed by Net- 



DECEMBER 1990 • BYTE 133 



SHORT TAKES 



Ware-controlled boards; and 
recommends compatible set- 
tings for the Tecmar/Adaptec 
controller. So I figured I 
wouldn't have to run NET- 
GEN and reinstall NetWare. 

But, alas, it was not to be. 
Industry Standard Architec- 
ture board conflict resolution 
remains an uncertain science. 
The server's TCP/IP gateway, 
for reasons apparent neither to 
Tecmar's installation program 
nor to me, fought with Tec- 
mar' s adapter. I tossed out the 
TCP/IP board (it wasn't a per- 
manent fixture anyway) and 
ran NETGEN to tell NetWare 
I had done that. 

In spite of the conflict, I 
applaud Tecmar's clever 
scheme. In many cases, it 
should savebusy LAN admin- 
istrators a lot of time and 
trouble, and it offers a ray of 
hope to the many NetWare 286 
users not in a position to up- 
grade to NetWare 386. 

Once loaded, TAPEDRV 
.VAP provides an assortment 
of NetWare console com- 
mands. With these commands, 
you can reset the DATaVault 
and erase, format, test, or list 
the contents of a 4-mm car- 
tridge. A second value-added 
process, PROSERVE.VAP, 
supplies the server (or back- 
end) component of the backup 
application. Multitasking with 
NetWare, PROSERVE.VAP 
accepts connections from 
client workstations, queues 
backup requests, and performs 
backups. 

Client software also comes 
in two parts. With PRO- 
SERVE.EXE, you administer 
users and queues, schedule 
attended or unattended jobs, 
and monitor tape-drive status, 




THE FACTS 


ProLine Backup System 


NetWare 386 (3.1). 


(includes drive, adapter, 


Client: AT, PS/2, orcompat- 


cable, server and client 


ible running DOS 3.0 or 


software, and documenta- 


higher with 640K bytes of 


tion) 


RAM. 


for NetWare 286, $5995; 




for NetWare 386, $6295 


Tecmar, Inc. 




6225 Cochran Rd. 


Requirements: 


Solon, Ohio 441 39 


File server: AT, PS/2, or 


(216)349-4030 


compatible running 


Inquiry 1163. 


NetWare 286 (2. lx) or 





tape contents, and a history of 
backup transactions. A Novell/ 
C-Worthy point-and-shoot 
interface neatly manages a 
formidable array of options. 
You can specify the target file 
set to be all files, new files, or 
dormant files. 

You can save NetWare 
bindery, trustee, and file attri- 
butes; in the case of a NetWare 
2.15 server with Macintosh 
clients, you can save Mac-re- 
lated directory information 
and resource forks as well. 
There is, however, no client 



software for the Mac; you'll 
have to schedule the backup of 
Mac directories on the server 
from a PC, and you can't back 
up a Mac client directly to 
tape. 

You can move files from a 
PC straight to tape, thanks to 
the client-server architecture 
of the Proserve software. 
PSCLIENT.EXE, a small 
(15K bytes) DOS TSR pro- 
gram, communicates with 
PROSERVE.VAP. 

Once it's loaded, a backup 
job scheduled by means of 



PROSERVE.EXE can draw 
files directly from the client 
PC. Because direct client-to- 
tape backup obviates the need 
for a large intermediate trans- 
fer area on the file server, it's 
a feature I prize highly. 

Tecmar's deluxe Proserve 
software is clearly a class act. 
It does more than I have room 
to describe, and does it well. 
In fact, Proserve works with 
several species of Tecmar tape 
drive: DC600 (250 and 525 
megabytes), DAT (1.3 giga- 
bytes), and 8-mm analog heli- 
cal-scan (2.2 gigabytes). 
Given this range of choices, 
and considering that the cur- 
rent highest-capacity Tecmar 
tape drive is 8-mm, not 4-mm 
DAT, why choose the DATa- 
Vault? Frankly, I'm not sure. 
Proponents point out that 
DAT — compared to 8-mm 
technology — offers superior 
error correction, requires 
fewer moving parts, and can 
find random files much more 
quickly. 

While I've no reason to 
doubt those claims, I am 
obliged to report that the first 
4-mm DAT tape I used in the 
DATaVault developed prob- 
lems — after I formatted it, 
tested it, and performed two 
apparently successful backups. 
Tecmar agrees that it ought to 
provide a rigorous verification 
utility; the existing format and 
test utilities don't touch most 
of the tape. Although I've 
since had no further problems 
with other 4-mm tapes, I'm left 
wondering whether there's a 
percentage in being the first 
one on the block to use one of 
those newfangled DAT sys- 
tems. 

— Jon Udell 



A Unix Graphics Workstation for the Rest of the World 



Amiga enthusiasts keep 
telling me that the Amiga 
is a serious computer, that it is 
for the business and profes- 
sional user. But old beliefs are 
hard to shake — at least they 
were until I saw the Amiga 
3000UX. This workstation is 
the most complete implemen- 



tation of the new AT&T Unix 
System V release 4. 

The base Amiga 3000UX 
machine includes a 25-MHz 
MC68030, a math coproces- 
sor, 8 megabytes of RAM, a 
100-MB SCSI drive (optional 
200 MB), and either a high- 
resolution monochrome dis- 



play or the standard Amiga 
color display. All the hardware 
parts are already integrated 
with the system, including a 
port for additional SCSI de- 
vices, a port for an additional 
floppy disk drive, a port for a 
parallel printer, and a serial 
connection for an external ter- 



minal, modem, or printer. Al- 
though Ethernet (thick- or 
thin-wire) is an option, the 
network software is already in 
place. 

Most important, the system 
includes Unix System V re- 
lease 4 and the X Window 
System, including Level 1 



134 B Y T E • DECEMBER 1 990 



HeresHow^feProtect 
¥)ur Software AndProfitsBetter 





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the world how we protect your hard work. 
But then, why should we? It's not that we're hard 
to get along with. On the contrary. We'll show you 
how our unwordy approach to software protection can 
actually work better for you. We'll deliver the best balance 
of guaranteed copy control and cost-effective installation. 
Unlike other manufacturers, our hardware is uniquely 
custom-wired for each developer and supplied with a specific 
encrypted interrogation routine for maximum security. 

The precise routines assume responsibility for all hardware, 
software and timing issues so your time and money isn't 
wasted engineering protection schemes. 



V^MICROPHAR 




The Products That Protect Your Revenues 

► PROTECH KEY 
Identically reproduced packages. 

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► MEMORY-ONE KEY 
Customized packages, modular packages 

► MICROPROCESSOR KEY 
Non-operating system specific protection based on RS232C 

communications for minicomputers, workstations, etc. 



In EUROPE: 

MICROPHAR, 122 Ave. Ch. De Gaulle 92200, 

Neuilly Sur-Seine FRANCE Tel: 33-1-47-38-21-21 Fax: 33-1-46-24-76-91 

For distributors in: 

• BELGIUM/NETHERLANDS. E2S (091 21 11 17) -SPAIN, (343 237 31 05) 

• IRELAND, TMC (021 87 37 1 1 ) • GERMANY, Microphar Deutschland (06223 737 30) 

• PORTUGAL, HCR(1 56 18 65)* UNITED KINGDOM, Clearsoft (091-3789393) 

• SWITZERLAND, SAFE (024 21 53 86) • ITALY, Siosistemi (030 24 21 074) 



MARKETING, INC. 

1-800-843-0413 

In the U.S., the AMERICAS & the PACIFIC: 
PROTECH, 9600-J Southern Pine Blvd., 
Charlotte, NC 28217 Se Habla Espaitol 

Tel: 704-523-9500 Fax: 704-523-7651 

Hours: Mon-Thurs: 8:30-7:00 ET, Fri: 8:30-5:30 ET 



FOR A DEMONSTRATION PACKAGE OR ADDITIONAL 
INFORMATION, PLEASE WRITE OR CALL. 



•Macintosh is a registered trademarkof Apple Computer. Inc. 
*NEC is a registered trademark ol NEC Information Systems, Inc. 



For Europe, circle 249 on Reader Service Card 



For Americas & Pacific, circle 250 on Reader Service Card 
i 



SHORT TAKES 



implementation of Open Look. 
The Unix manual pages are 
on-line. Bundled with the 
operating system are two C 
compilers (the AT&T standard 
compiler and the GNU opti- 
mizing compiler), the popular 
screen-oriented mail manager 
elm , and several Amiga-spe- 
cific utilities. 

The Amiga 3000UX with 
release 4 is not a clone, nor a 
work-alike, nor a toy. It is a no- 
nonsense workstation that is 
impressive and compact. I am 
not saying that if you put the 
Amiga beside a full-size 
SPARCstation or a Silicon 
Graphics workstation you 
won't be able to see obvious 
differences that favor these 
automobile-priced machines. 
But when you put it beside a 
NeXT or a Macintosh or a 386 
workstation, the differences 
are in favor of the Amiga. 
Consider the work (and 
money) that is required to 
build a workstation out of a 
386-based Industry Standard 
Architecture or Extended In- 
dustry Standard Architecture 
bus machine; you have to get 
one part here and another part 




there. All the parts have to be 
configured to work together 
without conflicts in interrupts 
and memory addresses. The 
Amiga 3000UX is a plug-and- 
play operation. 

The newest release of Unix 
System V is significant be- 
cause it incorporates the BSD 
features that make it so well 
suited for workstation comput- 



ing, including mechanisms for 
mounting remote file systems 
and distributed processing. 
Since AT&T sells only source 
code rights to Unix (unless you 
are buying an AT&T com- 
puter), users have had to wait 
until the hardware vendors 
finished their work on porting 
the new source codes to their 
machines. Although many 



THE FACTS 



Amiga 3000UX 

Approximately $4000 

Commodore Business 

Machines, Inc. 

Computer Systems 

Division 

Brandywine Industrial 

Park 

1200 Wilson Dr. 

West Chester, PA 19380 

(215)431-9100 

Inquiry 1164. 



Unix licensees are well along 
in completing this task, it ap- 
pears that Commodore will be 
the first to complete it. 

The Amiga 3000UX greatly 
outperforms the equivalent 
NeXT and Mac with A/UX. In 
raw Unix performance, it is 
roughly equivalent to a 20- 
MHz 386 system, but it is 
much more suited to handling 
the graphics requirements of a 
graphical user interface like 
Open Look. At roughly $4000, 
it is an obvious choice as a 
low-end workstation. 

— Ben Smith 



Caching In on the Hardcard 



The Hardcard is a popular 
way to augment storage 
capacity because you just open 
your computer and drop a full- 
length card into a free bus slot, 
and you've got another drive. 
The new Hardcard IIXL, 
available in 52- and 105-mega- 



THE FACTS 



Hardcard IIXL 50 

$579; Hardcard IIXL 105, 
$999 

Requirements: 
A 16-bit ISA-bus slot in 
an IBM PC-compatible 
286 or a non-PS/2 386. 

Plus Development Corp. 
1778 McCarthy Blvd. 
Milpitas, CA 95035 
(408) 434-6900 
Inquiry 1165. 



byte capacities, includes a 
built-in 64K-byte read-ahead 
disk cache that gives the drive 
a rated average access time of 
only 9 milliseconds. 

I installed the Hardcard 
IIXL in less than 10 minutes. 
Once the drive was installed, I 
loaded it with software and 
noticed how quiet and fast it 
was. File copies and directory 
listings zoomed along at twice 
the speed of my old, frag- 
mented, 65-ms Seagate, and 
my applications loaded more 
quickly. However, a two-level 
database indexing and a test 
suite of assorted Windows ac- 
cessories were only slightly 
faster on the Hardcard. 

On the low-level BYTE 
benchmarks, running on a 
slow 286 machine, the drive 
turned in a rating of 1.97, or 
about twice as fast as a stan- 
dard 40-MB hard disk drive in 



an IBM AT. Running in a 
Compaq Deskpro 386/33, its 
rating was 2.90. These num- 
bers compare with a score of 
2.20 for the hard disk drive 
supplied with the Compaq 
Deskpro 386/25e. 

Data throughput for the 
Hardcard ranged from 465K 
bytes per second on the 286 up 
to 930K bytes per second on 
the Deskpro 386/33, versus a 
speed of 700K bytes per sec- 
ond for the Compaq 386/25e. 
Measured seek times averaged 
between 16 and 19 ms; the 
Hardcard performed near its 
hardware access speed of 17 
ms rather than the cache-as- 
sisted rate of 9 ms, because the 
BYTE benchmark test de- 
feated the read-ahead cache 
with random sector seeks. In a 
real application that uses more 
typical contiguous sector 
seeks, the performance would 



certainly be better. 

My only disappointment 
with the Hardcard IIXL was 
that its built-in cache and the 
SmartDrive caching software 
supplied with Microsoft Win- 
dows 3.0 didn't seem to com- 
plement each other. 

Plus has typically charged 
more for the Hardcard than the 
price of equivalently sized 
hard disk drives. The 52- and 
105-MB Hardcard IIXLs 
break that tradition with sug- 
gested list prices of $579 and 
$999, respectively. Those 
prices are expected to fall to 
$399 and $699 on the street, 
which will make the Hardcard 
IIXL not only convenient but 
also cost-competitive. If you 
are running out of disk space 
and you have slots to spare, I 
recommend you take the Hard- 
card IIXL for a spin. ■ 

— Andrew Reinhardt 



136 B YTE • DECEMBER 1990 



DR DOS &0. 

WE COULDNT HAVE 
SAID IT BETTER. 



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poised to ^ f V ts Ws compau- 
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and company ^ teato w<* 

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nonnced ^ oK }u e r^icon^v 

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. tl sVttw*^ . i sources 

say 0** SdevW***: - , 

mendm& Ifc * ling consultant 

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our meuioiv J l Vuscr com- 
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putmganalystwim^ ^ 

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i^ESEE^ 



So what's all the hoopla about? 

MemoryM AX T m for one thing. A breakthrough in 
memory management that can give you more than 
620K so you can run today's memory-intensive 
applications, including, for example, dBASE IV® 
on Novell NetWare®. 

In fact, John Dvorak calls MemoryMAX nothing 
short of "amazing." 

The Press goes on to mention that because 
DR DOS 5.0 is fully DOS compatible, you can run 
all your current DOS applications. And because it is 
easy to install and requires no hard disk reformat- 



ikffLe Elements \ Turbo C++ 
■?> Wo Programmer 

Sk ._ U'.oninS | 

1 r u Peter Coftee__ -■— 

ting, upgrading to DR DOS is simple. Since DR DOS 
5.0 also includes ViewMAX™, a graphical interface, 
DOS is easier than ever to use. 

Now if we could just get a word in edgewise, we 
would simply like to add that DR DOS 5.0 is available 
now. Call your local dealer today. 

DR DOS 5.0 

Digital Research © 



WE MAKE COMPUTERS WORK 



For Laptop and Notebook manufacturers, DR DOS 5.0 is fully executable from either RAM or ROM. And, it's available 
with BatteryMAX,.., a battery-saving feature that can increase battery life 2-3 times (dependent upon OEM implementation). 

Digital Research is a registered trademark, and the Digital Research logo, DR DOS, 
MemoryMAX, ViewMAX, and BatteryMAX are trademarks of Digital Research Inc. Copyright © 1990, Digital Research Inc. 

Reprinted from PC Week May 14, 1990. Copyright © 1990 Ziff Communications Company. 
Reprinted with permission from The San Francisco Examiner. Copyright © 1990 The San Francisco Examiner. 

Circle 92 on Reader Service Card 



The affordable HPLasei 






\ 








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What's more, with HP quality 
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It's no wonder PC Magazine 
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•Suggested U.S. list price. "Offer available from October 1 to December 31, 1990. ©1990 Hewlett-Packard Company PE12025 



FIRST 



I M P R E S 



I N 



Sun's newest progeny couples performance 
with innovative software 



Son of SPARCstation 



The low-end workstation market 
is in full swing. You now have 
more choices for under $15,000 
than ever before (see the text 
boxes "CompuAdd Delivers a Low-Cost 
SPARCstation" and "Solbourne S40Q0 
Outguns SPARCstation 1 +"). So why is 
Sun Microsystems introducing its new 
SPARCstation 2 series, starting at rough- 
ly $20,000? As with everything, when 
you cut costs, you also cut corners. 
Graphics, performance, expandability, 
ease of use: One or more of these impor- 
tant aspects typically disappears from 
low-end workstations. 

Sun's SPARCstation 2 series shows the 



Tom Yager 
and Ben Smith 



company's commitment to the power 
user. Even at the bottom of the new line, 
Sun doesn't scrimp on features. Sixteen 
megabytes of memory is standard (a 
trend that we hope catches on— you can't 
do diddly in 8 MB anymore), as are a 40- 
MHz SPARC CPU, a 200-MB SCSI hard 
disk drive, three SBus connectors, two 
serial ports, audio I/O, thick-wire Ether- 
net, and a SCSI port. The SPARCstation 



Photo 1: The Sun SPARCstation 2GX. 

This tiny case holds up to 96 MB of memory, two SCSI hard disk drives, 
and three SBus expansion cards. Access to the 3 V2 -inch floppy disk drive is 

on the right side. The window system is Sun 's OpenWindows, a mix 
of the X Window System and Sun 's NeWS PostScript-compatible extensions. 




2GX system we received is the low-end 
model (see photo 1); nonetheless, it has 
accelerated color graphics. 

A Look Inside 

The inside of the SPARCstation 2GX is a 
study in effective computer design (see 
photo 2). The motherboard is smaller 
even than most "baby" AT clone types, 
with most of the space taken up by single 
in-line memory module sockets. Four 4- 
MB modules make up the 2GX's 16 MB 
of memory. The motherboard has room 
for 16 such modules for a total of 64 MB; 
an optional daughterboard can hold an- 
other 32 MB for a system total of 96 MB. 
The motherboard is small by necessity. 
It has to fit in a pizza box-size case along 
with up to two 3!/2-inch SCSI hard disk 
drives, one 3!/2-inch floppy disk drive, 
and a power supply. 

The hard disk drives are mounted on 
plastic brackets that allow easy snap-out 
removal . The entire case comes apart by 
removing two screws. There wasn't even 
enough room in the case for a 50-pin 
SCSI cable between the two hard disk 
drives; Sun mounted dual connectors on 
the motherboard, so both hard disk 
drives have their own short cables going 
right to the board. 

The 2GX's display controller is 
mounted on a daughtercard, overlapping 
another of the expansion slots. Sun 
claims there are three SBus "slots," 
which are really just sockets on the 
motherboard, but our 2GX had only one 
such socket free— the other two were oc- 
cupied by the display controller. Outside 
the case are connectors for two serial de- 
vices, SCSI devices, monitor, keyboard/ 
mouse, and audio. The audio connector 
is a DIN socket, which is where you plug 
in the microphone/speaker. 

In Living Color 

The 2GX's display controller accelerates 
wire-frame operations to what Sun calls 
"the fastest in the industry" (for the 
price, we tend to agree), but it also ap- 



140 BYTE- DECEMBER 1990 



PHOTOGRAPHY: PAUL AVIS© 1990 



S T 



I M 



RES 



I O N 



parently extends its might to the window- 
ing system . It displays 256 colors (from a 
palette of 16.7 million) at a resolution of 
1152 by 900 pixels. Our 2GX came 
equipped with a 19-inch (76-Hz refresh 
rate) Sony Trinitron monitor. Images are 
sharp, corner to corner, an important 
consideration if you are selling work- 
stations into the contentious advanced 
graphics market. The SPARCstation 2 
line reaches into that very market, with a 
set of options geared to match the user's 
level of need. The 2GS offers accelerated 
three-dimensional solids operations, 
with a 24-bit main display buffer depth 
and a 16-bit z-buffer. (Sun claims the 
2GS will calculate and display a mini- 
mum of 150K-byte 3-D vectors, and 
20K-byte solid Gouraud-shaded poly- 
gons per second.) 

The 2GT, Sun's top of the SPARCsta- 
tion 2 line, adds hardware antialiasing, a 
24-bit z-buffer, double-buffered 24-bit 
display (for animation), alpha transpar- 
ency, 8-bit overlay, and a resolution of 
1280 by 1024 pixels. Sun claims the 2GT 
will calculate and display 500K-byte 3-D 
vectors (or lOOK-byte antialiased 3-D 
vectors) and 100 z-buffered Gouraud- 
shaded polygons per second, a fivefold 
increase over the 2GS. (For an explana- 
tion of graphics buffering, see "3-D 
Graphics, from Alpha to Z-Buffer," July 
BYTE.) 

The 2GS and 2GT are targeted at the 
mid- to high-end graphics market domi- 
nated by the likes of Silicon Graphics and 
Hewlett-Packard. These two companies 
pack more hardware features into their 
workstations (e.g., hardware texture 
mapping and specularity), but Sun's per- 
formance numbers are impressive. For 
the mainstream CAD, CAM, and other 
design applications users, the 2GS and 
the 2GT speed up essential operations 
enough to make complex modeling a 
snap. In the area of "virtual reality," 
however, more capable workstations still 
make a better choice. 

From an ordinary user's standpoint, 
the 2GX's graphics price/performance 
ratio is excellent. You rarely spend time 
waiting for windows to draw— they just 
appear. Moving, resizing, and other 
window manipulations are similarly 
speedy. The graphics performance 
makes the 2GX's operating environment 
a pleasure, but there's a lot more to Sun 
systems than just fast hardware. 

Gunning for the Mac 

Steve Jobs, among other luminaries, has 
proclaimed the X Window System every- 
thing from poorly done to outright 
"brain damaged." And true enough, on 



its own, it lacks functions needed to sup- 
port modern applications. 

But OpenWindows 2.0 is impressive. 
It is an excellent demonstration of the 
strengths of Open Look. It is complete, 
well integrated, and easy to use. Months 
ago, we had seen beta versions of Open- 
Windows 2.0 on much smaller machines 
and were impressed with the speed with 
which it worked then. It sings on the 
SPARCstation 2 series. 

OpenWindows has, as its root, Sun's 
X 1 1 /NeWS (Network-Extensible Win- 
dowing System). NeWS adds PostScript 
compatibility (Sun's own, not Adobe's) 
to X Window. X 1 1 /NeWS uses a single 
server to handle both the PostScript and 
the XI 1 requests. The compatibility is 
complete. In our tests, every X applica- 
tion we ran across the network worked 
perfectly, with the exception of one that 
tried to take control of the color map. 
The Open Look Window Manager 
(olwm) did give up the color OpenWin- 
dows' designers, because the Mac is an 
obvious influence. There is a marvelous 



File Manager, and a bundle of other ap- 
plications called the DeskSet. Out of the 
box, OpenWindows might not be as easy 
to use for new users as a Macintosh, but 
with a bit of effort, system administra- 
tors can build a collection of menus and 
icons that can call out every function of 
the system without resorting to the shell. 

The rest of the operating system is the 
familiar SunOS, a BSD Unix derivative 
with some System V libraries and util- 
ities thrown in. SunOS is both a software 
developer's and a user's playground, not 
only because it has so much third-party 
support, but also because Sun provides 
libraries for all its added layers. As a re- 
sult, there are tens of thousands of com- 
mercial applications for SunOS, a point 
that has not been missed by Solbourne 
and CompuAdd. 

X Window, NeWS, and Open Look 
combine to make a powerful graphics ap- 
plication environment, and Sun even in- 
cludes X Graphics Library (XGL), an 
Xll-based immediate-mode 2-D and 
3-D graphics library. This makes the 



Photo 2: The inside of the 2GX. 

Everything is designed to conserve space, without sacrificing expandability. 




GX graphics 
accelerator daughtercard 



hard disk drives (2) 



DECEMBER 1990 -BYTE 141 



FIRST IMPRESSIONS 
SON OF SPARCSTATION 



CompuAdd Delivers a Low-Cost SPARCstation 

Jon Udell 



The SPARCstation 1 
lives in the guise 
of the CompuAdd SSL 
CompuAdd uses a metal 
case, as it hopes to get 
an FCC class B rating. 
The SSI can also accept 
5 14 -inch storage devices 
and sports a 100-watt 
power supply. 




A SPARCstation from CompuAdd, 
the mail-order PC-compatible 
folks? Yes. CompuAdd's SSI looks, 
feels, and, for all intents and purposes, 
is the original 12.5-million-instruction- 
per-second SPARCstation 1 that Sun 
Microsystems discontinued this sum- 
mer. Differentiation was not the goal 
here. The SSI has the same SPARCsta- 
tion "pizza-box" case. Pop the top, and 
you'll find the same compact 8 ! /2- by 
1 1-inch motherboard. With the same 
three SBus slots. And the same SPARC 
chip set: LSI Logic's 20-MHz L64801 
integer unit, along with a supporting 
cast of LSI Logic application-specific 
ICs handling floating-point, caching, 
memory management, and DMA 
chores. Clearly, we've entered the era 
of the commodity workstation. 

Don't feel sheepish if you can't tell 
the SSI and the SPARCstation 1 apart. 
Neither can SunOS 4.1. The SSI comes 
bundled with the current release of 
Sun's hybrid BSD/System V Unix, 
which boots and runs flawlessly. Any 
lingering doubts about the SSI's com- 



patibility dispel when you run sundiag, 
Sun's low-level diagnostic utility. It 
probes every hardware nook and cran- 
ny: physical and virtual memory, disks, 
CPU and FPU, and Ethernet. No smoke 
and mirrors here; the SSI aces all the 
tests. 

Our prototype system came with 8 
megabytes of memory, the standard 
connectors (SCSI, thick Ethernet, two 
serial, keyboard, and audio I/O), a 19- 
inch Moniterm monitor (monochrome, 
1 152 by 900 pixels), a Vh -inch floppy 
disk drive, a pair of internal SCSI hard 
disk drives (105-MB Quantums), and 
an external 200-MB SCSI drive. Sub- 



THE FACTS 



CompuAdd SSI 

$5995 and up 

CompuAdd 

12303 Technology Blvd. 
Austin, TX 78727 
(800)531-5475 
Inquiry 1067. 



tract the disks, and you've got Com- 
puAdd's entry-level system, priced at 
$5995. A diskless unit with a 16-inch 
color monitor and an 8-bit frame buffer 
will run $7495, or, with 200-MB of disk 
storage, $8695. 

How does the CompuAdd stack up 
against the low end of Sun's SPARC 
product line? If you're comparing en- 
try-level systems, the SSI looks like a 
more expensive (but expandable) ver- 
sion of Sun's $4995 SLC (see table A). 
But what about real-world systems with 
adequate storage and color capabilities? 
An SSI with a 200-MB drive and 8-bit 
color will cost $1300 less than Sun's 
comparably equipped IPC, and a whop- 
ping $5800 less than a comparably 
equipped SPARCstation 1 -I- (see table 
B). Of course, both the IPC and the 1 + 
are 25-MHz machines rated at 15.8 
MIPS, so the SS 1 does give away some 
speed. Note also that the CompuAdd 
prices don't include Sun's OpenWin- 
dows , which Sun now bundles with all 
its SPARC products. 

Beyond that, Sun's seemingly anom- 
alous pricing clouds the issue some- 
what. Does the 1 +'s extra RAM capac- 
ity (40 MB versus 24 MB) and third 
SBus slot make it $4500 better than the 
IPC? Sun thinks so, and, following that 
logic, CompuAdd's three-slot, 64-MB- 
maximum SSI looks like a real deal. 
However, relative to the IPC— assuming 
you don't plan to grow out of it— Com- 
puAdd's price advantage is less compel- 
ling. Either way, though, there's clearly 
a niche for the SS 1 . 

There are a few minor differences be- 
tween the SSI and the 1+. The SSI's 
entry-level system comes with a larger 
monitor— 19 inches as opposed to 17 
inches. The SSI's case is metal, not 
plastic, and leaves room inside to re- 



LOW-END PRICE/FEATURE COMPARISON 



Table A: Weighing your performance needs against your budget will determine whether the CompuAdd SSI is a 
viable SPARC system choice. Sun provides superior performance, but the SSI offers three SBus slots and up to 64 
MB of RAM. The entry-level systems are diskless and have 8 MB of RAM and a 1152- by 900-pixel display. 



Price 



Color? 



Monitor 



Slots 



MIPS 



Maximum 
RAM 



GX graphics 
option? 



Sun SLC $4995 No 17" 12.5 16MB 

CompuAdd SS1 $5995 No 19" 3 12.5 64MB 

Sun IPC $8995 Yes 16" 2 15.8 24 MB 

Sun SPARCstation 1 + $8995 No 17" 3 15.8 40 MB 

Solbourne S4000 $8995 No 19" 3 25.5 104MB 



No 
Yes 
No* 
Yes 

Yes 



The IPC has two SBus slots and can theoretically support a GX accelerator. Sun "doesn't support" that configuration. 



142 BYTE- DECEMBER 1990 







HIGH-END PRICE/FEATURE 


COMPARISON 






Table B: 


The high-end 


systems are configured with a 200-MB hard disk 




drive, a 


16-inch color 


monitor, and a 1 152- 


by 900-pixel by 256-color 


graphics 


display. 
















Price 


SunOS? 


ONC/NFS? 


Open Windows? 






CompuAdd SS1 


$8695 


Yes 


Yes 


No 




Sun IPC 




$9995 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Sun SPARCstation 1 + 


$14,599 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Solbourne S4000 


$22,495 


No 


Yes 


No 



place the 3y2-inch floppy disk drive 
with a 5 14 -inch device— for example, a 
CD-ROM. It has a beefier power supply 
(100 watts). It also comes with a me- 
chanical mouse instead of Sun's stan- 
dard optical mouse. Who cares? I do. 
Last year, a software vendor hauled a 
Sun system up to BYTE for a demon- 
stration and then found he'd forgotten 
the optical mouse pad. An hour of hand- 
waving ensued. Since then, I've viewed 
optical mice with suspicion. 

For demonstration purposes, Com- 
puAdd provided a healthy assortment of 
applications, including Lotus 1-2-3, 
AutoCAD, Interleaf's TPS, Frame- 
Maker, and Island Graphics' iWrite, 
iPaint, and iDraw. The arrival of 1-2-3 
and AutoCAD legitimized the SPARC- 
station in the eyes of many people. The 
availability of popular PC spreadsheet 
and CAD software makes SPARC ma- 
chines seem less exotic. Meanwhile, 
programs like TPS and FrameMaker— - 
designed, built, and targeted to run on 
h igh-performance workstations— make 
SPARC more desirable. That's the push- 
pull dynamic that Sun hopes will carry 
its latest low-end machines beyond the 
technical arena and into the much larger 
commercial realm. CompuAdd, gam- 
bling on the success of that strategy, 
plans to ride along in Sun's slipstream. 

A Basketful of GUIs 

Unix is a real face-dancer these days, 
and on the CompuAdd I had a chance to 
try out several of its current manifesta- 
tions. The SSI will ship with SunView, 
the original Sun graphical user inter- 
face. It's awkward and dated, but more 
SPARC programs today support Sun- 
View than support any other GUI. Al- 
though CompuAdd won't be bundling 
Open Windows, the Xll/NeWS/Open 
Look amalgam that is Sun's new stan- 
dard, our prototype SSI came with 
OpenWindows 2.0. (OpenWindows 



will be available separately from Com- 
puAdd, but the company hadn't yet de- 
cided on a price. You can get it directly 
from Sun for $295.) OpenWindows 
runs a pair of networkable window 
servers— X Window and NeWS— under 
the control of the Open Look window 
manager. The servers can cooperate so 
that, for example, X applications can 
use NeWS's scalable fonts. Too bad that 
only Sun and Silicon Graphics seem to 
take NeWS seriously. Its PostScript im- 
aging model adds a lot of spice to a win- 
dow system. 

OpenWindows tolerates SunView ap- 
plications, albeit grumpily. I was able to 
run Interleaf in a SunView window, 
alongside X 1 1 and NeWS windows. The 
SunView windows kept getting stuck in 
the foreground, though, and things 
never seemed quite right. Clearly 
there's some distance to go yet before 
SPARC machines will be able to lay 
claim to the seamless support of a large 
software base that characterizes the 
Macintosh and, to a lesser extent, Mi- 
crosoft Windows. 

On the other hand, I'm more and 
more impressed by the ease with which 
Unix machines communicate— over 
both LANs and wide-area networks. 
This, more than cosmetics, will be what 
drives commercial acceptance of Unix. 
CompuAdd, a vendor of PC and Mac 
equipment, understands that its custom- 
ers increasingly want to build heteroge- 
neous networks, and that Unix can help 
glue such networks together. You want 
Macs in the art department and PCs ev- 
erywhere else, all hooked up to a couple 
of SPARCstations acting as file servers 
and typesetting workstations? No prob- 
lem. It will be one-stop shopping from 
CompuAdd. 

Jon Udell is a BYTE senior editor at 
large. You can reach him on BIX as 
"judell. " 



FIRST IMPRESSIONS 
SON OF SPARCSTATION 



power of the graphics hardware available 
to the developer, and it smooths over the 
differences between SPARCstation 2 
models, but the developer needs to com- 
pile with different versions of the library 
for different graphics levels of the 
SPARCstation 2 series. 

Over the Line 

As we mentioned, Sun's selection of X 
Window as its graphics environment base 
makes connectivity across platforms al- 
most automatic, but only in one direc- 
tion. Ordinary X applications run 
without difficulty under OpenWindows, 
either locally or across network connec- 
tions, but running OpenWindows appli- 
cations that use NeWS, Open Look, or 
other extensions require those extensions 
on the displaying system. It is possible to 
write OpenWindows applications that 
don't require fancy software on the dis- 
play server, but that would mean strip- 
ping out some of the things that make 
OpenWindows special. Developers 
should not resort to this, because Sun's 
low-end monochrome and color work- 
stations also run OpenWindows. 

When you can attach a fully compat- 
ible diskless node for under $5000 (the 
Sun SLC), the lack of ability to exploit 
the window system's full potential on an 
X terminal or PC X server becomes un- 
important. Sun has even rolled its GX 
graphics accelerator into its SPARCsta- 
tion IPC, making that (according to Sun) 
the lowest-cost high-speed color work- 
station. 

Being a Sun system, the SPARCstation 
2 series systems come loaded with TCP/ 
IP, NFS, and NIS (the Network Informa- 
tion Service, previously known as Yellow 
Pages). We had no trouble at all getting 
the 2GX talking to all the systems in the 
BYTE Unix Lab. X applications like 
xterm and ico, which didn't use Open 
Look fonts or services, ran fine across 
the wire, and remote log-ins and NFS ac- 
tivities proceeded without a hitch. 

The Whole Enchilada 

Sun is still the top dog in workstations. 
Systems like the SPARCstation 2 series 
offer proof that the number one spot is 
likely to be Sun's domain for some time. 
The SPARCstation 2 series' design is re- 
markable throughout, from its down- 
sized desktop case to Sun's imaginative 
approach to operating environments. It 
seems perfectly suited to both demand- 
ing graphics applications and typical 
business fare. 

Sun provided demonstration versions 
of many applications, including Frame- 
Maker, WingZ, and iPaint, iDraw, and 



DECEMBER 1990 • B Y T E 143 



FIRST IMPRESSIONS 
SON OF SPARCSTATION 



Solbourne S4000 Outguns SPARCstation 1 + 



Owen Linderholm 



The quiet-running 
Solbourne S4000 offers an 
estimated 20 percent 
performance increase over 
the Sun SPARCstation 1 + . 



-W-, 




Solbourne Computer, one of the first 
companies to license and build 
SPARC-compatible systems, has mostly 
concentrated on the high end with high- 
powered server systems. However, the 
company, along with its Japanese part- 
ner, Matsushita, has had the goal of 
building a desktop SPARC system based 
around a highly integrated SPARC pro- 
cessor of its own design. The Solbourne 
S4000 is that system (see the photo). 

The S4000 is based around a custom 
SPARC chip codeveloped by Matsushita 
and Solbourne. The MN10501 chip 
uses 64-bit data paths throughout, mak- 
ing it the first fully 64-bit SPARC pro- 
cessor. It incorporates a floating-point 
unit (FPU), memory management unit, 
cache controller, and memory, making 
it one of the most highly integrated 
SPARC processors available. The on- 
chip cache is 8K bytes of direct-mapped 
physical instruction and data cache. The 
memory bus used by the chip is 64 bits 
wide and transfers data at a rate of 60 
megabytes per second. Solbourne and 
Matsushita have been working on this 
processor since Solbourne first an- 
nounced its intentions to make SPARC- 
compatible systems. 

The 33-MHz processor achieves a 
MIPS rating of 25.5 and a SPECmark of 
12. This makes it about 20 percent 
faster than the SUN SPARCstation 1 + . 
The FPU and integer units within the 
chip operate asynchronously, and each 
has separate registers. Separate instruc- 
tion and data caches, 64-bit data paths 
to the caches, and the ability to do load 
and store operations in a single clock 
cycle make the chip operate fast. 



The base system ($8995) includes 8 
MB of RAM and can be expanded up to 
104 MB in 8- or 32-MB increments 
using 1-MB single in-line memory 
modules. The S4000 comes with three 
SBus slots operating at 25 MHz. It in- 
cludes an Ethernet port, two RS-423A 
serial ports, 8-kHz audio with an inter- 
nal speaker, and various SCSI mass 
storage options. Supplied with the sys- 
tem is a 107-key PC-style keyboard, 
which seemed lightweight compared to 
Sun's keyboard, and an optical three- 
button mouse. During the boot process, 
an LED on the front of the unit changes 
color at each phase. Should the boot 
fail, the color of the LED will tell you at 
what point the problem occurred. 

The S4000 can hold either one or two 
7>Vi-'\nch full-height, SCSI hard disk 
drives, each with 200 MB of storage 
space. The system can also optionally 
have a single 3 Vfe-inch floppy disk drive. 
The system box measures 17 by 17 inch- 
es and is a little over 3 inches tall. 

The system board is only 9 by 11 
inches, which leaves room for consider- 
able expansion inside the system. The 
size was achieved by the integration of 
the processor and using four custom 



THE FACTS 



Solbourne S4000 

$8995 and up 

Solbourne Computer, Inc. 

1900 Pike Rd. 
Longmont, CO 80501 
(303) 772-3400 
Inquiry 1068. 



ASICs for glue logic, peripheral, and 
memory control. Installing the full 
complement of RAM, however, limits 
mass storage expansion options to a sin- 
gle 200-MB hard disk drive. The result 
is that users must make a trade-off be- 
tween memory storage available and 
mass storage available, a trade-off that 
may be difficult to make in some cases. 

The design of the system is very 
clean. It consists of six field replaceable 
modules, so that if problems occur, 
modules can be rapidly removed and re- 
placed with repaired or new parts in the 
field. All that you need to do is unscrew 
seven screws to strip the machine. 

The Solbourne' s operating system is 
OS/MP4.0D, a SunOS 4.0.3 derivative 
that includes NFS, ONC, TCP/IP, Sun- 
View, X Window, the Solbourne Win- 
dow Manager and options for GKS 
graphics, PEX (Phigs Extensions to X 
Window), Solbourne Phigs, and a DOS 
emulator. The Window Manager has a 
"virtual desktop" feature that effec- 
tively expands your work area beyond 
the screen's boundaries. A box in the 
lower right corner shows available Open- 
Windows. This box is live; move the 
cursor into it, and you can select what 
you need. A "hammer and nail" feature 
lets you tack a window in place, so no 
matter where you move on the virtual 
desktop, that window remains in view. 

There are many graphics options for 
accelerated two-dimensional and three- 
dimensional graphics. Standard graph- 
ics are monochrome on a 19-inch moni- 
tor with 1 152 by 900 pixels and a 1-bit- 
per-pixel frame buffer. 

Standard color options include a 16- 
or 19-inch monitor displaying 1152 by 
900 pixels with an 8-bit color storage 
frame buffer and a 2-bit overlay frame 
buffer. This allows up to 256 colors 
from a palette of over 16 million. A 
high-resolution color option is also 
available with a 19-inch monitor and a 
display of 1280 by 1024 pixels with two 
color maps, each providing 256 colors 
from a palette of over 1 6 million. 

An advanced color option includes an 
accelerated color frame buffer known 
as SBus Graphics Accelerator (SGA), 
which can have an optional piggyback 
z-buffer daughtercard to accelerate hid- 
den pixel removal. An eight-plane ver- 
sion, the SGA40, uses two SBus slots. 



continued 



144 BYTE- DECEMBER 1990 



Database Users 
Respond To Queries 



Users vote ORACLE number one in five important user polk 



In a series of recent polls, Oracle's 
products were ranked number one 
by five magazines representing over 
four hundred thousand readers. 
Leading to only one conclusion: 
Oracle's database and networking 
products are the best solutions for 
the widest variety of PC and Mac 
users. 

The readers of both DATA BASED 
ADVISOR andDBMS Magazine named 
Professional ORACLE Tools and 
Database the best SQL-based data- 
base. The readers of VARBUSINESS, 



who should know something about 
developing applications, named it 
the best applications software. And 
Government Computer News cited 
reliability, compatibility and speed 
as some of the reasons they awarded 
Professional ORACLE Tools and 
Database the number one data 
manager for local area networks. 

ORACLE for Macintosh received 
its share of acclaim from InfoWorld 
readers, who named it Macintosh 
Product of the Year. 

InfoWorld readers also 



named Oracle's newest desktop 
product, ORACLE Server for OS/2, 
product of the year. As did 
subscribers of DBMS Magazine, 
who rated ORACLE Server for OS/2 
the best database server. 

Call 1-800-633-0498 Ext. 4905 to 
order or sign up for the free Oracle 
Client-Server Forum in your area. 
And see what kind of software 
generates this kind of hardware. 




FIRST IMPRESSIONS 
SON OF SPARCSTATION 



Solbourne S4000 (continued) 
Solbourne expects a 24-plane version to 
be available in early 1991. 

Many hardware graphics accelerators 
for Unix systems put X Window primi- 
tives in hardware to speed them up. Sol- 
bourne goes beyond this by putting both 
X Window and PEX graphics primitives 
in microcode on these boards to dramat- 
ically improve the system's 2-D and 3-D 
performance in these environments. 
Graphics information is stored in main 
memory and is pageable. The SGA ac- 
celerator board has direct memory ac- 
cess across the SBus to this information, 
so there is no work for the CPU to do in 
supplying the graphics information to 
the SGA, resulting in improved perfor- 
mance. The SGA board also uses two 
digital signal processing chips to im- 
plement a graphics transform engine 
that runs at a peak of 50 million float- 
ing-point operations per second. One 
part of the board implements a fast rect- 
angle area fill at 240,000 pixels per 
second. 

Some of the functions handled in 
microcode on the SGA include 2-D and 
3-D line drawing with line styles and 
perspective and depth cues; 2-D poly- 



gon pattern fills; 3-D polygons with 
strips, meshes, Bezier patches, Gour- 
aud shading and hidden surface remov- 
al; an illumination model with eight 
light sources; BitBlt and dithering; and 
multiple color maps. 

Solbourne claims that the SGA40 ac- 
celerator can draw 450,000 lines per 
second in 2-D operations, 200,000 lines 
per second in 3-D operations, and can 
draw 10,000 Gouraud shaded polygons 
per second. The SGA has direct mem- 
ory access to graphics information that 
is stored in main memory, so that the 
CPU and the SGA can operate in paral- 
lel. 

The S4000 with a 16-inch color 
monitor, 8 MB of RAM, and no disk 
drives costs $11,495; it costs $13,995 
with the SGA40. A 19-inch color system 
with 16 MB of RAM, a 200-MB hard 
disk drive, a floppy disk drive, and the 
SGA40 with the z-buffer option costs 
$22,495. (See the tables in the text box 
"CompuAdd Delivers a Low-Cost 
SPARCstation" for price and feature 
comparisons.) 

The basic Solbourne S4000 is an 
$8995 monochrome SPARCstation 1 + 



clone that runs faster. It can also be ex- 
panded far more than other SPARC sys- 
tems in this price range. In fact, internal 
memory expansion can go beyond that 
of the SPARCstation 2 series. The oper- 
ating software is not pure SunOS. It is, 
however, derived from SunOS and 
should be highly compatible with it. At 
the high end, the S4000 with full graph- 
ics options costs a little more than a Sun 
SPARCstation 1 + or IPC with GX 
graphics, but it also outperforms them 
considerably. In fact, some of its graph- 
ics features can be compared to those in 
the new SPARCstation 2 line. 

All in all, the S4000 line is a very 
flexible and expandable one that makes 
a great deal of sense. It starts relatively 
cheap but with good performance. It ex- 
pands easily to a very respectable level 
of performance, still with a good price. 
This level of flexibility should help Sol- 
bourne in the years ahead, where there 
is likely to be an explosion of SPARCsta- 
tion clones. 

Owen Linderholm is a BYTE news edi- 
tor. You can contact him on BIX as 
"owenl. " 



iWrite. These programs all take advan- 
tage of the unique environment created 
by OpenWindows, and the system's per- 
formance makes them fast and glamor- 
ous. Any PC user enamored of Windows 
3.0 or X Window on a VGA should feel 
like the horse-and-buggy driver at the 
dawn of the automobile. There are graph- 
ics environments that just get you where 
you're going, and then there's the real 
thing. Workstations still have that sewn 



THE FACTS 



SPARCstation 2GX 

less than $22,000 

SPARCstation 2GS 

less than $27,000 

SPARCstation 2GT 

less than $52,000 

SPARCstation IPC GX 

less than $15,000 

SPARCserver 2 

less than $22,000 

(Upgrades available for SPARCstation 

and SPARCserver system 1 and 1 -I- .) 

Sun Microsystems, Inc. 

2550 Garcia Ave. 
Mountain View, CA 94043 
(415)960-1300 
Inquiry 1066. 



up, along with the Macintosh, and Open- 
Windows widens the gap even farther. 

Although other SPARC machines like 
the Solbourne and CompuAdd challenge 
Sun for price and performance and take 
advantage of the abundance of Sun appli- 
cations, they are attacking only the 
SPARCstation 1 and 1 + . It is unlikely 
they will have a negative effect on Sun's 
preeminence. In fact, their presence for- 
tifies Sun's position. Sun SPA RCstations 
will not suffer the same fate that IBM 
PCs did from the clone world. Sun is not 
IBM; Sun is still hungry and can move 
fast enough to stay ahead of the spawned 
industries. 

Working with the SPARCstation 2 
series is almost an educational experi- 
ence, disproving some widely held be- 
liefs. First, those who insist that Open 
Look has been murdered in its sleep by 
OSF/Motif should feast their eyes on 
OpenWindows. OSF has been quicker in 
giving Motif more press coverage and 
(perhaps as a result) getting it on more 
machines, but more applications devel- 
opers have gone with Open Look. Open- 
Windows 2 is X Window and Open Look 
taken to their best and most logical po- 
tential. Second, even though the line be- 
tween PCs and workstations is getting 
blurrier by the day, systems like the 2GX 



(and the IPC, for that matter) prove that 
workstations still have an edge over even 
Unix-equipped personal computers. 
Third, X Window is not unsuitable as an 
environment for demanding applica- 
tions. If a vendor takes the time, as Sun 
has, to build on the base that MIT pro- 
vides, then X applications can be fast, 
feature-laden, and easy to use. 

Some systems are trendsetters. Just as 
the Apollo 2500 gave the low-end work- 
station market reason to exist, the Sun 
SPA RC station 2 series redefines the mid- 
range. And since Sun is the unquestion- 
able leader of the workstation world, re- 
sponsible for introducing workstation 
technology that sets standards, we hope 
that the SPARCstation 2 series signals a 
veering away from the cutting of corners. 
While some users may want the world's 
cheapest workstation on their desks, 
others can afford, and demand, the tradi- 
tional performance, effortless network- 
ing, and software leadership that make 
the term workstation mean something. 
Two thumbs up for the SPARCstation 2 
series and OpenWindows 2.0. ■ 

Tom Yager and Ben Smith are BYTE tech- 
nical editors. You can contact them on 
BIX as "tyager" and "bensmith," re- 
spectively. 



146 BYTE- DECEMBER 1990 





A N 



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Circle 356 on Reader Service Card (RESELLERS: 357) 



1991 
Earnings 




Bravos. Cheers. Hurrahs. 



We found APPLAUSE II to be easier to work 
with than either Harvard Graphics or Free- 
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based products. 



PC/COMPUTING APRIL 1, 1990 



INFOWORLD 
JUNE 11, 1990 



APPLAUSE II handles charting, drawing, 
and on-screen presentations with a fluid- 
ity and ease-of-use not found in either 
Harvard Graphics or Freelance Plus— and 
it does all this in a mere 512K. 

PC MAGAZINE MARCH 13, 1990 



1 

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It's graphical. It's interactive. It makes J 
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abandons the stodgy fill-in-the-formf 
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The critics are raving 
about its ease-of-use and intui- 
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Andhow APPLAUSE IF turns 
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Creating everything from daz- 
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Circle 36 on Reader Service Card (RESELLERS: 37) 



FIRST IMPRESSIONS 



Suddenly 



? 



Everything's Smaller 

in Texas 




In Texas, where everything is larger 
than life, they suddenly seem to 
have a knack for designing com- 
puters that are especially small. 
Hard on the heels of the Compaq LTE 
386s/20 comes a new 386SX notebook 
from Texas Instruments (TI) called the 
TravelMate (TM) 3000. This petite pow- 
erhouse from Dallas undercuts its rival 
from Houston: The overall performance 
is somewhat lower, but the TI notebook 
is almost 2 pounds lighter and has a list 
price that's $1000 less. 

The compact size and weight of the 
new TI notebook system are not surpris- 
ing, since it follows in the wake of the 
company's impressive TravelMate 2000. 
This lightweight notebook, codeveloped 
with Sharp and also sold by CompuAdd, 
includes a 286 processor and a hard disk 
drive, yet it weighs under 4 Vi pounds. 

The TM 3000, along with similar 
notebooks from Compaq, Epson, and 
Toshiba (see the text box "Toshiba and 

PHOTOGRAPHY: PAUL AVIS© 1990 



TI's new 386SX 
notebook weighs 
less than 6 pounds 



Andrew Reinhardt 



The Texas Instruments 
TravelMate 3000 packs a 20-MHz 

386SX, floppy and hard disk 

drives, and a VGA screen into a box 

three-quarters the size of the 

Manhattan yellow pages. 



Epson Join SX Notebook Club" on page 
152), is part of a new wave of computers 
that combine compact size with 386 per- 
formance and compatibility. The jump to 
the 386 has brought other improvements 
as well. In the LTE 386s/20, Compaq 
erased a drawback of its earlier 8086 and 
286 LTEs, the lack of VGA graphics. TI 
has likewise solved the problems of the 
TM 2000 by adding to the TM 3000 a 
floppy disk drive, better screen contrast, 
conventional I/O ports (instead of the 
miniature ports used before), and 50 per- 
cent longer battery life, the company 
says. 

The TM 3000 uses the 20-MHz ver- 
sion of the 386SX, boasts a VGA-resolu- 
tion display, and includes both a floppy 
disk drive and a hard disk drive. All this 
power is packed into an 8!/2- by 1 1-inch 
case less than 2 inches high and weighing 
a comfortable 5 3 A pounds, including the 
battery. To top it off, TI tosses in some 
snazzy software utilities and offers a 

DECEMBER 1990 -BYTE 151 



FIRST IMPRESSIONS 
SUDDENLY, EVERYTHING'S SMALLER IN TEXAS 



Toshiba and Epson Join 
SX Notebook Club 



Designers from Texas are not the 
only ones shrinking 386SX com- 
puters into notebooks. Toshiba, whose 
T1000 practically defined the early 
notebook, and Epson, a quiet but long- 
time player in the laptop market, have 
both announced plans to produce SX 
machines in svelte form factors. 

Both machines were announced too 
late for a hands-on evaluation, but their 
specifications indicate that they could 
be contenders in the market, assuming 
that pricing (which was unannounced at 
press time) is in line with their some- 



what lower performance. 

The Toshiba T2000SX, scheduled to 
be available in January 1991, looks like 
a cross between the company's existing 
286-based T1200XE notebook and its 
T3100SX laptop. Measuring 10 by 12 
by 2 inches and weighing in at just 
under 7 pounds including battery, it is 
larger and heavier than the TI Travel- 
Mate 3000 but lighter than the Compaq 
LTE386s/20. 

The T2000SX uses a 16-MHz 386SX 
chip and comes with 1 megabyte of 
RAM standard, expandable to 9 MB. 




The Toshiba T2000SX is a little larger 

than the Texas Instruments TravelMate 3000 

and uses a 16-MHz 386SX. It has the same 

keyboard as the Toshiba T3100SX. 



An 80387SX coprocessor is optional. 
Both a 3V2-inch 1.44-MB floppy disk 
drive and a hard disk drive are built into 
the system; initially, only a 20-MB hard 
disk drive will be available, but Toshiba 
eventually plans to offer a 40-MB drive 
as standard. 

The edge-lit supertwist nematic LCD 
offers VGA-resolution graphics with 16 
shades of gray but measures only 8!/2 
inches diagonally. Serial, parallel, ex- 
ternal monitor, and numeric keypad 
ports are included, and there is an ex- 
pansion bus for a desktop docking sta- 
tion. A slot for an optional modem is lo- 
cated under the machine. 

Epson announced its machine, the 
NB3s, cautiously: Although it was the 
first SX notebook to be unveiled, Epson 
disclosed neither prices nor a firm de- 
livery date. However, on paper the note- 
book looks impressive. It reportedly 
weighs just under 6 pounds and mea- 
sures 8^2 by 11% by VA inches, or 
about a tenth of a pound and 1 cubic inch 
more than the TI TravelMate 3000. 

The NB3s uses a 16-MHz 386SX 
CPU and can hold up to 5 MB of inter- 
nal RAM and an optional math copro- 
cessor. The base memory configuration 
has not been announced, but it will like- 
ly be 1 or 2 MB of RAM. For mass stor- 
age, both a 3!/2-inch floppy disk drive 
and a 20- or 40-MB hard disk drive are 
included. The backlit, black-on-white 
LCD offers VGA resolution with 16 
levels of gray. Standard I/O ports in- 
clude serial, parallel, external CRT, 
and numeric keypad. 

One of the most distinctive aspects of 
the Epson notebook is its desktop dock- 
ing station, which, in addition to two 
full-size AT-bus slots, offers bays for up 
to 120 MB of mass storage and support 
for a 101-key keyboard. The docking 
station itself is only 3 7 /io pounds, so the 
notebook and base combined weigh less 
than 10 pounds. The NB3s is slated to 
ship before the end of this year. 



keyboard that I believe is superior to that 
oftheLTE. 

Power to Go 

The TM 3000's 20-MHz 386SX CPU 
has enough horsepower to run demand- 



ing applications while on the road, in- 
cluding software written specifically for 
the 386 instruction set. An 80387SX 
math coprocessor is an option, although 
it was not installed in the unit I evalu- 
ated. Preliminary BYTE benchmarks 



rate the CPU performance at 2. 75 times 
the speed of an IBM AT, which is a tad 
faster than the Compaq LTE 386s/20 and 
most of the deskbound 20-MHz SX ma- 
chines that BYTE has reviewed so far. 
The system is supplied with 2 MB of 



152 BYTE- DECEMBER 1990 



FIRST IMPRESSIONS 
SUDDENLY, EVERYTHING'S SMALLER IN TEXAS 



RAM, expandable on the motherboard in 
2-MB increments upto6MB.For mass 
storage, one of two 2 1 /2-inch Conner Pe- 
ripherals hard disk drives is available: a 
20-MB drive with a 23-millisecond aver- 
age access time or a 19-ms 40-MB drive. 
A 3 Vi -inch 1.44-MB floppy disk drive is 
located on the front of the system. 

On the BYTE benchmarks, the 20-MB 
drive turned in a disk I/O rating of 1 .60, 
or about 70 percent as fast as the LTE's 
drive. But TI supplies a disk-caching 
utility that boosts performance and saves 
battery life; with a 64K-byte cache in- 
stalled in extended memory, the bench- 
mark index rose to 1.80. It should be 
noted that the drives for the Compaq 
notebook are available in 30- and 60-MB 
capacities; TI plans to offer a 60-MB ver- 
sion in the second quarter of 1991. 

The TM 3000's display is a triple su- 
pertwist nematic LCD measuring 10 
inches diagonally. It is switchable be- 
tween black on white or white on black 
via a toggle. While it is essentially the 
same screen used in the TM 2000, TI 
says that engineering refinements have 
produced blacker blacks and better con- 
trast. 

The screen offers 640- by 480-pixel 
VGA resolution with a 32-gray-shade 
palette (16 shades visible at a time) using 
the Chips & Technologies VGA chip and 
Quadtel VGA BIOS. It is lit from the side 
by a single cold-cathode fluorescent 
tube, yet I found it very crisp and legible 
in a variety of lighting conditions. The 
only drawback is performance: The 
video subsystem posted a rating of 5.31 
in the BYTE benchmarks, versus 8.00 
fortheLTE386s/20. 

What the display and hard disk drive 
lack in zip, the keyboard makes up for in 
comfort. The TM 3000 has a 79-key key- 
board with 10 function keys on the top 
row (Fl 1 and F12 are accessed with an 
Fn key) and an embedded numeric pad 
superimposed on the alpha keys. Sepa- 
rate cursor-movement keys are arranged 
in an inverted T on the lower right side of 
the keyboard. I found typing on the TM 
3000 much easier than on an LTE: the 
keys have a good "clicky" feel and ade- 
quate travel, and I greatly prefer the ar- 
rangement of the arrow keys to the awk- 
ward reclined-L pattern on the LTE. 

To connect the TM 3000 to the outside 
world, TI provides standard I/O ports 
(i.e., parallel, serial, PS/2 mouse, and 
external VGA monitor), grouped behind 
a hinged door on the left side of the com- 
puter. Also on the left is a proprietary 
slot for an optional 2400-bps internal 
modem. On the right side is a mini- 
connector for an optional numeric key- 







BENCHMARK 


RESULTS 






1 


Preliminary BYTE Lab benchmark results indicate that the new TI notebook 
computer has a fast CPU index compared to other 20-MHz 386SX systems, but 
disk and video performance are mediocre. All benchmark indexes show 
performance relative to an 8-MHz IBM AT; higher numbers are better. 






System 


CPU 


Disk I/O 


Video 






TI TravelMate 3000 


2.75 


1.60 


5.31 




Compaq LTE 386s/20 
Dell 320LX 


2.58 
2.19 


2.32 
1.86 


8.00 
7.10 


NECProSpeedSX/20 


2.05 


1.11 


5.33 



pad, and on the back is another miniport 
for connecting to a desktop base station. 
The base station is the same one of- 
fered for the TM 2000 except for a differ- 
ent adapter to accommodate the greater 
height of the TM 3000. It contains 1 Vi 
AT -bus slots for add-in cards, a 3 Vi -inch 
storage bay, and a power supply to drive 
both the notebook and the expansion 
chassis. The base station is scheduled to 
be available in December, but TI hasn't 
yet announced a price. 

A Power Boost 

Notebook computers push the envelope 
in power management, because design- 
ers have to squeeze the maximum operat- 
ing time out of the smallest possible bat- 
tery. Although the TM 3000 uses about 
twice as much power as the TM 2000, TI 
has managed through improved power 
engineering and a variety of software 
utilities to boost run time by 50 percent, 
from 2 hours to 3. I wasn't able to verify 
this claim because my evaluation unit 
had some power glitches. 

The TM 3000 uses removable, re- 
chargeable nickel-cadmium batteries that 
together weigh about 1 pound. (Without 
the batteries, the system weighs only 4 7 / 10 
pounds, or about one-third of a pound 
more than the NEC UltraLite.) TI says 
that the batteries can be recharged inside 
the computer in 3 to 4 hours when it is not 
in use. An external charger will also be 
available. 



THE FACTS 



TravelMate 3000 

with 20-MB hard disk drive, $5499 
with 40-MB hard disk drive, $5999 

Texas Instruments, Inc. 

Information Technology Group 
P.O. Box 202230, ITG-065 
Austin, TX 78720 
(800) 527-3500 
Inquiry 1076. 



To prolong operating time, TI inte- 
grated many of the TM 3000 's functions 
into low-power application-specific ICs. 
CPU speed drops automatically from 20 
MHz to 8 MHz when the system is idle, 
and a software utility called BatteryPro 
induces processor wait cycles when the 
CPU is holding for keyboard entry or 
I/O. These techniques alone can save 20 
percent to 25 percent of battery life, TI 
says. Other utilities included with the 
TM 3000 let the user specify time inter- 
vals for blanking the screen and power- 
ing down the hard disk drive. The system 
also includes BatteryWatch from Travel- 
ing Software. 

Swimming with Sharps 

TI produced the TM 2000 in conjunction 
with Sharp, which sells the same ma- 
chine under the name PC 6220, but 
Sharp did most of the engineering work. 
With the TM 3000, that situation is re- 
versed: TI did the design near Dallas, 
and the machine will likely be relabeled 
and sold by Sharp as well. This alone is 
a clear indication of TI's engineering 
prowess. That TI was also able to match 
and even beat Compaq at a game the lat- 
ter has made a specialty bodes well for 
TI's future in notebooks. 

Then there is the price. For a starting 
configuration with 2 MB of RAM and a 
20-MB hard disk drive, the TM 3000's 
suggested list price is $5499. This in- 
cludes DOS 4.01, LapLink, Battery- 
Watch, and other bundled software for 
controlling the display, disk cache, and 
power management. A configuration 
with a 40-MB drive will list for $5999, 
or $500 less than the 30-MB Compaq 
LTE 386s/20. This is still a lot of money, 
but if you need a 386 on the road or you 
just can't resist the latest breakthrough in 
portable power, the TM 3000 may be just 
the ticket.! 

Andrew Reinhardt is an associate news 
editor for BYTE in New York. He can be 
reached on BIX as "areinhardt." 



DECEMBER 1990 -BYTE 153 



The Okidata OK 

It's why we had 

tore-invent 

the laser printer. 



e®^ 




EDITORS' 
CHOICE 



June 12, 1990 
Oida[aOL400 



'Si 




Whats the Okidata OK? Its a badge of honor 
that every Okidata product has to earn-a symbol of 
our commitment to design and deliver products that 
offer outstanding value and performance. Products 
that will not only satisfy you, but impress you. 

TheLaserless Printhead: 
Warranteed for 5 Years. 

The performance promise behind the Okidata 
OK is the reason we had to re-invent the conventional 
laser printer. Our engineers frankly rejected the 
industry-standard page printer technology of laser 
beams, lenses and rotating mirrors. Instead, they 
designed and built a proprietary, solid-state LED 
printhead with no moving parts. Its a printing system 
so trouble-free, we guarantee our LED print element 
for 5 full years-making it by far the longest warranty 

f* in the industry. 

But reliability isn't the only advan- 
tage our unique printhead offers. It also 
means a simpler design, resulting in a 
straight-line paper path thats far less 
likely to jam-even when feeding heavy 
stock, envelopes, or labels. And, since we 
build it ourselves, it means something 
else-a lower cost. 

TheOL400:The 
Only $999 Page Printer. 

Our 4 ppm OL400, for example, has the lowest 
list price of any page printer on the market: only 
$999.* Yet that price gets you a printer that earned a 
PC Magazine Editor's Choice Award, with standard 
features-extra fonts, a full 200-sheet paper tray— 
that you won t find on a LaserJet® IIP selling for 
hundreds of dollars more. Plus a slim, low-profile 
design thats less bulky on a desktop. 

The OL800:Twice the Output, 
with Room to Grow. 

And the OL400 isn't the only Okidata LED 
page printer to offer outstanding value. For applica- 
tions where greater speed is needed, the OL800 
delivers 8 ppm with all the advantages of the Okidata 
LED printhead: straight-line paper path, 5-year 



printhead warranty, and a low $1499 list price. 

Like all our LED page printers, the OL800 
emulates HP®Series II for compatibility with most 
popular software; with its speed and selection of resi- 
dent type fonts, it can handle the printing needs of a 
whole work group. Whats more, as your applications 
change and your needs grow, a simple upgrade kit 
turns the OL800 into either a font-scaling OL820 or a 
PostScripts-compatible OL840. 

The OL820: Smarter 
Than a LaserJet III. 

The OL820 earned the Okidata OK by learning 
how to do font-scaling on the fly. Thanks to a special 
chip our engineers designed into the 820, it can solve 
complex type-sizing and positioning problems 
instantly— problems the LaserJet III needs to talk to 
its software to work out.That means the OL820 can 
deliver up to three pages of sophisticated text while 
the LaserJet III is still working on its first page. 

And all at a price thats hundreds of dollars less 
than the LaserJet III. 

TheOL840: 
PostScript and Beyond. 

And for applications that require full Adobe 
PostScript® compatibility, our OL840 delivers it in 
spades. Its ready to connect to any PC or Macintosh® 
system, or to both at the same time-then switch 
between systems with the push of a button. 

The Okidata OK. Its a promise that makes our 
job-to design and manufacture a line of page 
printers offering both 
outstanding value 
and performance-a 
hard one. 

But it makes 
your job-choosing 
the right brand of 
page printer for your 
application-easier 
than ever before. 

For additional 
information, call us 
at 1-800-800-7333. 




OKIDATA OK! 

We don't just design it to work. We design it to work wonders.™ 



Pictured with optional second paper tray; available on OL800, OL820 and OL840 models. 
HR LaserJet, Adobe PostScript, Macintosh arc trademarks of their respective corporations. 



'Manufacturers suggested retail price. Dealer prices may vary. 

OK1LATA is a registered trademark of Oki America, Inc., Marque deposec de Oki America Inc. 



Circle 217 on Reader Service Card 



PRODUCT 



Laser Printer Alternatives 



When Laser Printers 
Can't Cut It 



The BYTE Lab tests 
27 dot-matrix and page 
printers that pick up 
where laser printers 
leave off 



Stanford Diehl and 
Howard Eglowstein 



Are you planning to run out and 
buy a laser printer? If so, stop, 
take a deep breath, and consider 
what you are buying a printer 
for. You might want to consider a laser 
printer alternative. 

Sure, laser printers are fast and getting 
less expensive by the day. But maybe you 
need to print multipart forms; laser 
printers can't do that. Or perhaps you 
will be printing long program or data- 
base listings. A large stack of cut sheets 
is definitely not the way to print long list- 
ings. And at 5 cents per page, they're 
five times the cost of dot-matrix output. 
A long piece of perforated pin-feed paper 
is much more convenient and fits easily 
in a special binder. If you've ever pasted 
together multiple letter-size spread- 
sheets, you're sure to appreciate the abil- 
ity to print on 13-inch-wide paper. 

There are alternatives to the laser 
printer, and this month, the BYTE Lab 
looks at 27 printers that might suit your 
needs. You be the judge. 

Quality is a big consideration when 
buying a printer, so all the reviewed 
printers have 24-pin print heads (or the 
equivalent) and produce letter-quality 
output. For the dot-matrix printers, we 
chose wide-carriage models and further 
required that they all handle graphics in 

156 BYTE* DECEMBER 1990 



either IBM Proprinter or Epson LQ emu- 
lation. This narrowed the field to 21 dot- 
matrix and two ink- jet printers. Another 
alternative to a laser printer is a page 
printer with a nonlaser print engine. The 
text box "You're Being Paged" on page 
158 introduces two LED, one LCS (liq- 
uid-crystal shutter), and one ink- jet page 
printer, each with print quality to rival 
the laser printers and full Hewlett-Pack- 
ard PCL emulation. 

If You Can't Fight 'Em, 
Emulate 'Em 

All printers evolved from the simple 
typewriter. Teletypewriter machines 
provided feedback to the earliest hackers 
before CRTs became popular. Even after 
monitors became the preferred interface, 
modified teletypewriters hung around as 
simple hard-copy output devices. From 
the teletypewriter evolved the daisy 
wheel, whose loud and clumsy operation 
drove users to dot-matrix printers as 
soon as the machines produced accept- 
able quality. Now, of course, ink-jet 
printers and cheap laser printers threaten 
the dot-matrix models for mainstream 
applications. 

Centronics marketed the first success- 
ful line of dot-matrix printers and, for a 
time, had the market mostly to itself. 
Then the Japanese printers poured in. 
Seiko was the first Japanese company to 
manufacture dot-matrix print heads. 
Then Seiko turned them over to its Epson 
subsidiary, which began selling printers 
of a quality and price that Centronics 
couldn't match. 

In 1981, when IBM needed a printer 
for its new Personal Computer, it chose 
an Epson. Although the name tag said 
"IBM," the printer and its underlying 
command set were pure Epson. IBM's 
choice of an Epson solidified the Epson 
standard. Even the so-called Centronics 
parallel port is actually an Epson modi- 
fication of the original Centronics de- 
sign. 

In today's dot-matrix market, most 



manufacturers emulate the Epson printer 
command set. Printer companies emu- 
late the Epson so that their printers will 
be compatible with leading software 
packages. To communicate with a print- 
er, every software package must include 
a driver that the specific printer can 
understand. A printer vendor must either 
write its own driver for every major piece 
of software or create a printer that can 
talk to the most popular drivers around. 
While having a wide range of emulations 
will increase a printer's chances of being 
compatible with software products, all a 
printer really needs these days are IBM 
and Epson emulations. To be successful, 
most software must include drivers for 
the Epson and the IBM Proprinter. If 
your printer emulates these two (see 
photo 1), you won't have to worry about 
software compatibility. 

Still, emulating the commands is not 
enough. The command sets, after all, 
continue to evolve, sprouting new fea- 
tures and capabilities each time Epson or 
IBM releases a new printer. Luckily, the 
enhanced commands are backward-com- 
patible. If you have a newer Epson 
printer, you can still use software that 
supports the old models; you just won't 
be taking full advantage of the printer. 
For instance, in table 1, we list two 
Epson emulations— Epson 1050 and 
Epson 2550. Any printer that emulates 
the 2550 will also work with a 1050 
driver and, indeed, with drivers dating 
back to the original MX series. The 
printers that do not support 2550 emula- 
tion do not include the latest enhance- 
ments to the Epson printer command set. 
Likewise, IBM's latest printer, the Pro- 
printer XL24E, has an enhanced com- 
mand set (that's what the E stands for). 
You should always use the most recent 
driver that your printer will support to 
ensure that you're getting the most out of 
your investment. 

Fujitsu takes an interesting approach 
to the emulation issue. The DL4600 uses 
the Fujitsu DPL24C Plus command set, 




PHOTOGRAPHY: PAUL AVIS © 1990 



DECEMBER 1990 -BYTE 157 



FOCUS 



Laser Printer Alternatives 



You're Being Paged 



Perhaps you want a page printer but 
you have specific needs that a laser 
printer cannot address— larger paper, 
say. While they're not in the same cate- 
gory as the dot-matrix and ink- jet char- 
acter printers, the four page printers 
that we examined (see photo A) have 
specific design advantages over their 
laser counterparts (see table A). 

The first thing we wondered when we 
started to test these LED, LCS (liquid- 
crystal shutter), and ink- jet page print- 
ers was: What's the point? They aren't 
really cheaper, they're not always faster 



(see figure A), and the LED/LCS tech- 
nology uses essentially the same sup- 
plies as a laser printer. 

The Epson EPI-4000 ink- jet printer is 
unique in that it can handle PCL or 
Epson graphics on 11- by 17 -inch pa- 
per. It's probably not a good choice as a 
general-purpose printer; it's slower 
than the Hewlett-Packard Series II, and 
the water-based ink makes the paper 
wrinkle if you print a large black area. 
Still, the print quality is good, and if 
you need to print on large paper, the 
EPI-4000 is your only option. 



LED and LCS technologies are simi- 
lar in that they use a photosensitive 
drum to attract toner, much the way a 
laser printer does. The difference is that 
a laser printer uses a scanning laser 
beam to charge the drum. LED and 
LCS printers use an array of 2550 indi- 
vidual elements— one for each pixel on 
an 8 ! /2-inch line. On an LED printer, 
there is one LED for each pixel, and as a 
given line is printed, the printer acti- 
vates the required LEDs. 

The LCS printer uses a similar tech- 
nique, but it places an array of liquid- 




Photo A: Laser quality without the laser: Page printers reviewed are (clockwise from top left) the Epson EPI-4000, the 
Okidata OkiLaser 820, the Fujitsu RX7100 S/2, and the Qume CrystalPrint Publisher II, 



158 BYTE- DECEMBER 1990 



crystal elements between the drum and 
an incandescent light source. According 
to Qume, this configuration allows for 
more even light distribution, preventing 
a streaky appearance in large black 
areas. Compared to laser printers, LED 
and LCS printers have fewer moving 
parts to break, which suggests that they 
may be more reliable. Without the scan- 
ning mirror, the LED/LCS technologies 
print a more even black without any 
trace of scan lines. As for performance, 
the Okidata OkiLaser 820 (LED) was 
the fastest in our long-document and 
text-and-graphics tests, thanks to its fast 
paper handling. The Fujitsu RX7100 
S/2's exposed paper bin (see photo A) 
made it easy to load. Qume's Crystal- 
Print Publisher II has a fast RISC pro- 
cessor, which gave it an edge on the 
short-memo test. CrystalPrint Publish- 
er II has both PostScript and Apple 
LocalTalk interfaces, making it a fine 
addition to any Mac network. 

Overall, we couldn't detect any sub- 
stantial difference in print quality be- 
tween the CrystalPrint Publisher IPs 
LCS engine and the LED printers, al- 
though all three had much blacker 
blacks than the Hewlett-Packard Laser- 
Jet Series II. As for reliability, the 
claims seem reasonable; time will tell. 





•nrn^nJfcT 






Table A: Ink-jet, 


LED, and LCS printers offer a range 


of interface and emulation 


choices. (0=yes; 


9= no; (O)=optional.) 








Epson 
EPl-4000 


Fujitsu 


Okidata 


Qume 


Model 


RX7100S/2 


OkiLaser 820 


CrystalPrint 










Publisher II 


Price 


$1999 


$1395 


$2295 


$3995 


Dimensions in inches 


19.6x12 


6.7x16 


8.5x17.7 


9.1x15.7 


(D.W.H) 


X28.2 


X15.7 


x17.7 


x13.4 


Weight (pounds) 


393/fc 


39 


37 


35y 5 


Memory— standard 


512K 


640K 


512K 


3 MB 


Memory— expansion 


2MB 


4MB 


4MB 


6 MB 


Interface 










AppleTalk 


O 


O 


O 


• 


Parallel 


• 


• 


• 


• 


Print sharing 


O 


O 


Optional 


O 


Serial 


• 


• 


• 


• 


Twinax 


• 


o 


O 


o 


Technology 


Inkjet 


LED 


LED 


LCS 


Maximum print speed 


Depends on page 


5ppm 


8ppm 


6ppm 


Pages/refill 


1000 LQ pages 


6000 pages 


2500 pages 


7500 pages 


Duty 


5000 hours® 


3000 pages/ 


5000 pages/ 


6000 pages/ 




25%duty 


month 


month 


month 


Paper capacity 


100 sheets 


150 sheets 


200 sheets 


100 sheets 


Maximum paper size 


11x17 


8M>x14 


8^x14 


8^x14 


(inches) 










Emulation 










Diablo 630 


O 


• 


• 


O 


Epson 


LQandFX 


FX 


O 


O 


HP LaserJet II 


• 


• 


• 


• 


IBM Proprinter 


O 


• 


• 


O 


PostScript 


o 


(0) 


o 


• 


Resident fonts 


3 


7 


5 (HP), 13 
(Scalable Oki) 


8 (HP), 39 
(PostScript) 


Options 


Push tractor 


Font cards, second 
paper bin 


Font cards 


Font cards 





PAGE PRINTER SPEED INDEX 










< Worse Better ► 




< Worse Better ► 




< Worse Better ► 


2 


Epson EPl-4000 

Fujitsu RX71 00 S/2 

Hewlett-Packard LaserJet II 

Okidata OkiLaser 820 

Qume CrystalPrint Publisher II 


II 










-^T-H 




















I 




I 


I I 




















1 






















1 1 1 


I 






1 


II 


I I 










.. d . ml. : 


I I 


_«.■£ 


i > 


I I 




I I I 

D 1 2 3 
_l First page 
__] Short memo 


\ 


I I 

D 1 2 c 
_d Text and graphics 
_J Graphics throughput 


I ( 


I I 
D 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1 

1 Long document 



Figure A: Since these printers work like Hewlett-Packard LaserJets, we ran the tests used for our July Product Focus, 
"Laser Printers Get Personal. " The first-page and short-memo tests are heavily influenced by warm-up time and the speed 
at which fonts can be downloaded. The text-and-graphics and graphics-throughput tests reflect the speed of a lengthy 
binary-image transfer. Finally, the long-document test rates the printers on their ability to churn out long listings. In all 
cases, the tests are normalized to the Hewlett-Packard Series II (its index rating is I). 



DECEMBER 1990 -BYTE 159 



a) 



SPEED INDEXES 

CPS index 



Advanced Matrix Technology Accel-535 

AEGOIympiaNPC136-24 

Alps America Allegro 500XT 

Apple ImageWriter LQ 

Brother M-1924L 

Canon BJ130e 

C-Tech Electronics C-515 

Dataproducts Model 9044 

Epson LQ-2550 

Facit B2400/50 

Fortis DQ4215 

Fujitsu DL4600 

Hewlett-Packard DeskJet 500 

Hewlett-Packard RuggedWriter 480 

IBM Proprinter XL24E 

Mannesmann Tally 131/24 

NEC Pinwriter P6300 

Okidata Microline 393+ 

Panasonic KX-P1 624 

Seikosha SL-230 

Star Micronix XB-241 5 Multi-font 

Tandy DMP 2103 

Toshiba America ExpressWriter 440 



IBM Proprinter XL24E=1 



< Slower 



j_ 



T 



~~] 



* *f 



] 



b) Text and graphics indexes 



< Slower Faster ► | 




1 






■M 


■ 


.1 








I 


1 


' ~TI 








j 








II 


1 




KT- 


TS8 










■ 


I 






1 










iH 




1 








1 




B 




■■ 






y^pm 




_ 


1 












___._ m 




m 


• r i 


^m 



0.5 1.0 1. 
Draft mode 



0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 
Letter quality 



2.5 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 



Figure 1: (a) Vendors ' cps (characters per second) ratings do not always reflect real-world results. Our tests use a typical 
formatted document. The results are normalized on the IBM Proprinter XL24E (its index rating is 1 , so a printer with a rating 
of 2 runs twice as fast as the Proprinter). The Hewlett-Packard RuggedWriter 480 had far and away the fastest 
letter-quality printing. The RuggedWriter 480 and the Okidata Microline 393+ turned in the fastest draft performance. 
(b) Our text-and-graphics test included text, line art, a gray-scale test pattern, and a gray-scale TIFF image scanned at 300 dots 
per inch. The results are normalized on the IBM Proprinter XL24E (its index rating is 1). The Facit B2400/50 and the C-Tech 
C-515 led the field. All printers were tested with the Windows 3. Proprinter driver unless only an Epson driver was supported. 
The Hewlett-Packard DeskJet 500 required its own driver. 




which includes most of the commands 
for the Proprinter and Epson LQ-2550. 
On top of that, the DL4600 printer ac- 
cepts "emulation cards." These optional 
cards slide onto the memory board and 
deliver additional printer emulations. 

Quick and Dirty 

Many buyers look to dot-matrix printers 
without worrying too much about print 
quality. They just want their output fast. 
When you're pumping out an early draft 
or a preliminary listing, you usually 
want it right away. Speed has become a 
major factor in dot-matrix purchasing 
decisions. 

Note that the results of our testing (see 

Photo 1 : Setting the standards. 
Most dot-matrix printers emulate one 
or both of these two printers: the IBM 
Proprinter XL24E (top) and the Epson 
LQ-2550 (bottom). 



160 BYTE 



PRODUCT FOCUS 



Laser Printer Alternatives 



figure la) conflict with the characters- 
per-second (cps) ratings as listed in table 
1 . Don't be alarmed. We have not uncov- 
ered a conspiracy. When printer vendors 
publish speed ratings, they are literally 
referring to the time it takes to print a 
burst of characters. This time does not 
include movement of the print head, line- 
feeds, and carriage returns. Our test gen- 
erates a long document with numerous 
elements not included in vendor tests (see 
the text box "Lab Tests: Connect the 
Dots" at right). Keep this in mind when 
reviewing cps ratings. You can use these 
ratings to compare the speed of various 
printers, but don't expect a printer rated 
at 300 cps to print a 10,000-character 
document in 33 seconds. The BYTE Lab 
tests reflect real-world results that you 
can expect to duplicate (see also figure 
lb). Table 1 includes draft and letter- 
quality cps ratings at 10 cpi, the accepted 
standard, as supplied by the vendors. 

When you opt for letter-quality print- 
ing, you will, of course, forfeit some 
speed. Many dot-matrix printers en- 
hance quality by printing a second iden- 
tical character on top of (or slightly offset 
from) the first. As you would expect, 
this technique will at the very least halve 
the print speed. 

Luckily, you don't have to wait for the 
entire printout before getting back to 
work. This is where printer buffers come 
in. The bigger the buffer, the more out- 
put your computer can pass to the printer 
and the sooner you get control of your 
keyboard. On the other hand, printer 
memory is not as vital to a dot-matrix 
printer as it is to a page printer. Because 
a page printer must first build an image 
in its memory, it requires a minimum 
amount of RAM to do its job. Dot-matrix 
printers use memory only as buffer space 
and to download fonts. So, if you're plan- 
ning to use downloadable fonts with your 
dot-matrix printer or if you just want a 
healthy buffer, make sure that you have 
adequate memory. Table 1 lists each 
printer's maximum memory configura- 
tion. 

Please Turn That Thing Down 

The new breed of dot-matrix printer is 
worlds quieter than its ancestors, al- 
though after testing over 20 of them, we 
still went to bed at night with that annoy- 
ing hum in our ears. 

Some models with special "quiet" 
modes dampen noise by printing more 
slowly and by printing one-half of the 
line in each of two passes. Our tests re- 
vealed that most printers produce copy at 
roughly half-speed when printing in 
quiet mode. Some of the printers were 



Lab Tests: Connect the Dots 



We started our tests by hooking 
each printer (except the Apple 
ImageWriter LQ) to our base system, a 
Compaq Deskpro 386/20. We fiddled 
around with the printer before consult- 
ing the manual, just to see how intuitive 
the interface was. We loaded razor-cut 
fanf old paper and fed it into the printer 
as specified in the manual. Usually, 
pushing a formfeed button or pulling 
back on the paper bail lever caused the 
paper to load automatically. We then 
tried the tear-off function and parked 
the paper for single-sheet feeding. Nu- 
merous formfeeds helped test the feed- 
ing mechanism. We usually developed a 
strong impression of a printer before the 
first real test even started. 

For one test (see figure la), we print- 
ed a fairly long (55K-byte) document 
from the DOS prompt. We timed the test 
from the first strike of the print head to 
the formfeed at the end of the docu- 
ment. This was designed to test speed in 
characters per second on a formatted 
document. We ran the full-speed test 
twice, once in high-speed draft quality 
and once in letter-quality mode. For the 
Apple ImageWriter LQ, we printed 
from Microsoft Word 4.0 on a Mac Por- 
table. To test the Canon BJ130e for 
Canon mode compatibility, we con- 
nected to a Canon Cat, one of Canon's 
dedicated word processors (it ran fine). 

As the cps test ran, we took a sound 
reading of each printer. A sound meter 
recorded the decibel reading 3 feet in 
front of the printer. We recorded the 
highest dB rating consistently registered 
on the meter (see figure 2). We took a 
second reading for those printers with 
special quiet modes. 

We ran our text-and-graphics speed 



test from PageMaker 3.01 under Win- 
dows 3.0. With the Windows print 
spooler disabled, we started timing as 
soon as the printer began receiving 
data, and we stopped timing when the 
printout was complete (see figure lb). 
Our graphics file included line art, a 
scanned TIFF image, a gray-scale test 
pattern, and text in various fonts. We 
tested both Epson and IBM Proprinter 
emulation for those printers supporting 
both; otherwise, we used whatever 
driver the printer could handle. Some 
printers, such as the NEC Pin writer 
P6300 and the Fujitsu DL4600, have 
custom Windows 3.0 drivers. For these 
printers, we tested the available emula- 
tions as well as the native drivers. We 
timed the Hewlett-Packard DeskJet 500 
using the standard DeskJet driver. We 
also tested the DeskJet 500-specific 
driver with scalable font technology. 
The scalable fonts looked terrific, and 
we had no problems running Page- 
Maker with them. The PageMaker file 
ported directly to Mac PageMaker 3.02 
for printing from the Mac Portable. 

Next, we parked the fanf old paper 
and loaded a seven-part McGraw-Hill 
requisition form (if you can get one of 
those through, you can get anything 
through— these monsters have seven 
sheets of heavy paper and six separate 
carbons). We set the gap adjustment 
until the highest-quality printout was 
achieved. If a printer would not accept 
the seven-part form, we removed pages 
from the form one by one until the form 
fed properly. Although not all printers 
accepted the seven-part form, they all 
met or exceeded the vendor specifica- 
tion for multiple copies. Ink- jet printers 
will not generate multipart copies. 



pleasantly muted even without a quiet 
mode. And, of course, if you really cher- 
ish your peace and quiet, the ink- jet 
printers barely break out of a whisper. 
We took sound readings for each printer 
and graphed the results in figure 2. We 
used the most common unit of sound 
measurement, decibels, in our testing. 
Doubling the volume means a 10-dB in- 
crease. A difference of 5 or 6 dB is sig- 
nificant, and even a 2-dB difference is 
noticeable. 

It helps to listen to the printer before 
you buy it. Try to carry on a normal con- 



versation with the printer running. We 
found that the dB rating of a printer was 
not always as important as the quality of 
the sound that it made. Some emit an un- 
obtrusive sound that may register a high- 
er dB rating, while a "quieter" model 
may make you cringe with its high- 
pitched squeal. Two of the quietest 
printers, the Brother M-1924L and the 
Seikosha SL-230, registered 65 dB in fast 
draft mode; in quiet mode, they both reg- 
istered 62 dB. Compare that to the Pana- 
sonic KX-P1624, which prints at 77 dB 
in fast draft, 68 dB in quiet mode. Then 



DECEMBER 1990 -BYTE 161 



FOCUS 



Laser Printer Alternatives 



NOISE RATINGS 

Draft mode 



Quiet mode 



Advanced Matrix 
Technology Accel-535 

AEG Olympia NPC1 36-24 

Alps America Allegro 500XT 

Apple ImageWriter LQ 

Brother M-1924L 

Canon BJ130e 

C-Tech Electronics C-515 

Dataproducts Model 9044 

Epson LQ-2550 

Facit B2400/50 

Fortis DQ4215 

Fujitsu DL4600 

HP DeskJet 500 

HP RuggedWriter 480 

IBM Proprinter XL24E 

Mannesmann Tally 131/24 

NEC Pinwriter P6300 

Okidata Microline 393+ 

Panasonic KX-P1 624 

Seikosha SL-230 

Star Micronix XB-2415 Multi-font 

Tandy DMP 2103 

Toshiba America 
ExpressWriter 440 



< Quieter Louder ► | 


I :_1 


I 




M 


— -.J 


I 




Jj 


i — -■ — U 


1 


| v 


y—i 






L_I_~] 




^i 




l 


CZZZZI 


■ 


! 1 


i 1| 




1 I I I I I 



20 40 60 
Decibels 



80 



20 40 60 
Decibels 



80 



Figure 2: Sound readings taken 3 feet aw ay from the printer. On a dB scale, an 
increase of 10 equates to sound twice as loud, but even a 2-dB difference is 
noticeable. A typical conversation registers 60 dB, while a passing truck registers 
about 90 dB. It was no surprise that the two ink- jet printers (the Canon BJ130e 
and the Hewlett-Packard DeskJet 500) were the quietest. For those printers that 
include a quiet mode, we measured that separately. 




there are the Alps Allegro 500XT and 
the C-Tech C-515, buzzing in at 75 dB 
and 74 dB, respectively, without a quiet 
mode to tone down the chattering when 
the phone rings. 

One solution to the noise problem is a 
printer muffler— a cabinet with foam in- 
sulation and cooling that you place over 
the printer. Depending on the size and 
quality of the enclosure, we found print- 
er mufflers listed in several mail-order 
catalogs for between $70 and $250. Or 
you could hook your printer to a long 
serial cable and put it in your closet. 

DIP Switches, R.I.P. 

As simple as the technology seems at 
first glance, dot-matrix printers are no- 
toriously aggravating to work with. Ven- 
dors of the latest breed have bucked this 
trend by improving paper-handling fea- 
tures and the user interface. For the most 
part, DIP switches— those tiny, cryptic 
switches used to configure printers in the 
past— have gone the way of the daisy 
wheel. Among the 24-pin printers that 
we looked at, only the Hewlett-Packard 
RuggedWriter still uses the old-time in- 
terface. In fact, the RuggedWriter uses 
DIP switches only for configuration set- 
tings that you won't normally deal with 
on a day-to-day basis. The RuggedWriter 
handles font and pitch changes by front- 
panel controls. 

Some vendors still use a variation of 
the DIP switch theme. The Seikosha 
America SL-230 keeps its configuration 
switches on a credit-card-style function 
card (see photo 2). You set the switches 
(kind of like rotary DIP switches) and 
then slide the card into the front of the 
printer. The twist here is obvious: You 
can have different cards configured for 
each printer application. This feature is 
especially handy when different applica- 
tions need to share one printer. Instead of 
fumbling through a new configuration 
each time a different user requires hard 
copy, each user simply plugs in a cus- 
tomized card. 

Among the printers we reviewed, most 
offer a true menuing interface. You view 
menu options from an LCD or from a 
printed list. Either way, your current se- 
lections and possible choices are clearly 
displayed so you don't have to refer to a 
manual each time. Some of the printed 
menus— such as the ones from C-Tech, 

Photo 2: The Seikosha SL-230 's 
credit-card-style function card serves 
the same purpose as old-fashioned DIP 
switches. You can keep multiple function 
cards, each configured for a different 
application. 



162 BYTE- DECEMBER 1990 




The argument 

for buying our new 

laser line printer 

is full of holes. 



Consider 

the facts 

and you'll 

agree. The 

Laserf old is the logical conclusion for 

departmental computing environments. 

Particularly where high-speed printing of 

high-quality text is an everyday requirement. 

That's because the Laserf old ends the trade- 
offs between high-speed line printers and 
high-end page printers. It simply gives you 
the best of both ... at a lower cost than either. 

It combines laser-quality character resolu- 
tion, a fast 16-pages-per-minute output, 



extremely quiet operation 
and desktop size. 
So when you're printing 
high-quality text on fanfold 
paper for business, technical or accounting 

applications, there's >.: $**f**; ■«... 

simply no argument 
against choosing the 
Laserfold. 

Pentax Technologies,' 
100 Technology Drive, 
Broomfield, CO 80021. 
Phone 303-460-1600. 
FAX303-460-1628. TECHNOLOGIES 




PENTAX 



Advanced 
Microsource 

Hopkinton.MA 
(508)435-5800 
(800)232-9920 

Nimax Nimax 

San Diego, CA St. Louis, MO 

(619) 566-4800 (314) 427-1919 



Computer Source Technology Technology 

Hauppauge.NY Marketing Group Marketing Group 

(516) 348-7474 Minneapolis, MN Bensenville, IL 

(800) 222-5022 (800) 688-7000 (708) 595-4600 

Proven Solutions Q/Cor 

Nimax Olympia, WA Norcross, GA 



Technology 
Marketing Group 

Phoenix,AZ 
(602)340-9000 

Chess 

Denver, CO 



Livonia, MI 
(313)427-1010 



(206)352-4512 
(800) 541-0183 



(404) 923-6666 
(800) 548-3420 



(303)573-5133 

© 1990 Pentax Technologies 



Circle 230 on Reader Service Card 



FOCUS 



Laser Printer Alternatives 







' 




Table 1 : Paper-handling options, speed, and 

Printer Advanced AEG 
Matrix Tech. Olympta 


noise ratings are among the most important features that distinguish 24- pin dot- 

Alps Apple Brother Canon C-Tech Data- Epson 
America products 


matrix printers. 
Faclt Fortls 






Model 


Accel-535 


NPC 136-24 


Allegro 
500XT 


ImageWriter 
LQ 


M-1924L 


BJ130e 


C-515 


9044 


LQ-2550 


B2400/50 


DQ4215 


/ .&'; 


Price 


$1485 


$799 


$799 


$1399 


$849 


$995 


$749 
200 


$1099 


$1499 


$849 


$899 




Rated characters per 
second— draft (10 cDi) 


400 


200 


250 


250 


225 


240 


250 


333 


200 


200 






Rated characters per 
second— LQ (10 cpi) 


80 


67 


83 


115 


75 


110 


66 


83 


111 


65 


67 






Standard buffer (bytes) 


32K 


24K 


23K 


5K 


64K 

32K 


64K 


28K 


2K 


8K 


26K 


24K 


..« 


Optional buffer (maximum) 
(bytes) 


400K 


56K 


55K 


None 


None 


None 


32K 


32K 


None 


None 




Type of tractor 


Push 


Push 


Push 

• 


Push or pull 
• 


Push 


Pull(O) 


Push 


Push 


Push 


Push 


Push 




Bottom feed? 


• 


O 


O 


O 


O 


O 


O 









Autoload? 


• ,.; 


• 


,, ^. , 


• 




' • 




- • 


-V 


'■::• 






Paper park? 


• 


• 


• 


O 


_ 


N/A 




• 


• 


• 




■HBB 


Autobail? 


• 


• 





O 


. • 


N/A 
N/A 




O 

• 


• 

• 


• 

o 




MMm 


Plug-in font cartridge? 


• 


• 


O 


o 




O 




• 





• 




wm 


Quiet mode? 


o 


• 


o 


o 




N/A 


o 


o 


o 


• 






Number of multiple copies 


6 


3 


4 


5 


4 


N/A 


4 


3 


6 


4 


3 


BHM 


Resident fonts 
Ribbon life (characters) 


4 


6 


7 


N/A 


9 


3 


9 


2 


7 


2 


4 




5 million 


2 million 


2 million 


4 million 


3Vz million 


1 million 
(cartridge) 


3V2 million 


2 million 


3 million 


3 million 


Not 
available 


■ 


Print-head life 1 Not 

available 
Mean time between failures 1 5,000 hours 
(50% duty) 


100 million 
characters 
6000 hours 
(20% duty) 


200 million 

dots/pin 

6000 hours 

(25% duty) 


400 million 

dots/pin 

6000 hours: 

(25% duty) 


200 million 
dots/pin 


Not 
available 


200 million 
dots/pin 


200 million 
dots/pin 


200 million 
dots/pin 


150 million 
characters 
>4000 hours 
(20% duty) 

1 


100 million 
characters 




6000 hours 
(25% duty) 


Not 
available 


6000 hours 
(25% duty) 

1 


5000 hours 
(10% duty) 

1 


3000 hours 
25% duty) 

4 


6000 hours 
(20% duty) 


■ 


Number of stored 
configurations 


5 


2 


3 


1 


1 


1 


2 




Dimensions in inches 
(D.W.H) 


24x7.35 

X16.9 


24.4x5.1 
X13.8 


23x8.4 
X13.6 


23.2x5.12 
x15 


24.6x15.3 
x6.1 
26.5 


24x5.4 
X14.3 


22.5x4.6 
x12.4 


23x5.3 
x14,3 

26.5 


26.6x7.7 
X20.4 


23.25x5.12 
X13 


25x6.5 
x16 


■ 


Weight (pounds) 


48 


22 


1*7.7 


38 


26.5 


19.84 


44 


24.2 


27 






Tested decibel level 
(high-speed draft) 


67 


70 


75 


70 


65 


55 


74 


70 


67 


71 


70 


WBm 




Emulations 
IBMProprinterXL24 
Epson LQ-1050 
Epson LQ-2550 
Others 


• 

• 

• 
Diablo 630, 
Xerox 4020 


• 
• 
• 


O 
• 
• 


N/A 
N/A 
N/A 


• 

• 

• 
Diablo 630, 
Brother HR 


• 
O 
O 


• 
• 
O 


O 
• 

o 

Diablo 630 


O 
• 
• 


• 
O 

o 

Epson 
LQ-850 


• 
• 
• 




Graphics resolution 
(maximum) in dpi 


240x480 


360x180 


360x360 


216x216 


360x360 


360x360 


360x180 


360x180 


360x360 


360x180 


360x 180 


:*' 


User interface 


LCD, 
select-dial 


LCD 


Printed menu 


DIP switches 


LCD 


DIP switches Printed menu 


Printed menu 


LCD 


Printed menu, 

move 

print head 


LCD 




Auto thickness sensor 


O 


O 


O 


O 





O 


O 


o 


• 


O 


O 




Heat sensor ^^^ 





O 


• 


O 





O 


O 


O 


• 


O 


O 




Micro feed (increment) 
Color 


1/120 inch 
• 


1/180 inch 
O 


1/180 inch 
O 


1/216 inch 


o 


O 


1/216 inch 


1/180 inch 


1/180 Inch 


1/180 inch 


1/180 inch 




• 


(0) 


O 


O 


(0) 


• 


O 


(O) 






Warranty (years) 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


/ 1 


1 


1 


1 


1 






Hardware interface 


P. RS-232C 


P.RS-232C P,RS-232C(0) 


RS-232C, 

RS-422, 

LocalTalk(O) 


P, RS-232C 


P. RS-232C(0) 


P, RS-232C 


P,RS-232C(0) f 


3 ,RS-232C 


P.RS-232C 


P.RS-232C 





•=Yes. 0=No. (0)=Optional. N/A=Not applicable. LQ= Letter quality. 

1 Vendors measure print-head life in characters or in dots per pin. The number of pins fired per character depends on various factors. A draft character equals roughly two dots. 



Dataproducts, Okidata, and Tandy- 
print a line for each option you cycle 
through. For instance, to change the set- 
ting for characters per inch, you cycle 
through each option (e.g., 15 cpi, 12 cpi, 
10 cpi), and each option is printed on a 
line as you move through them. You then 
press a second button when the proper 
option is printed out. The method is sim- 



ple and clear, but it's also slow, and it 
wastes paper. To save time and paper, 
the Facit B2400/50, the Mannesmann 
Tally 131/24, and the Star Micronics 
XB-2415 Multi-font vary the technique 
somewhat. These models also print out 
menu options, but to select those options, 
you press directional keys to use the print 
head as a cursor to make your selection. 



For true clarity and ease of use, you 
can't beat the LCD interface. With the 
best ones, clear options are displayed on 
the panel and selected simply, without 
reference cards or wasted paper. So if 
you crave an elegant cure for the printer 
installation blues, take a close look at the 
models with LCDs: the AEG Olympia 
NPC 136-24, the Brother M-1924L, the 



164 BYTE* DECEMBER 1990 





COMPARING PRINTER FEATURES 






Fujitsu 


Hewlett- 
Packard 


Hewlett- 
Packard 


IBM Mannesmann 
Tally 


NEC 


Okldata 


Panasonic 


Selkosha 
America 


Star 
Mlcronlcs 


Tandy 


Toshiba 
America 




DL4600 


DeskJet 500 


RuggedWriter 
480 


Proprinter 
XL24E 


131/24 


Pinwriter 
P6300 


Microline 
393+ 


KX-P1624 


SL-230 


XB-2415 
Multi-font 


DMP2103 


ExpressWriter 
440 




$1199 


$729 


$1695 


$1199 


$999 


$999 


$1499 


$650 


$998 


$899 


$899 


$699 




333 


240 


400 


240 


250 


250 


345 


160 


230 


200 


225 


200 




111 


120 


200 


80 


83 


125 


115 


53 


77 


67 


75 


66 




24K 


16K 


2K 


14K 


17K 


80K 


23K 


12K 


5K 


41K 


16K 


Not 
available 




None 


272K 


16K 


None 


49K 


None 


17K 


32K 


64K 


201 K 


None 


Not 
available 




Push 


None 


Push 


Push 


Push 


Push 


Push 


Push 


Push 


Push 


Push 


Push 




O 


N/A 


• 


O 


O 


• 


• 


• 


O 


O 


• 


O 
• 






• f 


• 


•Si 


• 


• 


• 


• 


• * 




• 






N/A 


O 


• 


• 


• 


• 


• 


• 




• 


• 






N/A 


•JB 


ojjH 


• 


• 


• 


• m 


• 




fife 


• 






N/A 


o 


o 


O 


O 


• 





• 




O 


O 






• 


• 


• 


• 


• 


• 





O 




O 


O 




o 


N/A 


o 


o 


o 


• 


• 


• 


o 




• 


• 




5 


N/A 


6 


4 


3 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 




7 


9 


3 


4 


7 


8 


4 


7 


9 


16 


6 


5 


■ 


5 million 


1000 pages 
(cartridges) 


5 million 


Not 
available 


2.5 million 


3 million 


5 million 


3 million 


5 million 


4 million 


2 million 


3 million 




400 million 
dots/pin 


(Part of 
cartridge) 


Life of printer 


Not 1 
available < 


50 million 
:haracters 


200 million 
dots/pin 


400 million 
dots/pin 


200 million 
dots/pin 


30C 
dc 


) million 
)ts/pin 

hours 
% duty) 


200 million 
dots/pin 


200 million 
characters 


200 million 
dots/pin 




8000 hours 
(25% duty) 


20,000 hours 
(25% duty) 


20,000 
(10% duty) 


Not 7800 hours 
available (25% duty) 


6000 hours 
(25% duty) 

1 


4000 hours 
(25% duty) 

1 


5000 hours 
(25% duty) 

4 


50C 
(30 


4000 hours 
(250/o duty) 


5000 hours 
(25% duty) 


Not 
available 




2 


1 


1 


1 


2 


1 


1 


1 


1 




22.9x7.5 
x15.2 


17.3x8 
x14.8 


23.6x8.2 
X13.7 


22.7x4.8 
x13.5 


23.5x6.3 
x12.5 


23.6x8.25 

x15 


16.4x7.1 
X22.4 


23.2x5.6 
X15.7 


23.9x5 
X13.8 


23.3x5.5 
X13.4 


21.7x4.6 
x13.6 


22.5x5.1 
x12.4 




39.7 


14.3 


35 


27 


25.7 


29 


37 


32 


26.5 


23.1 


22.3 


19.84 




68 


56 


70 


68 


66 


69 


70 


77 


65 


72 


72 


69 




• 

• 

• 
Fujitsu 
DPL24C 


(O) 

O 

o 

HPPCL, 

Epson 

FX-80(O) 


O 
• 

o 

HP 2930, 
HP LaserJet 


• • 
O • 
O • 

NEC Pinwriter 


O 

• 

• 

NEC P5200/ 

5300 


• 
• 
• 


• 
• 
• 


• 
• 
O 


• 
• 
O 


• 
• 
O 


• 
• 
O 




360x360 


300x300 


180x180 


Not available 


360x360 


360x360 


360x360 


360x360 


360x360 


360x360 


360x360 


360x360 




LCD 


DIP switches 


DIP switches 


Buttons, Printed menu 
musical tones 


Printed menu 


Printed menu 


LED matrix 

n 


Function card, 

move 

print head 

O 


Printed menu, 

move 

print head 

O 


Printed menu 
O 


Printed menu 
O 




O 


O 


O 


• 


O 


• 


(j 

O 


• 


• 


• 


• 


O 


^^ 


1/60 inch 


O 


1/180inch 


1/180 inch 


1/1 80 inch 


1/180 inch 


1/1 80 inch 


1/180 inch 


O 


1/360 inch 


1/80 inch 


1/80inch 




(O) 


O 


O 


O 


(0) 


(0) 


(0) 


O 


o 


(O) 


O 


O 


— 


1 


3 


1 


* K 


1 


r 


1 


2 


1 


2 


1 


1 




P.RS-232C 


P, RS-232C 


P, RS-232C, 
HPIB(O) 


P,RS-232C(0) P,RS-232C(0) P,RS-232C(0) 


P, RS-232C 


P, RS-232C(0) 


P, RS-232C 


P, RS-232C(0) 


P 


P.RS-232C 



Epson LQ-2550, the Fortis DQ4215, and 
the Fujitsu DL4600. 

Perhaps the slickest interface of all 
(the most fun, anyway) belongs to the 
Advanced Matrix Technology Accel- 
535. In addition to a detailed 16-charac- 
ter LCD, the control panel has a select 
dial (see photo 3). The dial serves a few 
purposes. With the printer off-line, the 



dial acts as a platen knob, properly posi- 
tioning your paper. If you turn the dial 
while pressing the Alt button, the print 
head moves left or right. This provides 
an easy way to set margins and print 
forms. You just position the head where 
you want to print and go to it. And fi- 
nally, the dial aids the user interface. 
You turn the dial to scroll through vari- 



ous menu options. Making setup changes 
on the Accel-535 is as easy as picking 
songs on a jukebox. 

Another way to prevent configuration 
headaches is to use stored configura- 
tions. If you have two or three different 
applications for the printer, you can store 
the proper configuration for each one of 
them. When it comes time to change 



DECEMBER 1990 -BYTE 165 



PRODUCT FOCUS 



Laser Printer Alternatives 



How to Tell One Dot-Matrix Printer 

from Another 



Armed with a good knowledge of 
printer basics, how do you go 
about selecting a 24-pin dot-matrix 
printer? As we pointed out in the main 
article, first decide if you really need 
one. If you're planning to spend many 
hours a day printing, you might be bet- 
ter served by an LED, LCS (liquid- 
crystal shutter), or laser printer. If qual- 
ity is more important than multipart 
capability, or if noise is likely to be a 
problem, perhaps you'd be better off 
with an ink- jet printer. 

On the other hand, if your applica- 
tions require high-quality output, don't 
buy a dot-matrix printer just to save a 
few bucks. Down the road, you will 
probably regret not purchasing a page 
printer. Laser-quality output is quickly 
becoming thestandard for business cor- 
respondence. Dot-matrix print, even at 
24-pin resolution, just won't look pro- 



fessional enough. For basic correspon- 
dence needs (even simple letters and 
memos), you should spring for the extra 
cash for a low-cost page printer. 

If, after you have carefully weighed 
all these points, you're committed to 
buying a dot-matrix printer, consider 
the following issues. Do you plan to al- 
ternate between tractor-fed and single- 
sheet paper on a regular basis? If so, 
parking and autoloading features are es- 
sential. If you're going to share the 
printer on a network and load it down 
with long print jobs, a heavy-duty print 
mechanism and high-speed output 
would be wise. If you need the multipart 
capability but have to work in close 
quarters with the printer, pay attention 
to the quiet mode or the machine's over- 
all noise ratings. 

Label stock has improved significant- 
ly over the years. It used to be that the 



labels would come off the backing paper 
and jam up under the print platen, caus- 
ing all sorts of serious, sometimes fatal, 
jams. Getting adhesive labels out from 
under the platen can be almost impossi- 
ble. Things are better now, but we sug- 
gest that you stick with straight paper 
paths for printing labels. A front-to- 
back or bottom-to-top path will serve 
you well. 

Finally, when you start scouting out 
printers, don't be content to print on a 
preconfigured display model. That's a 
good way to narrow down your choices, 
but once you're close to a decision, ask 
if you can take it through the configura- 
tion process yourself. You'll learn a lot 
about the printer's operation and ease of 
use. We found out as much about these 
printers by setting them up and config- 
uring them as we did testing and analyz- 
ing them. 



parameters, you can do it in one easy 
step; just activate the custom configura- 
tion. Table 1 reports the number of stored 
configurations available with each printer. 

Choosing the Right Path 

Despite advances, most dot-matrix 
printers still require some babysitting. A 
major problem is back-feeding. Many 
models still feed paper from the rear and 
send output to the rear. All too often, the 
output will curl around to the feeding 
mechanism, wrap around the platen, and 
cause a crippling paper jam. You can al- 
ways direct the paper over the front of the 
printer to avoid the problem, but there 
are better solutions. 

Some vendors devise paper separators. 
A rack or tray separates the output from 



the ingoing paper, with varying degrees 
of success. A better way is to feed your 
paper in from one direction and out an- 
other. With bottom-feed printers, you 
can place the paper below the printer and 
never have to worry about back-feeding 
again. The paper flows in the bottom and 
out the rear, which also frees up a little 
desk space. Some bottom-feed printers 
require an optional pull tractor, and you 
will need a special stand with an opening 
on the surface to accommodate bottom 
feeding. The Alps Allegro 500XT and 
HP RuggedWriter 480 feed from the 
front and send printed copy out the rear. 
This prevents back-feeding and makes 
printing labels easier. With a straight 
paper path, the labels do not wrap around 
the platen where they often peel off or 




jam the printer. You'll need to clear 
some extra space in front of your printer, 
but that's far easier than clearing a nasty 
jam. 

Desk Snakes 

Another aggravating paper problem in- 
volves the placement of a printer's ca- 
bles. The parallel cable and the AC cord 
join the traffic at the rear of the unit, 
often causing messy tangles and an ob- 
structed paper path. Some vendors, such 
as Brother, put the cable port on the side 
of the printer. This solves one problem 
but may cause others. The cable and port 
are more exposed to possible abuse, and 
you will need to clear out additional 
space beside your printer to make room 
for the cable. Epson opted for a simple 
solution: A clear plastic cover lies over 
the cables, keeping them out of your way. 
Tractors that pull paper from above 
the print head are the most efficient way 
to move paper, but getting the last page of 

Photo 3 : The Advanced Matrix 
Technology Accel-535 has the slickest 
interface of the 27 dot-matrix and page 
printers we reviewed this month. 
By spinning the dial, you can scroll 
through the options in the menu display. 
When not setting options, the dial can 
move the paper or set margins. 



166 BYTE- DECEMBER 1990 



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FOCUS 



Laser Printer Alternatives 



a printout requires the waste of a whole 
sheet. To avoid this, each printer that we 
tested has a push tractor below the print- 
ing mechanism. Some vendors offer pull 
tractors as an option, usually to accom- 
modate thick forms and labels. We had 
no problem with tractor feeding from any 
of the printers we tested. 

The only difficulty we encountered 
came from the paper itself. Perforated 
sheets come in two major forms— regular 
and razor-cut. The regular paper has 
thick, meaty perforations that require 
some effort to tear. Razor-cut paper has 
more precise perforations that tear clean- 
ly and leave clean edges. Sometimes in 
our tests the sheets tore too easily, sepa- 
rating the paper from the pin-feed strips 
and causing a paper jam. Reloading the 
paper usually was enough to get the job 
printed. 

A few important features have signifi- 
cantly improved paper handling. Most 
dot-matrix printers now load automati- 
cally. You just place the paper in the trac- 
tor and push a button, and the paper loads 
to the correct position. The print head 
senses the position of the paper so that it 
feeds consistently each time. 

What a Rip-off! 

The "tear-off" feature saves tractor-fed 
paper. After you've printed a page, you 
can press a button to make the paper feed 
enough so that you can tear it off. When 
you return to printing, the paper is rolled 
back to. the top of the form. Anyone who 
has wasted sheets of paper just to tear off 
a printout should appreciate this feature. 
Some printers automatically advance 
paper to the tear-off position whenever 



the buffer is clear of data. When more 
data pours in, the printer pulls the paper 
back to its previous spot and begins print- 
ing again. Pretty slick. With the Alps Al- 
legro 500XT, the paper advances to a 
tear-off position whenever 1 second 
passes without data coming into the 
printer. When we printed graphics from 
PageMaker under Windows 3.0, the data 
came out in spurts spaced more than 1 
second apart. The Allegro would print a 
line of graphics, feed to the tear-off posi- 
tion, retreat, print another line, and feed 
to the tear-off position again. It's easy 
enough to turn off the tear-off feature, 
but you should be able to configure the 
interval, as well. 

For loading single sheets, you'll really 
appreciate sparking feature. Simply 
push a button, and the fanfold paper re- 
treats as far back as the tractor and stops. 
You can then switch to friction feed and 
load your single sheet. Another push of a 
button automatically loads the fanfold 
paper again. If you do a lot of switching 
between fanfold paper and single sheets, 
you really need parking. 

Lift That Bail 

Another clever feature is the automatic 
bail. While the paper is loading, the 
paper bail automatically retracts from 
the platen. Then, as the paper passes be- 
neath it, the bail snaps into position. This 
feature is especially useful when you 
have a single sheet that does not feed 
quite far enough for the paper bail to trap 
it. If you leave the bail down and start 
printing, the paper will often crumple as 
it encounters the bail. Otherwise, you 
have to watch the paper as it ejects and 




close the bail at the right time. Automatic 
bails stay open when the page is loaded 
and snap down as soon as the paper is be- 
neath them. 

One clear application still belonging 
solely to the dot-matrix crowd is printed 
forms. To test the printers, we loaded 
them with a seven-part, friction-feed 
form and filled it out, checking each 
copy for legibility. Although a couple of 
printers were unable to print all seven 
copies, they all easily lived up to the ven- 
dor specifications. Table 1 reports how 
many copies the printer can safely handle 
(the number on the table includes the 
original). We recommend that you stay 
within the vendor specifications for 
multiple copies. You can damage your 
print head if you don't. The printer usu- 
ally has a "paper gap" adjustment. You 
set the lever to reflect the number of 
pages being loaded. The Epson LQ-2550 
and the Fujitsu DL4600 can automati- 
cally sense the paper thickness and ad- 
just the print head accordingly, so you 
need not worry about manual adjust- 
ments each time. 

Cut-sheet feeders hold a stack of single 
sheets, loading them to the printer one at 
a time. At least, that's the theory. Fric- 
tion feed and gravity are not the most re- 
liable loading method. If you plan on 
using cut sheets most of the time, an in- 
expensive laser printer would better 
serve your needs. Paper cassettes 
smoothly feed single sheets, and a laser 
printer's output is usually more suitable 
for a cut-sheet application. 

And Another Thing . . . 

You should always consider upgrade pos- 
sibilities. Will you want color? The Ad- 
vanced Matrix Technology Accel-535, 
Apple ImageWriter LQ, and Epson LQ- 
2550 can give you that right out of the 
box. Other models, as listed in table 1, 
offer a color option. This usually in- 
volves installing a small device that will 
raise and lower the ribbon so thatthe pins 
strike one of four color bands. To print 
secondary colors (such as green), the 
head lays down first a track of yellow and 
then a track of cyan. While it may form a 
pretty shade of green, printing a light 
color over any darker color will pick up 
stray color, ruining the ribbon. After a 
while, your yellows will be tinged with 
green, your reds with purple. Expect 
your color ribbons to have a much shorter 
life. Color-capable printers often treat an 

Photo 4: Two rugged machines: 
the Hewlett-Packard RuggedWriter 480 
(bottom) and the Okidata Microline 
393+ should stand up to hard use. 



168 BYTE 








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PRODUCT 



Laser Printer Alternatives 





COMPANY 


INFORMATION 


i 


Advanced Matrix 


C-Tech Electronics, Inc. 


Hewlett-Packard Co. 


Qume Corp. 


Technology 


(C-515) 


(DeskJet 500 and 


(CrystalPrint Publisher 


(Accel-535) 


2515 McCabe Way 


RuggedWriter 480) 


ID 


765FlynnRd. 


P.O. Box 19673 


181 10 Southeast 34th St. 


500 Yosemite Dr. 


Camarillo, CA 93012 


Irvine, CA 92713 


Camas, WA 98607 


Milpitas, CA 95035 


(805) 992-2264 


(800) 347-4017 


(800) 538-8787 


(408) 942-4000 


Inquiry 1111. 


Inquiry 1116. 


Inquiry 1123. 


Inquiry 1129. 


AEG Olympia, Inc. 


Dataproducts Corp. 


IBM 


Seikosha America, Inc. 


(NPC 136-24) 


(Model 9044) 


(Proprinter XL24E) 


(SL-230) 


3 140 Route 22 


6200 Canoga Ave. 


Contact your local IBM 


10 Industrial Ave. 


P.O. Box 22 


Woodland Hills, CA 91367 


dealer. 


Mahwah, NJ 07430 


Somerville, NJ 08876 


(800) 624-8999 


Inquiry 1124. 


(800) 338-2609 


(800) 999-7808 


Inquiry 1118. 




Inquiry 1130. 


Inquiry 1112. 




Mannesmann Tally 






Epson America, Inc. 


Corp. 


Star Micronics 


Alps America 


(LQ-2550andEPI-4000) 


(131/24) 


America, Inc. 


(Allegro 500XT) 


20770 Madrona Ave. 


8301 South 180th St. 


(XB-241 5 Multi-font) 


3553 North First St. 


Torrance, CA 90509 


Kent, WA 98032 


420 Lexington Ave. , 


San Jose, CA 95134 


(800) 289-3776 


(800) 843-1347 


Suite 2702 


(408) 432-6000 


Inquiry 1119. 


Inquiry 1125. 


New York, NY 10170 


Inquiry 1113. 






(800) 447-4700 




Facit, Inc. 


NEC Technologies, Inc. 


Inquiry 1057. 


Apple Computer, Inc. 


(B2400/50) 


(Pinwriter P6300) 




(ImageWriter LQ) 


P.O. Box 9540 


1414 Massachusetts Ave. 


Tandy Corp. 


20525 Mariani Ave. 


Manchester, NH 03 108 


Boxborough, MA 01719 


(DMP2103) 


Cupertino, CA 95014 


(603) 647-2700 


(800) 632-4636 


1800 One Tandy Center 


(408)996-1010 


Inquiry 1120. 


Inquiry 1126. 


Fort Worth, TX 76102 


Inquiry 1114. 






(817)390-3011 




Fortis Direct Connect 


Okidata 


Inquiry 1058. 


Brother International 


Systems 


(Microline 393 + and 




Corp. 


(DQ4215) 


OkiLaser 820) 


Toshiba America 


(M-1924L) 


1820 West 220th St., 


532 Fellowship Rd. 


Information 


200 Cottontail Lane 


Suite 220 


Mount Laurel, NJ 08054 


Systems, Inc. 


Somerset, N J 08875 


Torrance, C A 90501 


(800) 654-3282 


(ExpressWriter 440) 


(201)981-0300 


(213)782-6090 


Inquiry 1127. 


Computer Systems Div. 


Inquiry 1115. 


Inquiry 1121. 




9740 Irvine Blvd. 






Panasonic 


Irvine, CA 92718 


Canon USA, Inc. 


Fujitsu America, Inc. 


Communications 


(800) 334-3445 


(BJ130e) 


(DL4600andRX7100 


and Systems Co. 


Inquiry 1059. 


One Canon Plaza 


S/2) 


(KX-P1624) 




Lake Success, NY 1 1042 


3055 Orchard Dr. 


Two Panasonic Way 




(800) 848-4123 


San Jose, CA 95134 


Secaucus,NJ07094 




Inquiry 1117. 


(800) 626-4686 


(800) 346-4768 






Inquiry 1122. 


Inquiry 1128. 





all-black ribbon as a color ribbon, 
spreading out the printing chore over the 
four black "bands." A black ribbon will 
last at least four times as long as a color 
ribbon for black printing jobs. Because 
of the extra color bands, a color ribbon is 
more expensive, and printing black text 
will use only one-fourth of the ribbon. 

You may also want a wider variety of 
type styles as your needs develop. Most 
of these printers accept some kind of font 
card to generate additional fonts. How- 
ever, there is no standard equivalent to 
the HP LaserJet cartridge. In general, 



dot-matrix font cartridges are propri- 
etary beasts, offered directly by the com- 
pany that sold you the printer. Some have 
a rich selection of fonts to choose from; 
others have only a select few. Vendors 
add new ones all the time, so find out 
how many and which fonts are available 
for your model. Be aware that because 
the fonts are nonstandard, your software 
probably won't know about them. You'll 
have to add the font functionality to your 
applications or select your new fonts 
from the control panel. 
By all means, skim through the print- 



er's documentation. At the very least, it 
should include clear step-by-step instal- 
lation and operation instructions, exposi- 
tory illustrations, a complete listing of 
command sequences (in ASCII, deci- 
mal, and hexadecimal notation), and— as 
always— a sufficient index. You may not 
need it all now, but it may come in handy 
sometime. 

Put It in Writing 

Picking a printer from this group re- 
quires that you weigh all the evidence. 
For some applications, high speed is 



168B BYTE- DECEMBER 1990 



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INTERNATIONAL 
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Melbourne 

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The Netherlands 

Multiway Data Netherlands 
079-424 111 

Denmark 

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53 65 23 45 



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Genine Oy Impdata 
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France 

Suresenes 

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(1)47 72 63 11 

Paris 

Gradco France 

(1)42 94 99 69 



Germany 

Munich 

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0211-25 18 75 

Italy 

Torino 

BRM Italiana 

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Singapore 

MarkSystems(FE) Pte.. Ltd. 
65-2261877 



Spain 

Vidmar Control 
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Sweden 

Solna 

Microcom/Maldata 
(08) 7344100 

Sollentuna 
Beon Data 
08-626 92 26 



Switzerland 

Sengstag Computers AG 
0041.1.950.54.44 

United Kingdom 

Leicester & London 

A-Line Dataspeed Devices. Ltd. 

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PRODUCT FOCUS 



important. For others, quality or the 
ability to handle multipart forms is the 
deciding factor. The text box "How to 
Tell One Dot-Matrix Printer from An- 
other" on page 166 explains how you 
might choose between them and how we 
selected the five printers below. 

It turns out that there's a good reason 
for the market leaders being market lead- 
ers. Epson may not be known for its other 
hardware offerings, but the people there 
sure know how to build a printer. The 
LQ-2550 ($1499) is a beautiful machine. 
It has a simple LCD interface and all the 
amenities, including an automatic bail 
and a thickness sensor. Color is stan- 
dard, and you certainly won't have to 
worry about compatibility. Likewise 
with the IBM Proprinter. Its interface is a 
bit cryptic, relying in part on musical 
tones, but its output is beautiful and its 
construction solid. The Okidata Micro- 
line 393 + (see photo 4) printed well, has 
all the amenities, and is built like a tank. 
For heavy-duty use and high-quality out- 
put, you probably can't do better than the 
Okidata. 

Like the LQ-2550, the Advanced Ma- 
trix Technology Accel-535 ($1485) is 
expensive, but, again, with good reason. 
This printer is fast and full-featured. 
The LCD interface is as elegant as it gets. 
Color is standard, as is a 32K-byte buffer 
(upgradable to over 400K). You'll also 
get four resident fonts and an excellent 
manual. 

If speed is not a major concern but 
price is, the Panasonic KX-P1624 offers 
all the major features, seven resident 
fonts, and a 12K-byte buffer for $650. 
For $149 more, the AEG Olympia NPC 
136-24 adds an automatic bail, a 24K- 
byte buffer, and an LCD interface. 

Dot-matrix printers still have a broad 
market that page printers can't touch. 
And even if you already have your fancy 
page printer, you may want a dot-matrix 
printer to churn out your drafts and list- 
ings. That strategy will save time and 
money, not to mention wear and tear on 
your laser printer engine. Don't discount 
the lowly dot-matrix printer. It could be 
just the workhorse you need. Prices 
should continue to fall as laser printers 
put a squeeze on the low end of the mar- 
ket, You should be able to find some real 
steals out there. Dot-matrix technology 
may not be sexy, but it's still alive and 
well. "Old Man Ribbon," he just keeps 
printing along. ■ 

Stanford Diehl and Howard Eglowstein 
are BYTE Lab testing editor /engineers. 
They can be reached on BIX as "sdiehl " 
and "heglowstein, " respectively. 



168D BYTE- DECEMBER 1990 



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BVTE 



Reviews 



SYSTEM 



Tom Yager 



Sony NeWS and MIPS Magnum: 
A Double Shot of RISC 



Vith such a crowd of Unix worksta- 
tions in the low-end market, how 
can you tell them apart? In a 
word, software. Consider, for example, 
the Sony NeWS 37 1 and the MIPS Mag- 
num 3000. Both machines are based en 
the MIPS R3000 RISC CPU chip set. 
Both have floating-point acceleration and 
fast color graphics. 

Physically, these machines have much 
in common. They are compact, the Mag- 
num 3000 slightly more so (see the 
photos). They come equipped with quar- 
ter-inch cartridge tape drives. At the 
rear, the machines have connections for 
the keyboard, serial devices, a thick-wire 
Ethernet port, and external SCSI de- 
vices. While both workstations use the 
same CPU and floating-point chips, the 
NeWS 3710 runs at 20 MHz, while the 
Magnum 3000 runs at 25 MHz. 

From there, the hardware differences 
are almost insignificant, with a couple of 
exceptions. The NeWS 3710 holds a 
front-facing, high-density 3 !/2-inch flop- 
py disk drive next to the tape drive. It's a 
bit more expandable than the Magnum 
3000, holding two 25-pin serial ports 
and three internal expansion slots. On 
the review system, two of the three slots 
were available; one was occupied by the 
color display controller. The NeWS 3710 
also boasts digital stereo audio and the 
ability to power itself down. 

The Magnum 3000 has one Industry 
Standard Architecture-compatible inter- 
nal slot, but the color display adapter 
fills it (leaving it free only on the mono- 
chrome system). The machine also has 



two serial ports, but one of them is devot- 
ed to the mouse through an odd cable ar- 
rangement. For convenience, the mouse 
plugs into the keyboard (as with the 
Sony), but the Magnum 3000's keyboard 
cable splits to connect to both the key- 
board and serial port number 1 sockets. 
A round "don't touch me" sticker bound 
one edge of the case, indicating that the 
unit is not field-expandable. 

How It Feels 

If you sit in front of a workstation all day, 
as I do, how well the system interacts 
with you is important. In the case of 
these two machines, the display is no 
problem— both use the gorgeous Sony 
Trinitron monitor. Sony shipped a 19- 
inch display; MIPS sent a 16-inch moni- 
tor. The colors are true, and the pixels 
are small and sharply defined, making 
the display easy on your eyes. 

The Magnum 3000's keyboard is 
springy, and it looks very Mac-like. It 
sports a network activity light (which, 
incidentally, never came on). The key 
placements are just where you'd expect 
them to be. The feel was a little stiffer 
than I like. The Magnum 3000 uses the 
likable, old-style Logitech Mouse (the 
boxy one). You can rest your entire hand 
on it, and the buttons have a short travel 
and a positive click that lets you know 
that you've pressed them. 

On the other hand, the NeWS 3710's 
keyboard and mouse were so unpleasant 
to use that they might as well have been 
wrapped in barbed wire. Special keys, 
such as a Vertical Line key, are placed so 



that a touch-typist has to stop dead and 
hunt for them. The Delete key is next to 
the Return key, inviting disaster from 
unsuspecting operators who terminate 
their programs when they try to get to the 
next line. The right-hand Shift key is ad- 
jacent to a dead key (it doesn't travel— I 
call it a "finger breaker"), and the Alt 
key appears on only one side of the key- 
board. The mouse is also awkward to 
use. It's hard to wrap your hand around 
it, and the button travel is too long. My 
mouse squeaked, appropriately, when I 
pressed the buttons. 

One redeeming feature of the NeWS 
3710's interface is its software-operated 
power switch. I first encountered such a 
switch on the AT&T 3B2 and thought it 
was a great idea. If you're working at 
home and a nasty thunderstorm starts 
moving in, you can dial up your Sony 
workstation at your office and tell it to 
shut itself off. A special argument to the 
shutdown command, -x, does an orderly 
shutdown and dumps power. 

The front-mounted power switch will 
not power down the machine (it only 
works to power it up), which is good, 
since the placement makes it a prime 
target for accidental contact. Remote 
power-down capability also adds extra 
teeth to any power-monitoring scheme 
you might set up. When your uninterrup- 
tible power supply kicks in, you can have 
the system automatically power off. This 
is such a simple, worthwhile idea and is 
so easy to implement that I can't under- 
stand why it isn't standard on every 
computer. 

Software: The Real Difference 

Don't let anyone fool you— the most im- 
portant piece of equipment in a worksta- 
tion is the software. In this regard, the 
systems are as different as they can be 
and yet still be similar; let me explain. 

The NeWS 3710 that I received was 
running the same operating system as 
other Sony workstations: BSD 4.3. The 
Magnum 3000 runs its own RISC/OS, 



172 BYTE- DECEMBER 1990 



which is a mix of System V and BSD. 
The operating-system question may be 
moot by the time you read this; Sony is 
switching over to System V release 4. 
Much of what that operating system 
promises is already in RISC/OS. MIPS 
stacked the BSD file system, libraries, 
and commands atop a System V kernel. 
The folks at MIPS insist that the Mag- 
num 3000 can compile and run any BSD 
or System V application without modifi- 
cation. Add to that job control, TCP/IP 
networking, line-printer handling, and 
other BSD-isms, and you have an operat- 
ing system that should please even the 
staunchest BSD fanatic. I prefer System 
V as an application environment: It's eas- 
ier to maintain and use, and all the bene- 
fits of System V are apparent in RISC/ 



The MIPS ► 

Magnum 3000 has 
a smaller case 
than the Sony 
NeWS 3710 and 
performs 
noticeably 
better. 



The Sony NeWS 
3710. The floppy 
disk and tape 
drives are 
concealed 
behind a door on 
the right front of 
the case. 
T 




'>J.;Y_ir:lr.l \. J: \A 




Sony NeWS 3710 

Company 

Sony Microsystems Co. 
645 River Oaks Pkwy. 
San Jose, CA 651 34 
(408) 434-6644 

Components (as reviewed) 

Processor: 20-MHz MIPS 
R3000 

Memory: 8 MB of RAM; 64K- 
byte instruction cache; 64K-byte 
data cache 

Mass storage: 3 1 /2-inch 1 .44- 
MB floppy disk drive; 640-MB 
hard disk drive 

Display: 19-inch Sony Trinitron 
color monitor; 1280- by 1024- 
pixel 256-color display 
I/O interfaces: Two serial 
ports; thick-wire Ethernet 
interface; SCSI port; three Sony 
expansion slots 

Price 

$18,200 
jgp With 16-inch monitor; $16,900 

Inquiry 1110. 



MIPS Magnum 3000 

Company 

MIPS Computer Systems, Inc. 
950DeGuigne 
Sunnyvale, CA 94086 
(408)720-1700 

Components (as reviewed) 

Processor: 2 5- M H z M I PS 
R3000;R3010math 
coprocessor; 32K-byte 
instruction cache; 32K-byte 
data cache 

Memory: 16 MB of RAM 
Mass storage: Two 200-MB 
internal SCSI hard disk 
drives; 150-MB cartridge tape 
drive 

Display: 16-inch Sony Trinitron 
color monitor; 1280- by 1024- 
pixel 256-color display 
I/O interfaces: Two serial 
ports; thick-wire Ethernet 
interface; SCSI port 

Price 

$17,990 

Inquiry 1109. 



DECEMBER 1990 -BYTE 173 



Sony NeWS and MIPS Magnum 




UNIX BENCHMARKS 



MIPS Magnum 3000 

Sony NeWS 3710 

DECstation5000/200CX 
Everex Step 386/33 



5.2 



2.7. 



2.2 



2.7 




0.9 



2.9 



t^r 



1.8 



1.5 



1.7 



6.2 



14.8 

20.8 
6 



□ 



C Compiler 



□ 



DC Arithmetic 



□ 



lilrliB'hmiiHil I Mi Mi II HI ■■■ 

Sony NeWS 3710 MIPS Magnum 3000 

Time Index Time Index 

*C Compiler 3.1 07 2.3 0.9 

* DC Arithmetic 0.2 2.9 1 5.2 

* Tower of Hanoi 0.3 1.8 0.2 2.7 

(17-disk problem) 
System Loading 1 

1 concurrent background 

process 3.0 1.3 2.1 1.9 

2 concurrent background 

processes 3.9 1.5 2.8 2.1 

4 concurrent background 

processes 6.5 1.5 4.5 2.2 

* 8 concurrent background 

processes 11.6 1.5 7.8 2.2 



Cumulative index is formed by summing the indexed performance results for C Com- 
piler, DC Arithmetic, Towerof Hanoi, System Loading (with 8 concurrent background 
processes). Dhrystone 2, and Floating Point tests. 

System loading was performed using Bourne shell scripts and Unix utilities. 

Note: All times are in seconds unless otherwise specified. Figures were generated 
using the BYTE Unix benchmarks version 2.6. Indexes show relative performance; for 
all indexes, an Everex Step 386/33 running Xenix 2.3.1 = 1. 
N/A = Not applicable. 



Towerof Hanoi 



□ 



System Loading 



□ 



Dhrystone 2 



□ 



Floating Point 



Sony NeWS 3710 MIPS Magnum 3000 



Time Index 



' Dhrystone 2 

(without registers; Dhry./sec.) 
Arithmetic 

(10,000 iterations) 
Arithmetic overhead 
Register 
Short 
Integer 
Long 
1 Floating Point 
Double 

Throughput 

System call overhead 
(5 x 4000 calls) 
Pipe throughput 
(read and write 2048- x 
5 12-byte blocks) 
Pipe-based context switching 
(2 x 500 switches) 
Process creation (100 forks) 
Execl throughput (100 execs) 

Filesystem throughput 

(1600 1024-byte blocks 
in Kbytes/sec.) 
Read 
Write 
Copy 



24000 



0.7 
2.8 
2.7 
2.8 
2.8 
1.9 
1.2 



0.5 



0.9 

0.2 
0.4 
0.5 



1.7 



1.1 
1.0 
1.3 
1.1 
1.1 
6.2 
10.8 



2.1 



1.0 

3.2 
2.9 
6.6 



988 N/A 

1458 N/A 

185 N/A 



Time 

37271 



1.0 
2.3 
2.4 
2.3 
2.3 
1.5 
0.9 



0.5 



0.3 

0.1 
0.4 
0.8 



884 
859 
327 



Index 

2.7 



0.7 

1.3 
1.5 
1.3 
1.3 
8.0 
14.4 



2.2 



3.0 

4.8 
3.1 
4.1 



N/A 
N/A 
N/A 



OS. Soon, Sony will have them, too. 

Both systems provide X Window Sys- 
tem services, as well. Sony's X server 
includes the Shape (for handling nonrec- 
tangular objects) and Bezier (repre- 
senting complex curves with few data 
points) extensions. These provide fertile 
ground for involved graphical applica- 
tions. 

The xdpyinfo program, which re- 
ports information about the configura- 
tion of the X server, told me that both dis- 
plays measured 1280 by 1024 pixels, 
with a depth of 8 bits (256 colors). Sony's 
port of X Window is apparently the more 
complete, as it supports all the available 
X color models. 



Managing colors in a portable way is 
probably the most difficult aspect of 
writing X applications. It's also the thing 
most programmers mess up. An X server 
that supports multiple color models helps 
smooth over these differences. 

MIPS's X server, while fully func- 
tional, is less robust; it supports only one 
color model (PseudoColor) and lacks the 
Shape and Bezier extensions included in 
Sony's server. 

In simple tests, X performance was al- 
most identical, with the Magnum 3000 
showing a negligible edge. Both ma- 
chines do common text and window op- 
erations in a snap. 

The NeWS 3710's differentiating fea- 



ture is an unusual one: sound. The ma- 
chine includes the circuitry and software 
for digitizing high-resolution stereo 
audio and playing it back directly from 
disk. A small transistor-radio-size box 
handles sound I/O; it holds a monophonic 
microphone and a tinny speaker. If you 
are going to experiment with the NeWS 
3710's sound, don't waste time with the 
built-in mike and speaker. I hooked up a 
compact disc player and a pair of ampli- 
fied speakers. The quality and clarity of 
the sound are excellent even at lower 
resolutions. At the top 37.5-kHz resolu- 
tion, the NeWS 3710 had no trouble play- 
ing back crystal-clear stereo audio cap- 
tured from a CD. There was no dis- 



174 BYTE* DECEMBER 1990 



For a description of all the benchmarks, see "The BYTE Unix Benchmarks," March BYTE. 



REVIEW 



Sony NeWS and MIPS Magnum 



cernible noise or hum from having the 
machine's workstation guts churning so 
nearby. 

Is this fluff? Today, it probably is. 
Someday, however, quality audio will 
likely become standard fare on all sys- 
tems. Macintosh users have long been 
aware of the value of having a variety of 
expressive sounds under program con- 
trol. Sony's X-based sound editor is 
primitive and has a demo feel to it, but 
there's great potential there. 

Complex programs could benefit from 
vocal prompts and varied audio warnings 
whose tones indicate the severity of the 
condition. Aids for the handicapped sug- 
gest themselves, as do educational appli- 
cations. It will take some time before 
audio capabilities like those in the NeWS 
37 10 are exploited to their full potential, 
but getting the hardware in there is a 
good start. 

Pedal-to-the-Metal Performance 

All this fancy hardware and operating- 
system software would be for naught if 
they didn't perform. Both systems do 
well, running more than twice as fast as 
the Everex Step 386/33 baseline system. 



This is worth considering if you're trying 
to choose among platforms. Something 
else worth considering is that not all im- 
plementations of the same hardware yield 
the same results. As the benchmark re- 
sults show, the Magnum 3000 takes an 
early lead in integer performance and 
holds onto it right through the floating- 
point benchmark, outgunning both the 
NeWS 3710 and the MIPS R3000-based 
DECstation 5000/200CX. MIPS writes 
its own compilers, and the performance 
figures prove that the company knows 
RISC. The company uses this knowledge 
to full advantage, and it knows its audi- 
ence, as well. 

Network and X performance are re- 
spectable, and I had no trouble hooking 
either system into BYTE's Unix Lab net- 
work. Either machine would make an ex- 
cellent X Window client server (a ma- 
chine that runs X programs faster than 
you can and displays them at your work- 
station^ terminal). 

As is typical of systems for which SCSI 
is integrated onto the motherboard, disk 
performance is marvelous on both ma- 
chines, with the NeWS 3710 coming out 
slightly ahead. There is enough juice 



there to hang a bevy of external SCSI 
drives off either of these machines and 
leave them on-line as compute and Net- 
work File System file servers. 

Shutdown 

I liked both systems, but I'm afraid that 
there isn't much to recommend the 
NeWS 3710 as a general-purpose work- 
station. It doesn't measure up to the 
Magnum 3000 in performance or multi- 
environment compatibility. I've been 
told to expect more "Sonyisms," of 
which the digital audio is the first, and 
Sony may well be able to make a name 
for itself in multimedia and other niches. 
I'm loath to call any system perfect, 
but the Magnum 3000 seems to have all 
the bases covered: price, performance, 
and software. I would have traded the 
squat case for more internal expansion, 
but that's a minor gripe. The MIPS ma- 
chine is an excellent value— evidence 
that sometimes it's worth going straight 
to the source. ■ 

Tom Yager is a technical editor for the 
BYTE Lab. You can reach him on BIX as 
"tyager. " 



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• 5.25" 1.2 Mil or 3.5" 1.44 MI J floppy drive 

• 16-bit VGA adapter w/512K 

• 14" VGA 1024 x 768 color monitor 0.28 DP 
•Enhanced 101 keyboard 

• 8 industry standard expansion slots (I 32-bit); 
5 available 

• I Parallel, 2 Serial ports 

• 80387-25 Coprocessor socket 

• FCC A approved 

• Full size AT case; 200 Watt power supply 

• Flash-lite disk cache software 

• Virus-Safe, virus protection software by EliaShim 

• One year on-site warranty 

• 24 hour technical support line 

• Not offered on (JSA schedule 



ORDER 

NOW! 

CALL 



1 -800-444-PC90 



SAM- 
MIDNIGHT 

EST 
MONDAY- 
FRIDAY 



U.S. GOV'T SECURITY INTEGRATOR 



BEST PRICE/PERFORMANCE 




• Intel" 80386SX-16 MHz CPU 

• 1 Mil RAM Memory (optional 2, 4, or 8 Mil) 
on motherboard expandable to 16 MB via 
expansion board 

• 5.25" 1.2 MB or 3.5" 1.44 MB floppy drive 

• Enhanced 101 keyboard 

• 8 industry standard expansion slots; 6 available 

• I Parallel, 2 Serial ports 

• Integrated high performance hard disk interface 
and disk controller (II)K) 

• 80387SX Coprocessor socket 

• Baby AT case 

• FCC A approved 

• Also available in FCC K approved Slimline case; 
call for prices 

• Available with 80386SX-20 MHz CPU; call for 
prices 

• Free Virus-Safe virus protection software 

• Free Flash-lite disk cache software 



: n,i»? 



HARD DRIVE OPTIONS 


IDE 




ESDI 


20 MB ... 


$ 304 


150 MB ....$1,283 


40 MB.... 


....339 


330 MB 1,854 


80 MB.... 


....556 


650 MB 2,711 


100 MB.... 


....699 


SCSI 
1 GB $5,580 


200 MB.... 


.1,136 






Erasable cartridge 



DISPLAY OPTIONS 




(Price includes monitor & adapter) 


12" Mono TTL 720x350 


....$174 


14" Mono VGA 640x480 


263 


14" Color VGA 640x480 


564 


14" Color VGA 1024x768 


588 


16" Color VGA 1024x768 


970 



386/33MHZ 







n 






^11^1^1=^ 




____ ___ 




fcj / f r. t i r. i. t. mi i n ii- 


I-l 1 L 


/ ^■: v -- ;; '7 ; y'. I', 


arm 



• Intel*' 80386-33 MHz CPU 

• 2 MB RAM Memory optional 4, 8, 12, or 16 MB 
on motherboard 

• 64 KB cache S RAM Memory expandable to 
256 KB cache 

• 5.25" 1.2 MB or 3.5" 1.44 MB Moppy drive 
•Knhanced 101 keyboard 

• 1 Parallel and 2 Serial ports 

• 8 industry standard expansion slots (six available) 

• Integrated high performance hard disk interface 
and disk controller (1DK) 

• 80387-33 Coprocessor socket 

• Add $60 for optional Mini-Tower case 

• Add $120 for optional Full Tower case 

• FCC A approved 

• Free Virus-Safe virus protection software 

• Free Flash-lite disk cache software 




• Intel^ 80486-25 MHz CPU with built-in floating 
point coprocessor and 8k cache 

• 4 MB RAM Memory expandable to 64 MB 

• 5.25" 1.2 MB or 3.5" 1.44 MB floppy drive 

• Knhanced 101 keyboard 

• 1 Parallel and 2 Serial ports 

• 1 32-bit memory slot 

• 7 industry standard expansion slots 
(five available) 

• Integrated high performance hard disk interface 
and disk controller (IDE) 

• Add $60 for optional Mini-Tower case 

• Add $120 for optional Full Tower case 

• FCC A approved 

• Free Virus-Safe virus protection software 

• Free Flash-lite disk cache software 



GSA LOW PRICES FOR FEDERAL EMPLOYEES 



Federal/Military/Active/Retired employees, with proper ID, are invited to purchase 
computers at Iverson's GSA prices... the government's own special prices. GSA price offer 
limited toGSA schedule products that are below mail order prices. (Contract prices established 
by subsidiary, International Technology Corporation with GSA Contract Number: 
GSOOK90AGS5276. Some configurations not available on GSA contract.) Call toll-free to 
receive GSA schedule or to place an order: I -800-388-GS A 1 . 



IVERS0N IS A REAL OLD PRO 



Forthe past 1 2 years, Ivcrson Technology Corporation has manufactured 
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TEL: (703) 749-1200 FAX: (703) 893-2396 TELEX: 289 127ITC UR Circle 3S3 on Reader Service Card 



Tom Yager and Tom Thompson 



REVIEW 



The Norton Utilities 
for System V 



Getting involved with Unix can be 
like stepping into another dimen- 
sion. So much of what Unix does 
happens quietly and invisibly, and the 
operating system's complexity can make 
it difficult to maintain. Unfortunately, 
with the growth of PC Unix, virtually 
every user must be prepared to perform 
some system administration. 

Interactive Systems, one of the leading 
vendors of 386 Unix, and Segue Soft- 
ware have come to the rescue with a ver- 
sion of the Norton Utilities for 386 Unix 
System V. While the Norton Utilities for 
System V shares some utilities (e.g. , Un- 
Erase, Disk Test, and Disk Explorer) 
with its DOS namesake, it is not a gener- 
ic DOS package simply ported to Unix. 
Rather, it's a new package that Segue 
and Interactive wrote from the ground up 
to be Unix-specific. 

I installed and tested the Norton Util- 
ities for System V on an Advanced Logic 
Research PowerVEISA 486-25 running 
Interactive Unix System V/386 version 
2.2. The first release of the software 
runs only on Interactive and AT&T 386 
Unix. The disks are installed using 
AT&T's procedures, not Interactive's. 
That's a pity— Interactive's install pro- 
grams are faster and more informative. 

After the installation, a script sets up 
your system to run Norton. The bulk of 
the script is the rebuilding of the kernel to 




The Norton Utilities 
for System V 

Company 

Interactive Systems Corp. 
2401 Colorado Ave. 
Santa Monica, CA 90404 
(213)453-8649 



Hardware Needed 

386 or 486 PC, PS/2, or compatible 
and at least 2.5 MB of free hard 
disk space 

Software Needed 

Interactive or AT&T Unix System V/386 
release 3.2 

Price 

$295 



Current File Selection 



Current Directory: /usr/peter 
File Specifier: « 



The Norton 
Utilities for 
System Vs. 
UnErase utility 
provides a list of 
erased files for 
restoration. 



phonenuns 

Rx8G161 

<No Filenane) 

<I 2866) 

Ex00161 

<Ho Filenane) 

q3,89 

q4.B9 

LW.152 



Size Erase Tine Status 



4,386 liar 15 11:44 Erased 

4,896 Mar 15 11:36 Erased 

4,896 Har 15 11:36 Erased 

4,873 Mar 15 11:36 Truncate 

8 tlar 15 11:36 Erased 

8 liar 15 11:36 Erased 

6,935 Rar 15 11:36 Erased 

7,535 Har 15 11:36 Erased 

11 Har 15 11:26 Erased 



Inquiry 1055. 



include support for the UnErase utility. 
Once installation is complete, you must 
reboot your machine to activate Un- 
Erase. 

The documentation is stylish and ap- 
propriate. It assumes no prior knowledge 
of Unix and even provides a brief tutorial 
on common operations. A new Unix user 
should have no trouble installing and 
running the Norton Utilities. 

Jumping Through Hoops 

As DOS users of the Norton Utilities will 
attest, the package includes an odd as- 
sortment of utilities, ranging from the 
playfully benign to the genuinely dan- 
gerous. Where appropriate, each utility 
interacts with the user through a full- 
screen color interface. Even though it is 
text-based, the interface is attractive, 
sporting pull-down menus, windows, 
and drop shadows. Wherever it is better 
to use the sparser Unix command-line in- 
terface, Norton uses it. 

UnErase, the single most important 
feature of the Norton Utilities for System 
V, lets you recover deleted files or direc- 
tories. As with the DOS version, recov- 
ery is easier if you attempt it immediately 
after deletion. But because Norton builds 
UnErase into the Unix kernel, the Unix 
UnErase is a bit more flexible than the 
DOS version. 

You can optimize UnErase for either 
maximum protection or most efficient 
use of disk space. The utility retains disk 
blocks normally freed by file deletion 
and returns them to the system according 
to user-defined age and disk free-space 
limits. This utility works entirely as ad- 
vertised; I can't think of anything that I 
would have added. 

Two other utilities, Disk Test and Disk 
Explorer, combine to give administrators 



easier access to verification and repair of 
both floppy and hard disk drives. Disk 
Test verifies the integrity of a disk and 
lets you remap bad sectors when possi- 
ble. The Disk Test and Editor programs 
both understand the structure of the Unix 
file system. The Editor, for example, has 
the power to browse, randomly or se- 
quentially, through i-nodes and free-list 
entries. It also has the power to modify 
those entries, and that's where the trou- 
ble comes in. 

The drawback to the Norton Utilities 
for System V is that it puts in the hands of 
all users a set of utilities that paint friend- 
ly, almost harmless faces on potentially 
destructive operations. A single slip with 
the Editor, for example, could render an 
entire system helpless. Since Unix sys- 
tems are often used by several people 
(many of whom likely possess the all- 
powerful root password), it might be ap- 
propriate to offer a "safe" (and, possi- 
bly, less expensive) version. 

All Things Considered 

There's much more to the Norton Util- 
ities than I can comment on here. Worth 
brief note, however, is a set of commands 
that enhance Unix shell scripts with 
sound (even music), color, and boxes 
done in line-drawing characters. 

Norton for Unix is well worth having 
around. System administrators should 
routinely install UnErase on every 386 
Unix system in the house. The package is 
well done and deserves widespread use. 
In the sparse domain of shrink-wrapped 
Unix software, the Norton Utilities for 
System V is bound to be a star. ■ 

Tom Yager is a technical editor for the 
BYTE Lab. You can reach him on BIX as 
"t yager. " 



178 BYTE- DECEMBER 1990 



file Edit Options Ewplore Utilities 



11 1 it itM ,J£ 



] Sppctl Disk rSl:"^ 




I-jp-Aliijn Startup 

H 11 1 1 1 

. ■Syi»«t> ■ ttadctep 



77ie d/s/: 
optimizer for the 
Norton Utilities 
for the Macintosh 
uses colors to 
represent different 
file types and their 
location on the 
target disk drive. 
The magnifying 
glass lets you 
pinpoint a file by 
block. 



The Norton Utilities for the Mac 



Peter Norton Computing may be 
well known for its PC disk utilities, 
but I felt some apprehension when I 
learned that the company had written a 
version for the Mac. Mac applications 
written by PC software companies typi- 
cally have serious interface flaws. After 
looking at the Norton Utilities for the 
Macintosh, however, I have to say that 
my fears were unfounded. 

The $129 package includes a manual 
and several disks that contain a disk re- 
pair/recovery application and several 
helpful utilities. The disk repair applica- 
tion resides on a red, self -booting "crash 
disk" that lets you boot your Mac and 
start recovery procedures when your 
Mac's hard disk drive conks out. This 
application contains a disk editor, with 
modules that diagnose and repair prob- 
lems with the disk's directories or re- 
cover an accidentally formatted disk. 

Exploration 

The disk editor lets you examine disk 
data block by block. You can inspect and 
change data in a file's data or resource 
forks, or you can examine and modify 
the disk's boot blocks (information that 
the Mac needs to boot) to, say, increase 
the number of files the Mac can have 
open at any time. You cannot, however, 
edit the boot blocks from within the win- 
dow that describes the boot block's con- 
tents, as you can with Symantec's SUM 
II Tools application. Instead, you make 
changes from a window that displays data 
in hexadecimal, and that makes changes 
tricky. 

The repair utility checks and detects 



problems with the disk's media and vol- 
ume directory structure. It also checks 
for problems with files and makes re- 
pairs. For example, it can fix a file's 
bundle bits, which tells the Finder if the 
file has an icon that it must copy to the 
Desktop file. A bad bit usually gives you 
the generic document icon. 

On the other two disks are useful util- 
ities: a disk optimizer or def ragger appli- 
cation, a file undelete cdev, a desktop 
layout application (used to change how 
the Finder displays and organizes file 
icons), a disk activity INIT, and help 
files. The disk optimizer is one of the 
best I've seen. It first presents a map of 
the hard disk's allocated and free blocks. 
On a color Mac, it uses different colors to 
flag file types such as directories, system 
files, applications, and data. Optimiza- 
tion is rapid, and the program performs 
integrity checks before optimization be- 
gins. You can cancel the operation at any 
time. The optimizer reorganizes the 
least-altered files (e.g., system files and 
applications) on one part of the disk, and 
it places files that change often (docu- 
ments and the Desktop file) adjacent to 
the disk's free space. This improves per- 
formance and slows fragmentation. I op- 
timized the hard disk drives on a Mac 
SE, SE/30, II, IIx, Ilci, and Ilf x without 
problems. 

The FileSaver cdev functions in a way 
that's similar to SUM IPs Shield cdev 
and 1st Aid Software's Complete Unde- 
lete: It creates and updates a hidden file 
that contains a snapshot of the volume di- 
rectory and keeps a record of the most re- 
cently deleted files. FileSaver, like Com- 



plete Undelete, shows which of the de- 
leted file's blocks have been reallocated 
to give you an idea of the file's recover- 
ability. You can also search for deleted 
files by type from a scrolling list of docu- 
ment types, such as Mac Write and Word. 
If your file is not on this list, however 
(say you're looking for a Photoshop file), 
there's no way to specify a different file 
creator or type. 

Best Choice for Beginners 

The Norton Utilities for the Mac clears 
the design hurdle of providing an easy-to- 
use interface while letting you probe vol- 
ume directories, boot blocks, and data 
and resource forks on a Mac disk drive. 
The program has some minor rough 
edges, such as the FileSaver problem I 
mentioned, but overall, it's a good first 
showing in the Mac market. 

Symantec, which offers the competing 
SUM II product, now owns Peter Norton 
Computing. Symantec says it will con- 
tinue to sell both the Norton Utilities for 
the Mac and SUM II. 

If you are familiar with the Mac's 
workings, SUM II Tools or Central Point 
Software's Mac Tools lets you get to your 
system's innards in more detail than does 
the Norton Utilities. But the Norton Util- 
ities gives you easy-to-use tools and a 
bootable crash disk, while with SUM II 
you have to make this disk yourself— 
something you don't want to do in a panic 
situation. Mac novices should pick the 
Norton Utilities as their first line of de- 
fense against disk disaster. ■ 



The Norton Utilities 
for the Macintosh 

Company 

Symantec Corp. 
10201 Torre Ave. 
Cupertino, CA 95014 
(408) 253-9600 

Hardware Needed 

Mac Plus or higher 

Software Needed 

System 6.0.4 or higher 

Price 

$129 




Inquiry 1056. 



Tom Thompson is a BYTE senior editor at 
large with a B.S.E.E. degree from Mem- 
phis State University. You can reach him 
on BIX as "tom^thompson. " 



DECEMBER 1990 'BYTE 179 



WE'VE TAKEN THE 

INDUSTRIAL PC 

TO EVERY EXTREME. 



Companies don't make the 
Fortune 100 list by accident. It takes 
hard work and the wise investment 
of capital. Which is why when they 
buy industrial PCs, seven out of every 
ten Fortune 100 companies invest 
in Texas Microsystems. 

UNBEATABLE PERFORMANCE 
IN ANY ENVIRONMENT. 

Most people assume that an 
industrial PC will give the reliability 
needed to run critical applications 
in harsh environments, but the trade 
off can be a lack of performance 
and high cost of entry. With Texas 
Microsystems the reverse is true. 

Benchmark studies show that in 
harsh environments Texas Micro- 
systems 25/33 MHz 386 & 25MHz 
486 PCs perform as well as powerful 
desktop PCs do in office environ- 
ments. Yet the cost of our systems 
can be a pleasant surprise. 

DESKTOP PERFORMANCE 
UNDER EXTREME CONDITIONS. 



CPU BENCHMARKS 

PRODUCT If) 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 




BUILT IN RELIABILITY 
FROM THE BOARD UP. 

We build our systems from 
scratch, and take nothing for granted. 
We've been designing with Intel 
microprocessors since 1974. Design 
and manufacture most of our cards. 
And by using VLSI and PAL tech- 
nology reduce component counts by 
60% and drive MTBF numbers up 
to 100,000 hours. 

Texas Microsystems innovations 
include passive backplane architec- 
ture to improve component reliability 
and reduce MTTR to less than 10 
minutes. Our 16 point shock- 




mounting techniques keep disk 
drives functioning at up to 25G 
velocities. And our 48 hourpre-test 
burn-in at over 130°F guarantees 
reliability 

NO ONE HAS MORE 
INDUSTRIAL EXPERIENCE. 

We've been in business for 1 6 
years. And you'll find Texas Micro- 
systems operating in harsh environ- 
ments at 70 of the Fortune 100 
companies, as well as delivering mis- 
sion critical solutions to the US 
Government and Armed Services. 

MORE SYSTEMS 
MEAN MORE OPTIONS. 

Two of our most popular systems 
are shown here. They can be con- 
figured with a vast choice of options 



from CPUs, hard disks and drives, 
CMOS RAM, video cards and dis- 
plays, and if none of these match 
your requirements well custom 
configure and test whatever system 
you need. 

TO US "INDUSTRIAL" IS MORE 
THAN A DESIGN PHILOSOPHY. 

You can buy cheaper industrial 
PCs than ours, but they may be 
camouflaged desktops that do not 
perform in extreme environments. 

At Texas Microsystems, that isn't 
the way we build systems. Industrial 
PCs and Mission Critical Micros'" 
are all we make. Repackaging office 
computers is not our business. We 
design and manufacture all our 
products from scratch, we don't 
adapt the designs of others. And 



we're always here when you need us. 

NATION-WIDE SERVICE, 
FULL-TIME SUPPORT. 

We believe in offering excep- 
tional support, including consul- 
tation during system design. After 
sales technical support 12 hours a 
day via an 800 number. On-site 
service from General Electric for a 
full year, including free parts and 
labor. A 30 -day, no-questions-asked, 
money-back guarantee. And a way 
of ordering a Texas Microsystem 
that's most convenient and cost 
effective to you. 

Opposite are two Texas Micro- 
systems that offer an unsurpassed 
combination of price/performance. 
Order them direct or ask for a com- 
plete literature and information kit 
on all our systems by calling 
1-800-627-8700 now. 

TWO EXTREMELY 
UNBEATABLE SYSTEMS. 

Here are two of our top selling 
systems for business environments 
that demand mission critical com- 
puting, regardless of operating con- 
ditions. Like all our systems they 
enjoy the same engineering pedigree 
that ensures a unique combination 
of performance, reliability and value. 
Which is, after all, what you should 
expect from America's leading 
industrial micro systems company. 

And to put a little icing on the 
cake, each will include a one yeai; 
on-site, warranty 

To ordei; call the 800 number 
below and one of our representatives 
will discuss your needs with you, give 
you an instant quote on the con- 
figuration of your choice. Then the 
system will be built to your ordei; 
tested, and shipped. 

Mission Critical Micros is a trademark of Texas Microsystems Inc., 
all other trademarks mentioned are registered, trademarked or 
servicemarked by their respected manufacturers. 




TEXAS 



EXCEPT PRICE 



SYSTEMS 

Texas Microsystems, Inc. 

10618 Rockley Rd, Houston, Texas 77099 

Tel: 713-933-8050. Fax: 713-933-1029 




TEXAS MICROSYSTEM 4108 

MISSION CRITICAL OFFICE PC 

Features 

- Choice of 80286, 80386, 80486 processors. 

• Perfect for data acquisition, communications 
and networking applications. 

• 8 full length ISA slots for industry standard 
cards. 

• Up to 1 6MB of RAM on CPU, three half- 
height 5.25" bays for floppy /hard drives and 
one 3.5" hard drive. 

• Super VGA graphics (1024 x 768 pixels] 
Also supports CGA, EGA. 

• 1 parallel and 2 serial ports. 

■ 101-key enhanced keyboard with DIN 
connector on rear panel. 

• 220 watt power supply. 

• One yeai; on site warranty included. 

Specifications 

• Dimensions: 6. 5"x 17"x 16.5," 30 lbs. 
•Power 220 Watt, HOY 

• Operating environment. 

Temperature: 0°C to 55°C. (32°F to 131°F) 
Altitude: 15,000 feet equivalent 




TEXAS MICROSYSTEM 3014 

RUGGEDIZED RACK-MOUNT PC 
Features 

• Choice of 80286, 80386, 80486 processors. 

■ 18 -gauge nickel plated, steel chassis. 

■ 14 full length ISA slots for industry standard 
cards. 

• Boards bracketed and braced on all four edges. 
•Two 110 CFM fans. 

• Up to 16MB of RAM on CPU, andfivehalf- 
height storage bays for hard drives, floppy 
and/or tape backup. 

• Super VGA graphics (1024 x 768 pixels) 
Also supports CGA, EGA. 

• 1 parallel and 2 serial ports. 

• Built in speaker, door lock, power and CPU 
reset switch. 

• 101-key enhanced keyboard with DIN 
connector on front panel. 

• 2 2 5 watt power supply. 

• One yeai; on site warranty included. 

Specifications 

• Dimensions: 19"x 22.18"x 6.96." Wt. 45 lbs. 

• Power 95-132/180-264 VAC, 47 to 63Hz. 

• Operating environment. 

Temperature: 0°C to 55°C (32°Fto 131°F) 
Humidity: To 95% at 40°C non- 
condensing 
Altitude: 1 5,000 feet equivalent 
Vibration: .25G, 5 -100Hz operating 

5G, 5 -100Hz non-operating 
Shock: LOG operating at 10 Msec 
duration 





System Prices 






System Prices 






CPU/ 








CPU/ 






Model 


MHz-RAM 


Storage 


Price 


Model 


MHz-RAM 


Storage 


Price 


4216 


286/16-1 


40MB HD, 
1.2 or 1.44MB 
floppy 


$2,900 


3216 


286/16-1 


40MB HD, 
1.2 or 1.44MB 
floppy 


$3,825 


4320 


386/20-1 


40MB HD, 
1.2 or 1.44MB 
floppy 


$3,755 


3320 


386/20-1 


40MB HD, 
1.2 or 1.44MB 
floppy 


$4,650 


4325 


386/25-1 


104MB HD, 
1.2or 1.44MB 
floppy 


$4,530 


3325 


386/25-1 


104MBHD, 
1.2 or 1.44MB 
floppy 


$5,430 


4333 


386/33-2 


104MB HD, 

1.2orl.44MB 

floppy 


$5,135 


3333 


386/33-2 


104MB HD, 
1.2 or 1.44MB 
floppy 


$6,040 


4425 


486/25-4 


104MB HD, 
1.2 or 1.44MB 
floppy 


$5,995 


3425 


486/25-4 


104MB HD, 
1.2 or 1.44MB 
floppy 


$6,895 




From $2,900 


Monitor not incluc 


ed. 


'From 


$3,825. Rack 


mount monitor not 


included. 



EVEN ORDERING IS EXTREMELY EASY. CALL 



1-8' 



II 



627-8? 



II 



Circle 306 on Reader Service Card 



A P P L 



Jon Udell 



REVIEW 



CAD and NetWare 386 Join Forces 



It used to be that people complained 
they couldn't get at mainframe data. 
Now the data they can't get at lives on 
a PC. Networks abound, and the pendu- 
lum is swinging in the direction of cen- 
tral storage again. But few PC programs 
share data effectively on LANs. True, 
most databases can support concurrent 
users. But other categories of software— 
CAD, for example, as well as spread- 
sheets and word processors— typically 
cannot. All too often the network ends up 
as a speedy file transfer link, not as a 
foundation for collaborative work. CAD- 
vance 4.0 from IsiCAD aims to change 
that. 

The latest release of this popular ar- 
chitecture, engineering, and construc- 
tion (AEC) package makes good on the 
promise of multiuser CAD. On a Net- 
Ware 386 LAN, CADvance 4.0 goes fur- 
ther: NetWare loadable modules (NLMs) 
running on the server handle some of the 
database and rendering chores. 

To install the program, you'll need 




CADvance 4.0 

Company 

IsiCAD, Inc. 

1 920 West Corporate Way 

Anaheim, CA 92803 

(714)533-8910 



Hardware Needed 

Server: Sufficient hardware to run 

NetWare 286 or 386 or another PC LAN 

operating system; math coprocessor 

recommended for hidden-line-removal 

NLM 

Client: AT or compatible with 640K bytes 

of RAM, at least 500K bytes 

of conventional RAM available after 

loading network drivers, and at least 64K 

bytes of expanded memory; math 

coprocessor recommended for 3-D work 

Software Needed 

Server: NetWare 286 or 386 3.1 

(recommended) or other PC LAN operating 

system 

Client: MS-DOS 3.1 or higher; 

network shell 

Price 

Single-user configuration: $3495 
Five-user license (as reviewed): $12,000 
10-user license: $20,000 

Inquiry 1061. 



some of the latest weapons in the arsenal 
of DOS computing. CADvance now re- 
quires over 500K bytes of conventional 
memory after you've loaded your net- 
work driver and shell. This means that, 
under NetWare, it requires one of the 
new high-loading (EMS or XMS) Net- 
Ware shells. Unfortunately, it also re- 
quires at least one 64K-byte bank of ex- 
panded memory. So, on a 386 machine 
with extended memory, you can't get 
away with just the XMS shell. You will 
also require QEMM, EMM386, or an 
equivalent "limulator" to turn some of 
the extended memory into expanded 
memory. 

CADvance also requires a security de- 
vice—a parallel-port "dongle." Thank- 
fully, you only need one. The dongled 
workstation acts as a license server. In 
addition to CADvance, it runs a TSR pro- 
gram that monitors the number of active 
CADvance users. You can install this 
program on more machines than you 
have licensed it for, because the license 
applies to concurrent users, not to ma- 
chines. 

The Sociology of CAD 

IsiCAD has always used CADvance to 
target the AEC realm, where CAD draw- 
ings coordinate the efforts of a variety of 
trades. For example, an architect's floor 
plan typically governs the design and 
specification of electrical, communica- 
tions, plumbing, heating, and ventilation 
systems. With single-user CAD soft- 
ware, even on a network, the designers of 
these various systems can't refer to a live 
copy of the floor plan. 

Under DOS, single-user (or non-net- 
work-aware) software can only offer the 
limited protection that is afforded by the 
file system's read-only attribute. If you 
don't turn the attribute on, anyone can 
overwrite the floor plan. If you do set the 
read-only bit (by means of the ATTRIB 
command), no one can write to the file- 
not even its author, the architect. Even 
worse, there's no advance warning of an 
unauthorized attempt to write to a pro- 
tected document. There is nothing to 
prevent you from reading the document 
and modifying it in memory; only when 
you try to store the file does DOS com- 
plain. 

What's the answer? Everyone should 
be able to view the floor plan, even as the 
architect modifies it (see the figure). 
The networking extensions introduced 



with DOS 3.0— and implemented in all 
DOS and non-DOS PC network operat- 
ing systems— lay the foundation for this 
sort of sharing. The architect's program 
opens the floor-plan document in deny- 
write mode, thereby asserting an exclu- 
sive right to modify the document. An- 
other program can then open the doc- 
ument in deny-none (or shared) mode 
and view it. Should the second program 
also try to open the document in deny- 
write mode— that is, for write access— it 
will fail. In that case, the program can 
deliver a timely warning, and the user 
won't waste any time trying to edit the 
file. 

In CADvance 4.0, the architect opens 
the floor plan by means of the File/ 
Load command, which (if successful) 
confers the exclusive write privilege. 
Other draf tsfolk on the network can then 
open the same document by means of the 
File/ Re f command, which opens it for 
read access as a reference file. Reference 
files work like underlays. If you're de- 
signing the plumbing, for example, you 
can use a live copy of the floor plan as a 
guide. You can see, and even snap to, the 
outlines of the offices, but you can't 
select or modify them. There can be rec- 
iprocity as well. For example, it might be 
useful to cross-reference the electrical 
and plumbing diagrams while each of 
them also refers to the floor plan. That 
way, subsystem designers can monitor 
how the evolution of other subsystems af- 
fects their own. 

Network Consciousness-Raising 

Unlike CADvance 4.0, which is actively 
network-aware, most PC CAD programs 
are passively network-tolerant. Still , file 
sharing isn't that tough to implement, 
and I expect that the competition will 
soon follow suit. But there is more to the 
story. 

Although the reference-file scheme re- 
lies only on properties of the networked 
file system (and therefore will work on 
any PC LAN), CADvance 4.0 puts the 
NetWare application programming inter- 
face to good use. Generally, with any 
NetBIOS LAN or NetWare, a program 
that fails to open a file in deny-write 
mode can report only that it failed, not 
why. In other words, it can report "file in 
use," but not "Joe's using the file." Of 
course, the latter message is the one that 
you really want, and when you are run- 
ning CADvance under NetWare that's 



182 BYTE- DECEMBER 1990 



the one you get. Once you know that 
Joe's holding up the show, you don't have 
to start yelling or charge over to his cubi- 
cle. With the built-in message utility , you 
can contact Joe directly or broadcast a 
message to all CADvance users on the 
network. 



Anyone who's tried to print graphics 
on a networked printer or plotter knows 
the attendant frustrations. Although you 
can redirect LPT or COM ports across 
the network, the results aren't always 
what you'd expect. With CADvance 4.0, 
you can send plot jobs straight into Net- 



Ware queues, bypassing the troublesome 
middleman. You can attach a descriptive 
name to the plot job and queue each job 
on automatic hold. That way, a queue op- 
erator can identify each job's priority 
and paper requirements and manage the 
queue accordingly. 

continued 



NETWORKED CAD 




EK<^ 



rlUH 




triATEiriwN 

I Fill! 

1 HMD 

2 OFFICE 

3 OCOIPMfT 



C Smith 

C S CUIICLE.SVH 

N X 6 '18' 

H V 3*2* 



(a) CADvance 4. lets architects create and revise floor plans 
while (b) computer-systems designers note the location of PCs 
in an overlay above the "live" floor plan in read-only mode; 



(c) communications engineers add a second overlay of network 
cabling drawings on the live floor plan, and (d) a Facilities 
Manager links objects in the plan to an external database. 



DECEMBER 1990 -BYTE 183 



Circle 87 on Reader Service Card 



Good Labor Ain't 
Cheap! 




CAD and NetWare 386 Join Forces 



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• SX-OCRworks directly with the following 
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109 



The Visual Database 

Networking aside, what sets CADvance 
apart from most PC CAD programs is its 
ability to link objects in a CAD drawing 
with an external .DBF (dBASE-style) 
database. According to IsiCAD, a num- 
ber of CADvance users describe them- 
selves as facilities managers— that is, 
people who must track equipment inven- 
tories by location. For these users, CAD 
drawings are both pictures and data- 
bases. Of course, you can't use standard 
database tools to query the specialized 
graphical databases that underlie CAD 
programs. But with CADvance, you can 
link a graphical database to a convention- 
al one. 

Since I'm responsible for managing 
part of BYTE's editorial LAN, I tested 
CADvance' s database connection by re- 
lating a database of workstations, ca- 
bling, and network hardware to an office 
floor plan. With dBASE IV (CADvance 
requires .NDX index files, so I couldn't 
use my favorite dBASE work-alike, Fox- 
Pro), I defined four databases indexed on 
a common field— the name, or number, 
of a CAD object. The first, the Relation 
database, links objects in CAD drawings 
to .DBF files. The remaining three In- 
stance databases store information about 
offices, workstations, and network hard- 
ware. 

Next I began hooking database records 
to objects in my floor-plan drawing. You 
can also use the database to search for, 
and graphically select, objects in a draw- 
ing. Under NetWare 286, that's easier 
said than done. You have to supply the 
typically machine-generated object 
number as a search key. Under NetWare 
386, however, CADvance provides a 
server-based NLM that can perform 
Structured Query Language (SQL) quer- 
ies against the .DBF database. So, for ex- 
ample, I was able to select all the sym- 
bols representing Macintoshes with this 
query: 

select from workstn where workstn 
.vendor = "apple" 

What about concurrent access to the da- 
tabase? No sweat. The CADvance record 
editor, like the dBASE browser, will 
either lock the active record or tell you 
that it can't. 

While I applaud IsiCAD's database 
support, I have to admit I found these 
tools a tad unwieldy. That's partly be- 
cause it's awkward to switch between 
CADvance and dBASE. You can shell to 
DOS, and CADvance 4.0 relinquishes all 
but a lOK-byte stub of itself when you do, 
but effective use of dBASE with CAD- 



vance really demands 386 DOS multi- 
tasking a la Desqview or Windows. Even 
then, keeping the drawings and data- 
bases in sync takes perseverance. And 
the SQL dialect is fairly weak: no LIKE 
clauses, no joins, and no subselects that 
return more than one value. 

On the other hand, although the CAD/ 
database interaction may not be pretty, it 
does work. If you need to mix the two 
disciplines, CADvance may be the only 
game in town. And the SQL NLM repre- 
sents a genuine innovation for PC CAD. 
It's exciting to see client/server technol- 
ogy begin to stretch the horizons of DOS 
computing. 

Other Dimensions 

The core CAD program in CADvance re- 
mains essentially what it was in previous 
versions: a solid two-dimensional draft- 
ing tool with limited, though useful, 3-D 
extensions. You won't be designing next 
year's Ferrari coupe with CADvance— 
complex surfaces aren't its forte. But it 
has all the tools you need to design and 
document a commercial office building, 
and they're geared for efficient produc- 
tion drafting. Almost all the commands 
"nest," so you can always interrupt what 
you're doing to zoom, pan, place a sym- 
bol, or run a macro program. Mouse but- 
tons do the right thing in most situations. 
And things get done quickly. 

To boost a 2-D drawing into the third 
dimension, you assign elevations and 
heights and then extrude it. The 3-D 
module sports interlocking x,y, x,z, and 
y,z grids. You can lock the cursor to any 
of these and slide the grids relative to one 
another. To reorient the model, you can 
choose from a set of standard views, ro- 
tate the model relative to any axis, or— 
what's most intuitive— set the location 
and height of a "camera" and a "target." 
You can easily look around and through a 
3-D model, capturing views for a presen- 
tation. Under NetWare 386, you can even 
queue up a series of snapshots on which 
the server will perform hidden-line re- 
moval. 

A number of PC CAD programs out- 
strip CADvance' s 3-D modeling prow- 
ess. But in the final analysis, the spin- 
ning teapots that shimmer on screens at 
computer graphics trade shows don't 
matter much to people who design office 
buildings for a living. CADvance has al- 
ways been a practical tool for the AEC 
professional, and now version 4.0 makes 
workgroup CAD equally practical. ■ 

Jon Udell is a BYTE senior editor at 
large. You can contact him on BIX as 
"judell. " 



184 BYTE* DECEMBER 1990 




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Graphics and Database Toolkits $119 each. 

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386 DEVELOPMENT 

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386 Max 5.0 $109 

386JDOS Extender by Pharlap 495 



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Turbo Debugger & Tools 1 1 9 

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QuickPak Prof. V3. 16 189 



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MS COBOL V3.0 
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C Asynch Manager 3.0 
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AdComm for Clipper 279 

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EasyCase Plus 275 

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GEOGRAF is a graphics library of 
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MKS Toolkit 229 

MS Windows 3.0 119 

MS Windows DDK 365 

MS Windows SDK 365 

Multi scope OS/2 Debugger 375 

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REVIEW 



NCR's S486/MC33 Has Unique 
Approach to Reliability 



The new 33-MHz i486-based sys- 
tems are increasingly taking over 
tasks that were previously dedi- 
cated to minicomputers and RISC-based 
workstations. The latest entry from 
NCR's Workstation Products Division, 
the S486/MC33, is no exception. This 
system has been designed from the 
ground up for high performance, maxi- 
mum expandability, and unmatched reli- 
ability. It is also one of a handful of 33- 
MHz i486-based systems with the Micro 
Channel bus architecture. 

All this performance, expandability, 
and reliability come at a price. The base 
price for the S486/MC33 is $13,995, 
which includes only the base unit and a 
single 3!/2-inch 1 .44-megabyte floppy 
disk drive. The BYTE evaluation unit 
included 16 MB of error-correcting 
DRAM ($8400), an NCR SCSI host 
adapter board ($500), a 670-MB Maxtor 
SCSI hard disk drive ($6500), a 16-inch 
Super VGA monitor ($1995), a keyboard 
($100), and MS-DOS 4.01 ($150), for a 
total system cost of $3 1 ,640. 

While this price will keep away most 
home computer users, it is in the price 
range traditionally accepted for mini- 
computers and high-performance work- 
stations, where increased productivity 
can quickly pay back such investments. 
The system also incorporates reliability 
features not found on any other 486 sys- 
tem, and it is backed by the quality and 
service that NCR has become known 
for— second not even to Big Blue. 

The size of the S486/MC33's tower 
case is substantial: At 29 by 29 Vi bylVi 
inches and a weight of 83 pounds with a 
hard disk drive, it seems to be trying hard 
to match the system's hefty price tag (see 
the photo). Nevertheless, the well-de- 
signed chassis is tailored for easy access 
and uncompromised expandability. It in- 
cludes nine drive bays, four memory- 
board slots, one slot for the SCSI control- 
ler, one 1 6-bit Micro Channel expansion 
slot with video extension, and six 32-bit 
Micro Channel expansion slots. 

Once unlocked, the system cover 
glides easily along guide rails to provide 
ready access to the system internals. You 
can remove it completely for accessing 
the drive bays. Rollers at the front and 
rear bottom of the cabinet let you easily 
tip and roll the system. 




As the size of its case suggests, the NCR S486/MC33 has plenty of room for 
expansion: It is also one of the fastest 33-MHz 486 systems BYTE has tested. 



Bulletproof Design 

The main processor board is impressive. 
Built almost entirely with surface-mount 
technology for reduced size and greater 
reliability, the large board includes an 
i486 processor, a Weitek WTL4167 
math coprocessor socket, a 600- by 800- 
pixel Super VGA video controller with 1 
MB of RAM, a floppy disk drive control- 
ler, two serial ports, one parallel port, a 
PS/2-style mouse port, and 12 expansion 
slots. Oddly, the two serial ports are 
brought out to a single 25-pin connector. 
The first port, COM1 , uses the IBM RS- 
232C pin-out. To use both ports, how- 
ever, you must connect the included Y 
cable to the system's serial connector, 
which then provides you with separate 
connectors for COM 1 and COM2. 

Because DRAM chips require period- 
ic refreshing of on-chip capacitors to 
maintain stored bit values, they are prone 
to occasional bit loss from such things as 
alpha particle hits (naturally occurring 
background radiation). As the amount of 



memory in a system increases, so does 
the likelihood of bit losses, with single- 
bit losses being the most common. 

High-end computers such as the S486/ 
MC33 typically incorporate a lot of 
memory— often 16 MB or more— so 
NCR decided to design the memory sub- 
system for greater reliability. Instead of 
the simple parity-detection circuit found 
in most PCs, the NCR memory boards 
incorporate error detection and correc- 
tion circuitry, which is capable of cor- 
recting any single-bit errors that occur on 
the fly and can also detect and notify the 
processor of any double-bit errors. So if 
you're wondering why the 16-MB mem- 
ory board costs more than your entire 
PC, it's because NCR designed it for re- 
liability with a capital R. 

NCR offers 4-MB and 16-MB mem- 
ory boards for the S486/MC33. With 
four available memory slots, the system 
supports 64 MB of memory. The mem- 
ory board slots are uniquely designed, 
with connections to both the processor's 



DECEMBER 1990 • B Y T E 191 



REVIEW 



NCR'S S486/MC33 HAS UNIQUE APPROACH TO RELIABILITY 




DOS BENCHMARKS 



NCR S486/MC33 

AST Premium 486/33 
Everex Step 486/33 
Club American Hawk I 
IBM PC AT 



< Worse 




APPLICATION-LEVEL PERFORMANCE 


Better ► | 




57.8* 

52.6 

49.7 

49.4 

7.0 


5.3 4.8 


5.6 


6.4 13.0 13.4 9.2 

















































□ 



Word 
Processing 



r*~| Desktop 



Publishing 



□ 



Database 



D 



Compilers 



CAD 



□ 



Scientific/ 
Engineering 



Spreadsheet 



NCR S486/MC33 

AST Premium 486/33 
Everex Step 486/33 
Club American Hawk II 
IBM PC AT 



* Worse LOW-LEVEL PERFORMANCE Better ► 






8.0 


32.7 


3.2 


13.7 













































































□ cpu I 



FPU 



Disk 



Video 



CONVENTIONAL BENCHMARKS 


LINPACK 

(single) 

(MFLOPS) 


Dhrystones 
(Dhry./sec.) 


NCR S486/MC33 0.8822 


26929.4 


Everex Step 486/33 0.8959 


26912.9 


Club Hawk III 486/33 0.9263 


27472.3 


AST Premium 486/33 0.8947 


25849.4 



' For application and low-level benchmarks, results are indexed and show relative performance; for each 
individual index, an 8-MHz IBM AT running MS-DOS 3.30 = 1 . For all benchmarks, higher numbers 
indicate better performance. 

The BYTE low-level benchmark suite identifies performance differences between machines at the hard- 
ware level; the application benchmarks evaluate real-world performance by running a standard test suite 
using commercially available applications. Application indexes include tests using the following pro- 
grams: Wad processing: WordPerfect 5.0; Desktop Publishing; Aldus PageMaker 3.0; Database; Borland 
Paradox 3.0 and AshtonTate dBASE IV; Compilers: Microsoft C 5.1 and Turbo Pascal 5.5; CAD: Auto- 
CAD release 10 and Generic CADD level 3 1.1 .5; Scientific/Engineering: Stata release 2, MathCAD 2.5, and 
PC-Matlab3.5f; and Spreadsheet: Lotus 1-2-3 release 3.0 and Microsoft Excel 2.1. 

The BYTE Lab introduced version 2.0 of the DOS benchmarks in the August issue (see "BYTE's New 
Benchmarks: New Looks, New Numbers"). Benchmark results for machines reviewed under previous 
versions aren't directly comparable. To obtain a copy of the benchmarks, join the listings area of the 
byte.bmarks conference on BIX or contact BYTE directly. 



UNIX BENCHMARKS 



■M Worse 



a»m^ 



NCR S486/MC33 

AST Premium 486/33 
Everex Step 486/33 
Club American Hawk I 
Everex Step 386/33 



6;8 


2.9 


2.2 


1.3 


1.3 


2.6 



























































11.3* 

9.8 
10.4 
10.7 

6.0 



□ 



□ , 



C Compiler I — I DC Arithmetic 



I I Tower of Hanoi I I 



System Loading I I Dhrystone 2 



□ 



Floating Point 



• The graph above summarizes the results of the Unix benchmarks (version 2.6). All results are indexed to show relative performance; for each test, an Everex Step 386/33 running Xenix 
2.3.1 = 1 . The cumulative index is formed by summing the indexed performance results for the tests. Comprehensive results are available by contacting BYTE. 



REVIEW 



NCR'S S486/MC33 Has Unique Approach to Reliability 



NCR Model S486/MC33 

Company 

NCR Corp. 

Workstation Products Division 

1700 South Patterson Blvd. 

Dayton, OH 45479 

(513)445-5000 

Components (as reviewed) 

Processor: 33-MHz Intel i486; socket for 
33-MHz WeitekWTL4 167 
Memory: 1 6 MB of error-correcting 
DRAM, expandable to 64 MB; 
reprogrammable BIOS in Flash EPROM 
Mass storage: 670-MB 1 2-ms Maxtor 
SCSI hard disk drive; Teac 3 1 /2-inch 1 .44- 
MB floppy disk drive 
Display: 1 6-bit Super VGA controller on 
motherboard; 16-inch Super VGA color 
monitor 

Keyboard: IBM Enhanced 101 -key 
I/O interfaces: Dual serial port; parallel 
port; PS/2 mouse port; video port; 
keyboard connector; SCSI port; one 16- 
bit and six 32-bit Micro Channel expansion 
slots 

Price 

$31,640 

Inquiry 1107. 



local bus and the Micro Channel bus. 
This dual-ported design permits Micro 
Channel bus masters to access the mem- 
ory, in addition to the i486 itself. The 
memory subsystem is designed for inter- 
leave operation for improved perfor- 
mance, typically averaging less than one 
wait state. There is no secondary cache 
in the system; instead, the system relies 
on the i486's own 8K-byte four-way set- 
associative cache. 

Like its main memory subsystem, the 
S486/MC33's ROM BIOS is unique. As 
with most computers in this performance 
range, the BIOS is placed into shadow 
RAM for faster operation after boot. Un- 
like other systems, however, the S486/ 
MC33 uses a flash EPROM to store its 
BIOS. Unlike conventional EPROMs, 
flash EPROMs can be electrically erased 
and reprogrammed in the system. This 
allows NCR to change or upgrade the 
system BIOS simply by inserting a disk 
with the new BIOS and running a utility 
to program the flash memory. No more 
replacing BIOS EPROMs. 

A vertical backplane runs almost the 
full height of the case along the back of 
the drive bays. A "drive carrier" is 
mounted to each drive, which then slides 
into a drive bay and connects the drive to 
the backplane. The backplane is cabled 



to the SCSI host adapter board and the 
floppy disk drive interface connector on 
the main processor board. The top two 
half-height drive bays are reserved for 
3 1 /2-inch floppy disk drives or a tape 
drive. The remaining four half-height 
bays and three full-height bays are avail- 
able for SCSI devices, including hard 
disk drives, optical disk drives, and tape 
drives. The SCSI host adapter board can 
support up to seven devices simulta- 
neously, and it includes an external con- 
nector for connecting to SCSI devices 
outside the S486/MC33 cabinet, such as 
scanners and laser printers. 

NCR offers several SCSI hard disk 
drives, optical drives, and tape drives for 
its S486/MC33 system, including a 327- 
MB hard disk drive, a 670-MB hard disk 
drive, a 600-MB CD-ROM drive, a 200- 
MB tape drive, and a 320-/525-MB tape 
drive. On the flexible side, only the 3 1 /2- 
inch 1 .44-MB floppy disk drives are of- 
fered. NCR also offers a non-SCSI 80-/ 
120-MB tape drive that installs in the 
lower floppy disk drive bay. 

A World-Class System 

The S486/MC33 is clearly designed for 
the world market. Its 385-watt power 
supply, for example, is an auto-switching 
unit that works properly at a nominal 1 15 
volts or 230 V and at 50 or 60 Hz. NCR 
also offers keyboards for nine different 
languages, and the installation manual is 
presented in five languages. The system 
documentation consists of several man- 
uals, and, as expected from a company 
like NCR, all of them are complete, well 
organized, and heavily illustrated. 

The keyboard, with its PS/2-style con- 
nector, has a very nice feel but no key 
click. The 16-inch monitor included with 
the evaluation unit also provides a good- 
quality display, with sharp images and 
good color renditions. 

The system comes with a set of utility 
and driver disks. These include complete 
system diagnostics, setup utilities, and 
device drivers. There are device drivers 
that support the enhanced video modes, 
as well as SCSI drivers for OS/2 and 
Unix. I ran the system using the MS- 
DOS 4.01 operating system that came 
with the evaluation unit. I saw no evi- 
dence of any compatibility problems 
after running numerous DOS applica- 
tions on the system— it just ran very fast. 

How Fast Is It? 

The S486/MC33 proved to be one of the 
fastest systems ever tested by the BYTE 
Lab. With a CPU index of 8.0, the sys- 
tem is faster than both the AST Premium 
486/33 (at 7.2) and the Club Hawk III 



486/33 (at 7.4). The Everex Step 486/33, 
however, showed a higher performance 
level, probably because of its secondary 
cache, with a CPU index of 9.0. 

NCR is one of the largest manufac- 
turers of SCSI controller chips, so it isn't 
surprising to find that the S486/MC33's 
SCSI disk subsystem outperforms those 
of all the other systems in its class. In 
contrast, the S486/MC33's VGA video 
circuitry, while still fast, lags slightly 
behind all its competition. 

In addition to admirable performance 
in the low-level benchmarks, the S486/ 
MC33 also outperformed the other 33- 
MHz 486 systems in most of the applica- 
tion-level benchmarks. It was slightly 
lower only in the desktop publishing and 
word processing benchmarks. 

The S486/MC33 also performed well 
on the BYTE Unix benchmarks. Its 1 1 .3 
cumulative index was almost twice that 
of the baseline Everex Step 386/33. 

A Step Ahead of IBM 

The S486/MC33's design has been well 
thought out and well implemented. Tra- 
ditional IBM customers will feel right at 
home with the high-quality construction, 
reliable design, complete documenta- 
tion, and Micro Channel architecture. In 
addition to high performance and multi- 
ple-master support, Micro Channel of- 
fers the ability to configure plug-in 
boards via software, without having to 
use jumpers and DIP switches. 

Until recently, IBM offered little to 
compete with the S486/MC33. IBM's 
PS/2 Model 70 486-B21 is merely the 
company's Model 80 386 design with an 
i486 processor card replacing the 386 
card. It has no system optimization to 
take advantage of the i486's features. 

Its good points notwithstanding, the 
S486/MC33's price must be reckoned 
with. To justify that price tag, its perfor- 
mance and reliability must result in sav- 
ings for the user. Based on the perfor- 
mance results, this should be the case for 
many users. For example, the S486/ 
MC33 is well positioned as a high-end 
network server, where its high process- 
ing speed and fast disk accesses will keep 
even large networks running with mini- 
mal downtime. The S486/MC33 will 
also shine as an engineering worksta- 
tion, where complex calculations can tax 
the CPU. ■ 

Roger C. Alford is the president of Pro- 
grammable Designs, a Michigan-based 
consulting firm. He is the author of Pro- 
grammable Logic Designer's Guide 
(Howard W. Sams & Co. , 1989). You can 
reach him on BIXc/o "editors. " 



DECEMBER 1990 -BYTE 193 



Now you can afford to 








J'>'->- 



'■ :- - '■■'■ ■■' 







* Suggested U.S. list price. For Macintosh interface, add $125. © 1990 Hewlett-Packard Company PE12033 



show your true colors. 




No longer does your world 
have to be black and white. 

With millions of different 
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nology, the HP PaintJet 
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Better yet, it doesn't take 
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for the PaintJet. Or for 
even faster printing, larger 
formats, and more font 
capabilities, only $2,495* 
for the PaintJet XL. 

Of course, HP Paint Jets 
are DOS and Macintosh 
compatible. Work with all 
your favorite graphics soft- 
ware. And print on trans- 
parencies as well as paper. 




So call 1-800-752-0900, 
Ext. 1632 for your nearest 
authorized HP dealer. And 
get a firsthand demonstra- 
tion of what the PaintJet 
family can do for your 
business communications. 

You'll be surprised how 
high you can fly with color. 



ra 



HEWLETT 
PACKARD 



There's more to comparing 
LaserJet printer sharing options 
than just the name 



Price 



Upgradeable 

memory 

buffer 



Cables and 
adapters 
included* 



Centronics 
interface 



Warranty 



Pacific Data Products 
Pacific Connect™ 



$399 



Yes 



Yes 



Yes 



Lifetime 



Hewlett-Packard 
HP ShareSpool® 



$495 



No 



No 



No 



Two Years 



Do 




"on't settle for less just 
to buy the HP name. For 
LaserJet printer sharing 
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Pacific Connect from Pacific 
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Completely transparent 
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even comes with four cables 
and serial adapters. And to 
handle large print files or to 
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To learn how you can get 
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PACIFIC 



DATA PRODUCTS 



Pacific Connect includes two 25 ft serial cables, two 50 ft serial cables and four DB-25 1 o R J-ll connectors. Prices are suggested retail list price. Pacific Connect is 
a trademark of Pacific Data Products, Inc. ShareSpool is a registered trademark of Extended Systems, Inc. AH other company and product names are 
trademarks of the company or manufacturer respectively. © 1990 Pacific Data Products, Inc. 



Lamont Wood 



REVIEW 



DR DOS Offers Hope 
for the RAM-Crammed 



C :\>chkdsk 

Uolune in drive C does not have a labe 

67,926,616 bytes total disk space 
92,160 bytes in 3 hidden files 
116,784 bytes in 51 directories 
2B ,899,872 bytes in 679 user files 

77,824 bytes in bad sectors 
47,536,176 bytes available on disk 

655,344 bytes total nenory 
640,864 bytes available 



DR DOS Release 5.8 



While you can use various expe- 
dients to break the 640K-byte 
straitjacket that MS-DOS im- 
poses on RAM, the most straightforward 
way is to switch to a new operating sys- 
tem. But then you would have to abandon 
your MS-DOS applications and learn 
new ones— and that's not a very popular 
course. 

But there is a middle ground, and Dig- 
ital Research, Inc. (DRI), the firm that 
was behind the CP/M operating system 
in the 1970s, has provided it with DR 
DOS 5.0. This $199 operating system for 
PCs and compatibles is a precise emula- 
tion of MS-DOS— no small feat— with 
embellishments that will interest users 
who need to load an application, a hard- 
ware driver (e.g., a network interface), 
and a TSR program all at once, but need 
more than 640K bytes to do it. 

I tested DR DOS on a 16-MHz Club 
American 386 with Hercules graphics, a 
40-megabyte 28-millisecond hard disk 
drive, and 4 MB of RAM. 

I installed DR DOS with a setup com- 
mand that demands little of the user, and 
it ran immediately. No disk reformatting 
was necessary. DR DOS automatically 
loaded its own version of all the MS-DOS 
command and utility files (using the 
same names that DOS uses), plus a few 
extras. The only incompatibility with my 
existing MS-DOS CONFIG.SYS file 
was that DR DOS wanted all text in the 
file to be in uppercase letters. Aside from 
slight differences in some of the screen 
messages (and the ECHO command's 
producing a carriage return, disrupting 
any carefully positioned AUTOEXEC 
.BAT screen menus you have written), 
you'd need the VER command to reas- 



DRDOScan reclaim upper 
memory and locates the 
DOS kernel in high memory 
to give you more work-space 
memory than you get with 
MS-DOS. 



sure yourself that you're in a new operat- 
ing system. 

But there are differences— potentially 
big ones— in the way the two operating 
systems handle RAM. 

Down Memory Lane 

To illustrate what DR DOS does, I'll de- 
fine some terms and map out the tortured 
world of PC memory. Conventional 
memory is the first 640K bytes (655,360 
bytes) of RAM. You generally can't use 
all of it for applications, since DOS and 
various device drivers must consume 
some of it. (With MS-DOS 3.3, 1 usually 
end up with 542,848 bytes available; this 
is called the transient program area.) 
The amount of available memory is im- 
portant, because PC software can nor- 
mally run only when it's in conventional 
memory. 

Meanwhile, the 384K bytes between 
640K bytes and 1 MB (1024K bytes) is 
called upper memory. RAM above 1 MB 



DR DOS 5.0 

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Digital Research, Inc. 
70 Garden Court 
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(408) 649-3896 



Hardware Needed 

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is called extended memory (unless you're 
talking about expanded memory, which 
swaps pages of RAM in and out of con- 
ventional memory). The first (or lowest) 
64K bytes of extended memory is called 
high memory and should not be confused 
with upper memory. 

DR DOS takes advantage of the fact 
that while upper memory is reserved for 
video RAM and the ROM BIOS, much of 
it remains unused. The amount that is 
unused varies with the configuration of 
the machine and the kind of video you're 
using, but it's probably more than 100K 
bytes between the VRAM and the ROM 
BIOS. Some of the VRAM immediately 
above 640K bytes may also be unused. 
Both blocks could be reclaimed for an 
application, except that MS-DOS can't 
raise its eyes above the 640K-byte mark. 

What DR DOS does is supply a mem- 
ory manager, EMM386. SYS, that opens 
up available RAM in upper memory. It 
also handles expanded and extended 
memory support. After installing the 
memory manager, you can use the DR 
DOS HI LOAD command to load and run 
an application in upper memory. To see 
what RAM you have available in upper 
memory, DR DOS supplies a function 
called MEM, which not only lists the 
names and locations of all applications 
and drivers currently in RAM, but also 
graphically maps the state of your RAM . 

With DR DOS loaded and EMM386 
.SYS installed, I found I had 720,880 
(704K) bytes of conventional memory 
(640K bytes plus 64K bytes that EMM- 
386. SYS can reclaim from VRAM if you 
are using a Hercules, CGA, or MDA dis- 
play), of which 689,040 bytes was un- 
used. Plus, there was another 148,096 
bytes of free upper memory above the 
VRAM. As compared to the 542,848 
bytes that I had previously, DR DOS had 
given me almost 300,000 bytes— mem- 
ory that had been there all along, over- 
looked by MS-DOS. 

Thus, using the HILOAD command 
can be astonishing— like pitching a cin- 
der block into a puddle and seeing it dis- 
appear without a splash. For instance, I 
was able to HILOAD GWBASIC into 
upper memory, where it took up about 
80K bytes, and I still had about 60K 
bytes of upper memory free— about all 
GWBASIC can use for programs and 
data. Thus, I was able to run a full 
GWBASIC installation without affecting 
the amount of conventional memory 
available. (Well, almost— DOS' s envi- 
ronment data for each application is still 
loaded in conventional memory, and in 
this case, it took up about 500 bytes.) I 
could even use the SHELL command to 



DECEMBER 1990 -BYTE 197 



DR DOS Offers Hope for the RAM-Crammed 



leave GWBASIC and load another pro- 
gram, Xerox Ventura, in conventional 
memory, run it, leave it, and then return 
to GWBASIC using the EXIT command 
from DOS. While they were coresident, 
the two programs were not running at the 
same time— this is still DOS, not Unix or 
OS/2. 

I could load a TSR program (in this 
case, SideKick), and as far as the conven- 
tional memory count from CHKDSK was 
concerned, it had disappeared with hard- 
ly a trace. It was in there, however, and it 
popped up and ran on demand. 

DR DOS also has a HIDEVICE com- 
mand that you can use within the CON- 
FIG.SYS file to load device drivers into 
upper memory. Obviously, it replaces 
the MS-DOS DEVICE command. 

And DR DOS exploits high memory, 
whose 64K bytes generally goes unused. 
Using the HIDOS.SYS driver, DR DOS 
will load the 37K-byte DOS kernel into 
high memory. The result is less dramatic 
than with EMM386.SYS, but equally 
magical; DOS still runs, but for all in- 
tents and purposes, it takes up no space. 

DR DOS also has its own CACHE 
command, which sets up a disk cache in 



user-defined amounts of extended or ex- 
panded memory. It caches only disk 
reads, so a power glitch won't wipe out 
any data that was waiting to be written to 
the disk from the cache. While CACHE 
doesn't need EMM386.SYS or HIDOS 
.SYS, once it's invoked it's still part of 
the operating system, and applications 
use it automatically. 

No Free Lunch 

There is, of course, no free lunch— even 
if DR DOS does seem to be serving up 
multi-K-byte servings of RAM gravy. 
As you probably guessed from the name, 
the EMM386.SYS memory driver that 
accomplishes most of these wonders re- 
quires a 386 (or i486) processor. HI- 
DOS.SYS will work with a 286 and will 
also function much the same as EMM- 
386. SYS if you're using Leap or Neat 
286 processors from Chips & Technol- 
ogies. 

Also, if you're already using a mem- 
ory manager (such as HIMEM.SYS in 
Microsoft Windows or QEMM.SYS in 
Desqview), you cannot use EMM386 
.SYS, and the advantages of reclaiming 
upper memory are lost. However, you 



can still use HIDOS.SYS to get that extra 
37K bytes by relocating DOS to high 
memory. If you are already using such a 
third-party memory manager, you're 
probably already using large amounts of 
extended memory, and a few score K 
bytes of upper memory may not seem 
important. 

You may also be using applications or 
drivers that, for whatever reason, won't 
run in upper memory, or already use 
high memory. DRI doesn't think there 
are many software packages with this 
problem, but DR DOS's devices come 
with options and switches that let you dis- 
able any feature that causes trouble. 

EMM386. SYS can also set up shadow 
ROM, where it remaps the video-control 
portion of the ROM BIOS to a sector of 
extended memory, on the theory that 
RAM is faster than ROM. Therefore, 
this should make your screen display 
faster. Many clones nowadays come with 
shadow ROM already built in; mine did 
not, but invoking the feature produced 
no noticeable speedup in the screen dis- 
play. A technician at Club American said 
I could expect only about a 10 percent 
improvement, although a faster machine, 



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REVIEW 



DR DOS Offers Hope for the RAM-Crammed 



such as a 33-MHz 386, might show a 30 
percent improvement. 

My applications ran at about the same 
speed under DR DOS as they did under 
MS-DOS. However, loading EMM386 
.SYS slowed disk-based activities down 
by about 10 percent. If the extra memory 
EMM386. SYS makes available means 
that an application needs to perform dra- 
matically fewer disk accesses, the slow- 
down might be negated, but I encoun- 
tered no such situations. On the other 
hand, using CACHE does speed things 
up noticeably, especially for programs 
that normally swap code to and from 
RAM. After being invoked the first 
time, a function would often run without 
producing any disk activity, since the 
necessary code was in the RAM cache. 
The difference was less evident when 
reading through data files, and it did not 
make up for EMM386.SYS. 

There was no particular difference be- 
tween the print speeds of DR DOS and 
MS-DOS. However, an odd problem— 
and the only real bug I encountered— 
surfaced when I was copying files in 
binary format to the printer port (using 
COPY /B PRN) to load emulation soft- 
ware into a laser printer. The initial ver- 
sion of DR DOS that I had couldn't do 
this at all. A second version— which DRI 
said is the version of DR DOS that is now 
being shipped— did work, but it took 55 
seconds to transmit a file that MS-DOS 
transmitted in just 4 seconds. 

DOS Embellishments 

Beyond memory management features, 
there are a number of small but interest- 
ing differences between MS-DOS and 
DR DOS. The most obvious difference is 
that DR DOS inserts commas into byte 
counts, so you get "655,360" instead of 
"655360." Beyond this boost to legibil- 
ity, usability also gets a boost, thanks to 
a new help-screen option for most DOS 
commands. If, for instance, you can't re- 
member how to do a backup, you can just 
type BACKUP /H and a help screen will 
appear. 

And you don't have to type anything at 
all to use DR DOS if you don't want to, 
because it comes with a point-and-click 
graphical shell called ViewMax. It is 
strongly reminiscent of the GEM inter- 
face, right down to the pop-up calculator 
and digital clock. And that should be no 
surprise, because GEM is also made by 
DRI. 

DR DOS replaces MS-DOS 's EDIT 
line-at-a-time text editor with a handy 
full-screen editor that uses WordStar 
control keystrokes. Unsurprisingly, it's 
named EDITOR. 



You can assign varying levels of pass- 
word protection to files and subdirector- 
ies. The TREE command can produce a 
graphical diagram of your disk directo- 
ries. FORMAT only works with floppy 
disks. To wipe out a hard disk, you have 
to use the FDISK command. Since the 
program is menu-driven, you'll be less 
likely to absentmindedly vaporize your 
data with it. And if you do use FDISK, 
you'll find that DR DOS supports disk 
partitions of up to 5 12 MB. For examin- 
ing file contents, there's an extended ver- 
sion of DIR called XDIR, which shows 
more information than DIR. 

For laptop users, DR DOS has a utility 
called FileLink for file transfers over 
serial cables. Functionally, it's compara- 
ble to Traveling Software's Desk-Link. 
Also for laptops is a CURSOR function 
for changing the shape and blink rate of 
the cursor to make it easier to find on an 
LCD screen. DRI says that power man- 
agement techniques to extend battery life 
for portable computers are also built into 
DR DOS, but those features must be inte- 
grated by hardware manufacturers. 

The Ultimate Answer? 

If you have a 386 and need extra RAM 
(perhaps because of a need to pile on de- 
vice drivers), DR DOS may be your sal- 
vation. It frees up more than enough 
RAM to hold the average network driver, 
which is usually 64K bytes to 128K 
bytes insize. And it does it without af- 
fecting your applications in any way— 
you don't have to convert to OS/2 or some 
other environment to escape the RAM 
cram. 

Otherwise, the $199 you'd have to pay 
for DR DOS may or may not be worth it. 
Many considerations are involved. File- 
Link may make it a good value if you're a 
laptop user. The password function and 
the 5 1 2-MB disk partition may be inter- 
esting for certain applications. The help 
screens, screen editor, and ViewMax 
generally make it an easier DOS to use. 
One consideration that you should not 
overlook is that Microsoft can be ex- 
pected to hatch an answer to DR DOS 
with its own further enhancements to 
MS-DOS. 

But in the meantime, DRI has added a 
viable competitor to the DOS world. That 
in itself is a long-overdue development. ■ 

Lamont Wood has evaluated personal 
computers and software for 13 years, au- 
thoring more than 200 articles on the 
subject. He currently writes a computer 
column for the San Antonio Business 
Journal. You can contact him on BIX as 
"Iwood. " 



200 BYTE- DECEMBER 1990 



• •• 



I 




"The CompuAdd 325 
is a good example of 
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CompuAdd Keeps You 
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Tom Yager 



REVIEW 



On Becoming a Clockwise Scheduler 




It's been a bad day. Your meeting had 
to be postponed because someone else 
was using the conference room. The 
boss is peeved because his favorite proj- 
ect is behind schedule, and all because 
someone whom you gave responsibility 
to dropped the ball. 

Well, buck up, because Phase II Soft- 
ware has an answer: ClockWise. This 
application taps Unix's multiuser power 
to bring you a distributed scheduling 
database. Users can create their own 
schedules, reserve conference rooms and 
other resources, and plan meetings based 
on the availability of other users. Man- 
agement can delegate tasks to subordi- 
nates and check on their progress. And 
for those moments when the boss isn't 
looking, ClockWise even gives you the 
current phase of the moon, tides, and a 
daily trivia question or pithy quote. 

I installed ClockWise 1.1 on an ALR 
PowerVEISA 486/25 with 13 megabytes 
of memory, Interactive Unix 2.2, and the 
X Window System running on a Matrox 
MG Series 85 14/ A card. 

Did It Have to Be Unix? 

Until ClockWise, there was no widely 
available tool for bringing users of dis- 
similar systems together. Since Clock- 
wise runs under Unix, users can connect 
to it through either a network link or a 
serial cable. ClockWise 's interface is 
strictly text-based, so you can tap in with 
a dumb terminal, a DOS system, a lap- 
top, or a Unix workstation. All that's re- 
quired is a terminal or emulator that is 
supported by the flavor of Unix that you 
select to run ClockWise. 



The database is best kept on a single 
system. Running ClockWise from a se- 
rial port or via remote network log-in en- 
sures this, but it is also possible to share 
the database while running a local copy 
of ClockWise on your desktop system. 
Using Remote File System or Network 
File System (or whatever file-sharing 
scheme your system supports), you can 
mount the remote database directory 
where ClockWise expects to find it. 

In addition, the program's variety of 
connection types makes it possible to 
use ClockWise from a dial-up terminal. 
Fast, error-correcting modems are be- 




Clock Wise 1.1 

Company 

Phase II Software Corp. 
238 Broadway 
Cambridge, MA 02139 
(617)354-8771 



Hardware Needed 

286- (Xenix only), 386-, or i486-based 
PC with 2 MB of memory and 1 MB 
of free hard disk space 

Software Needed 

Interactive Unix 2.0 or higher; AT&T 
and SCO Unix, ESIX, and AT&T 3B2 
also supported 

Price 

$995 (unlimited users; other license 
terms available) 

Inquiry 1060. 



coming quite common, and running full- 
screen applications like ClockWise 
through them works nicely. Field person- 
nel can dial in and update their sched- 
ules, and branch offices can exchange se- 
lected databases with the main office via 
modem. 

Individual Scheduling 

Even as a single-user application, Clock- 
Wise has a good deal to recommend it. It 
opens with a large, readable view of the 
month's calendar. Dates for which an ac- 
tivity has been scheduled are high- 
lighted. There is an array of function 
keys across the bottom of the screen. You 
can access most of the important features 
of the program from here, but the oft- 
used slash key will bring up a Lotus-style 
menu. 

The ClockWise database is really a 
collection of files, each with a specific 
purpose. Each user has his or her own 
protected group of files, which hold in- 
formation on schedules, notes, names 
and phone numbers, access permissions, 
and groups of users. 

ClockWise distinguishes between two 
types of schedule items: events and tasks. 
An event is something that is tied to a 
particular date or range of dates. It 
stands alone and is forgotten once the 
date passes. A task is a part of a to-do 
list, a milestone in a project time line that 
must be done. The user is reminded about 
tasks at appropriate times and can see at a 
glance when something has slipped be- 
hind schedule. 

ClockWise is not a massive project 
management system, and it lacks many 
of the features of commercial project 
management programs. Its strength is in 
its ability to make individual scheduling 
easy enough that people will actually do 
it, and to make the information accessi- 
ble to those who make financial or plan- 
ning decisions based on progress. 

The database can also hold informa- 
tion about resources, those pesky things 
that nobody can get to when they are 
needed. Conference rooms, overhead 
projectors, VCRs, and other presenta- 
tion-related items are all good candidates 
for ClockWise scheduling. 

It's Better in a Group 

When you've defined a group in Clock- 
Wise, you can schedule events and tasks 
for that group simply by specifying the 
name of the group. New items will be 



DECEMBER 1990 • B Y T E 201 



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202 BYTE- DECEMBER 1990 



R E V;.l E W 



On Becoming a Clockwise Scheduler 



distributed to the individual databases of 
the group members. So, for instance, if 
you schedule a meeting at 3:00 and at- 
tach a reminder to the database entry, all 
the members of your group will get a 
mail message informing them of the 
meeting. Users will see the entry in their 
schedules, with the scheduling authority 
identified. 

If you attempt to schedule an event for 
someone who already has another com- 
mitment, ClockWise will inform you of 
the conflict. You can bring up a summa- 
ry graph that displays a schedule time 
line for each group member for the date 
you're dealing with. Of course, you can 
override conflict warnings and schedule 
those individuals anyway. If they decide 
not to attend, all they have to do is delete 
the item from their schedule. You (or 
whoever called the meeting) will be noti- 
fied of the deletion by E-mail, and a box 
will pop up on your screen the next time 
you view the event. 

ClockWise has a mild integration with 
the mail system. You can attach remind- 
ers to any event, and they will use the 
Unix at command to spool a mail mes- 
sage for delivery at a certain date and 
time. This makes it possible for you to be 
reminded of an event even if you're not 
running ClockWise. If you're running a 
windowing environment, you might have 
the luxury of running ClockWise con- 
stantly in the background. In that case, 
reminders can pop up on the bottom line 
of the ClockWise display window. Either 
way works about as well, since Clock- 
Wise also notifies you when new mail 
has come in. 

Interfacing 'Round the Clock 

The ClockWise user interface is, without 
a doubt, this program's best feature. 
Even though I take points away from 
companies whose programs blandly fol- 
low the slash menu scheme (a slash is not 
an intuitive way to pop up a menu), the 
rest of ClockWise 's interface makes per- 
fect sense. 

Entering dates, for example, is more 
easily done here than in most applica- 
tions I've seen. Enter a date in just about 
any format you can think of, and Clock- 
Wise will take it in. In a few places, 
ClockWise will try to guess the proper 
date for a field. If the guess is close but 
not quite there, you can use simple ex- 
pressions, such as " + 10," which adds 
10 days to the date. There aren't as many 
ways to format time expressions, but 
ClockWise is forgiving. 

In virtually any place where a field re- 
quires an entry that conforms to a list 
(e.g., user or group names), you can 



press a function key to pop up a window 
with the list. The name database (which 
holds names, telephone numbers, and re- 
lated information) is always a function- 
key press away, making it easier to fill in 
fields that require contact names or 
phone numbers. 

You can attach a variable-length note 
(e.g., a database memo field) to most 
ClockWise entries. Pressing a function 
key will expand the memo into a pop-up 
window. 

Scheduling Some Fun 

ClockWise 's designers must have known 
how dry and boring most scheduling ap- 
plications are to use, because they built 
in some simple features that help prevent 
you from taking it all too seriously. 

As mentioned earlier, ClockWise has 
a screen that displays the current phase of 
the moon, sketched out in text charac- 
ters. The moon screen also shows the 
tides and has a space reserved for a witti- 
cism. You can select a daily quote, a for- 
tune (usually just an unattributed witty 
saying), or a trivia question. ClockWise 
comes loaded with a database that will 
supply a different saying or question for 
each day. The trivia question answers ap- 
pear only on the next day, and you can't 
cheat. 

What place is there for features like 
this in serious business software? I won't 
debate the topic, except to say that it's 
about time someone worked a little fun 
into what is otherwise a rather tedious af- 
fair. As nice as ClockWise is to work 
with, entering every worthwhile happen- 
ing into it would get to be a bit of a drag 
after a while. 

All this furious data entry would be 
for naught if you couldn't print it out, and 
can you ever. Phase II Software took the 
time to make custom layouts for daily, 
weekly, monthly, project, and other 
print formats. If you have a PostScript 
printer, ClockWise's output is very 
functional, and it looks good enough to 
hang on a wall . If you only have access to 
a text printer, you can still get a usable 
printout, but the PostScript output is sim- 
ply eye-popping. 

ClockWise is now right up there on my 
list of useful Unix tools. If you're not an 
organized person, it can help, but you 
still need to get into the habit of writing 
everything down. ClockWise isn't the 
full realization of the potential of work- 
group computing, but it still won me 
over. ■ 

Tom Yager is a technical editor and Unix 
expert for the BYTE Lab. You can contact 
him on BIX as "tyager. " 



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Circle 212 on Reader Service Card 



Ben Smith and Tom Yager 



REVIEW 



Battle for the Best Unix V/386 



For many users, an operating system 
is an invisible layer. But some of us 
prefer to keep in step with the latest 
developments. The BYTE Unix Lab has 
been working with new releases from In- 
teractive Systems Corp. (ISC) and The 
Santa Cruz Operation (SCO), and we've 
found both companies have made some 
small but important changes for the bet- 
ter in their products. 

Interactive Unix 2.2 

In almost every noticeable way, the up- 
grade from ISC is actually a new prod- 
uct. With release 2.2, even the name 
changes: 386/ix has become Interactive 
Unix. 

The 386/ix 2.0.2 operating system had 
a flurry of demerits: an inept installation 
procedure; incomplete, poor-quality 
manuals; and a lack of on-line manual 
pages. With Interactive Unix 2.2, all 
these concerns have been addressed, but 
ISC didn't stop there. 

With regard to the installation proce- 
dure, Interactive Unix has one of the best 
that we've seen. The entire installation 
process is managed by a full-screen color 
program that walks new users through 
every step with concise help text. Con- 
text-sensitive help is only an Fl-key 
press away. 

Our only complaint is that this inter- 
face was not carried through to other 
parts of the operating system. It would 
have made a wonderfully friendly front 
end for sysadm, for example. 

ISC's addition of both paper and elec- 



tronic documentation eliminates one of 
SCO's longtime advantages in this area. 
ISC always had a quality operating sys- 
tem, but the lack of decent documenta- 
tion cast a black shadow over it. Prior 
to release 2.2, the documentation was 
sparse and perfect-bound (the kind of 
book that never stays open). Now, the 
manual set is complete, and it comes in 
stiff cardboard binders with clearly 
marked index tabs. On-line manual 
(man) pages for commands and library 
functions are standard now. Unfortu- 
nately, pages are not added when you in- 
stall the X Window System and OSF/ 
Motif. That's an oversight that needs 
attention. 

In addition to answering age-old com- 
plaints with release 2.2, ISC has rolled in 
some new ingredients of its own. Interac- 
tive Unix now complies with the POSIX 
1003.1 operating-system specification; 
developers select System V or POSIX 
program behavior at compile time. PO- 
SIX compliance also brings an important 
feature, job control, to Interactive Unix. 
With this, it is possible to suspend a pro- 
cess and resume it later. 

ISC provides a new C shell that acti- 
vates and manages this job control. Here 
is how it works: While a program is run- 
ning, you can press a special "switch" 
character to suspend the program and 
place it in the background. A shell 
prompt then appears. The C-shell com- 
mand bg sets a job running again in the 
background (control returns to the shell), 
and f g makes the suspended session the 



SCO Unix 3.2 version 2.0 

Company 

The Santa Cruz Operation 
400 Encinal St. 
Santa Cruz, CA 95061 
(408)425-7222 

Hardware Needed 

386- or i486-based PC with at least 
2 M B of memory (3 M B or more 
recommended) and 40 MB of free hard 
disk space 

Price 

Single-user: $595 
Multiuser: $895 
Update: $95-$150 

Inquiry 1062. 




Interactive Unix 2.2 

Company 

Interactive Systems Corp. 
2401 Colorado Ave. 
Santa Monica, CA 90404 
(213)453-8649 



Hardware Needed 

386- or i486-based PC with at least 

4 MB of memory and 40 MB of free hard 

disk space 

Price 

Single-user: $495 
Multiuser: $795 
Update: $100 

Inquiry 1063. 



active one. For example, you can sus- 
pend a vi editor session to do a compile 
and easily resume the vi editor session 
afterward. 

Also taken from POSIX are the porta- 
ble archiver, pax, and the ability to as- 
sign membership in multiple groups to a 
single user. The pax archiver is compat- 
ible with both tar and cpio, but it also 
has an enhanced data- storage format and 
an interface of its own. Multiple groups 
allow system administrators to fine-tune 
file access. 

Also included in Interactive Unix 2.2 
are a number of useful features, such as 
additional and enhanced device drivers 
(with floppy disk and SCSI tape foremost 
among them); new versions of sendmail 
and smail; multiple EGA and VGA 
fonts; a setcolor command for modify- 
ing the console character colors; and ex- 
tended (secondary) DOS partition sup- 
port. 

ISC has also upgraded its TCP/IP, 
VP/ix, Software Development System, 
and X products significantly. The com- 
pany claims to have sold more 386 3.2 
Unix packages than any other vendor, 
and with Interactive Unix 2.2 and these 
other upgrades, that trend should con- 
tinue. 

SCO Unix 3.2 Version 2.0 

Version 2.0 of SCO's Unix 3.2 contains 
much more than just a few patches and 
fixes. It is SCO's statement about the 
new AT&T Unix System V release 4, a 
release that is slowly starting to come out 
of the porting labs and into the real 
world. We would verbalize SCO's state- 
ment as "take the most sought-after (and 
easiest to implement) features of V .4 and 
implement them under V. 3 .2 . " The most 
obvious of these features is the Korn shell 
with full job control, and SCO's new re- 
lease has it. 

The Korn shell has all the features of 
the Berkeley C shell, including com- 
mand-line history, aliases, and internal 
handling of test and arithmetic opera- 
tions from scripts. What the Korn shell 
has that the C shell lacks is an internal 
editor (emulating either vi or emacs) for 
editing commands in the history list be- 
fore reissuing them. (This is even better 
than the command history in VMS, Digi- 
tal Equipment's operating system for 
VAX computers.) 

Having the Korn shell with job control 
makes complex Unix sessions almost as 



206 BYTE- DECEMBER 1990 



I 



Interactive 
Unix has one of the best 
installation procedures 
we've seen. The process 
is managed by a full- 
screen color program 
that walks new users 
through every step. 



easy as running in an X environment, 
though not quite as scenic. Job control is 
not supported for the C shell in SCO 
Unix, even though it is in Unix V.4 and 
ISC Unix 2.2. 

Other significant elements of SCO 
Unix 3.2 version 2.0 include a way to 
make shared library operations of non- 
SCO Unix systems work with SCO Unix, 
as well as support for High-Sierra and 
ISO9660 CD-ROM drives. There are nu- 
merous enhancements to SCO's already 
serious "trusted system" implementa- 
tion. The vi, sh, and mail utilities have 
been "internationalized," and they now 
handle 8-bit characters. (The 2-byte- 
character internationalization of strings 
is still not a standard part of any Unix 
system.) This new version also includes 
more POSIX 1003.1 features, including 
pax. 

SCO and Microsoft (the trademark 
holder of Xenix) have influenced what is 
included in AT&T's V.4. And, despite 
its effort to be Unix, SCO tends to put 
more energy into adding value to Unix 
than into following the standard path. 
The company has publicly stated that it 
has not made plans to adopt AT&T's V.4, 
but this doesn't mean that SCO isn't go- 
ing to continue to implement what it 
thinks are the operating system's best 
features. ■ 

Ben Smith and Tom Yager are technical 
editors who run the BYTE Unix Lab. You 
can contact them on BIX as "bensmith " 
and "tyager, " respectively. 



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Circle 264 on Reader Service Card (RESELLERS: 265) 



J< 



Ben Smith 



REVIEW 



Microsoft Word Brings 
PC-Style Word Processing to Unix 



n ,r competitors continue to have a significant nftrlcetinrj 

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Microsoft Word for 
Unix looks and 
acts just like Word 
for DOS. 



If you are a seasoned Unix user, you 
might wince at the thought of a PC 
program cluttering up your "serious" 
Unix computer. The Unix vi or emacs 
editor (with a little nrof f or trof f for- 
matting code) is all you think you will 
ever need (or want). If this is your atti- 
tude, classify yourself a bigot. Open 
your eyes, and widen your view. Micro- 
soft Word is a word processing (and near- 
ly a desktop publishing) program, not a 




Microsoft Word 5.0 
for Unix 



Company 

The Santa Cruz Operation, Inc. 
400EncinalSt. 
P.O. Box 1900 
Santa Cruz, CA 95061 
(408) 425-7222 

Hardware Needed 

Computer running AT&T Unix 386 
release 3.2 or higher (including SCO, 
Interactive, and other AT&T derivatives) 
and 3.8 MB of disk space, assuming one 
printer, 1.5 MB of memory for first user, 
and 500K bytes for each additional user. 
Versions also available for many AT&T 
computers. 

Price 

Unlimited number of users: $995 

Inquiry 1005. 



text editor. There's a world of difference. 
I'm not saying that there aren't some 
tried-and-true Unix word processing 
programs around, but I assure you that 
you wouldn't want to compare them to 
Microsoft Word, arguably the most pop- 
ular multiplatform word processing pro- 
gram. On the other hand, there are some 
real gotchas in having a personal com- 
puter program on Unix— a multiuser, 
multitasking operating system with a rich 
history and set of traditions. 

Full-Featured Word Processing 

Shrink-wrapped Unix applications are a 
goal of The Santa Cruz Operation. It is 
its packaging of Microsoft Word 5.0 that 
makes this a reality. As with any SCO- 
supported package, installation requires 
little more expertise than being able to 
find the floppy disk drive and knowing 
which way to insert the four disks. You 
do need to know what kind of printer you 
have. 

Microsoft Word's massive functional- 
ity is delivered in an easy-to-use style. 
Users at all levels will find it appropriate 
for writing the most complex as well as 
the simplest text files, memos, and even 
programs. If you wish, you can save your 
files as plain text files without any em- 
bedded formatting information. You can 
read and write to PC Microsoft Word 
files, allowing seamless interchange of 
files among the Unix, Macintosh, Win- 
dows, and DOS versions. 

Word provides you with on-line help, 



multicolumn page layout, style sheets, 
graphics importing, printer-font load- 
ing, mail merge, redlining, optional 
postponement of editing changes, hidden 
text, and sorting. (Take a breath here. 
. . .) There's also index generation, out- 
line generation and expansion, spread- 
sheet links, an interactive spelling 
checker and thesaurus, a built-in calcu- 
lator that you can apply to columns of 
numbers in your text, a macro-language 
processor that you can prime with cap- 
tured keystrokes, document management 
across multiple directories, and multiple 
windows on the same file or across sepa- 
rate files. 

Simple Escape-key sequences invoke 
most commands, but all are mapped to 
function keys and Alt keys for people 
who like to let their fingers jump all 
around the keyboard. But any Microsoft 
Word user is used to all these features. 

What is different is that this is a Unix 
application. Unix is very different from 
the MS-DOS, Microsoft Windows, and 
Macintosh environments. First, Unix is a 
multiuser operating system, meaning 
that there has to be a way to prevent more 
than one person from editing the same 
file at the same time; Word has file lock- 
ing. Each user must be able to have his or 
her own Word options environment; 
there is an mw. ini configuration file in 
each user's home directory, and a master 
file in Word's library directory. 

Unix application programs can make 
no assumptions about the user's display 
and keyboard. Unlike MS-DOS, the dis- 
play isn't limited to one of a predictable 
set. With Unix, there are as many dif- 
ferent displays as there are different 
printers. 

SCO has this problem pegged. If you 
are working at the console, the fit is 
flawless. Every function key, cursor mo- 
tion, and Alt-key combination is identi- 
cal to what you find on the PC version of 
Microsoft Word. Where there is a con- 
flict (e.g., SCO Unix uses an Alt/func- 
tion-key combination to switch between 
virtual terminals), standard Word key 
combinations are given precedence, but 
an alternate is given to the conflicting 
combination (in this case Control-Alt- 
function key). 

More amazingly, Word works as well 
on terminals as on the console; even the 
function keys and Alt keys are consis- 
tent. Word's method of selecting text 
(without a mouse) is Shift-arrow key. Al- 
though far from a common combination 
on character terminals, even this is im- 
plemented. 

With SCO's Microsoft Word for Unix 
you also get manuals, installation notes, 



DECEMBER 1990 -BYTE 209 



REVIEW 



Microsoft Word for Unix 



and other goodies (e.g., keyboard tem- 
plates) that are as good as what you get 
with the MS-DOS version of Word. You 
also have excellent (though not always 
timely) support from SCO where the 
technicians not only know Word, but are 
also experienced with Unix. 

What You Don't Get 

DOS users may be disappointed to find 
that the Learning Word program is miss- 
ing. Similarly, the preview function, 
which lets you see your page layout be- 
fore printing, isn't there. You also don't 
get mouse support or on-screen fonts. 

On the Unix side, there isn't much in- 
tegration with the Unix shell and utilities 
(a feature of emacs-type editors). Word 
doesn't follow many of the Unix tradi- 
tions, such as naming the initialization 
file something like .mswrc so it doesn't 
clutter up your home directory listing. 
You can get around this by changing an 
environment variable. 

You may also need to edit the termcap 
file (a description of terminals' attri- 
butes) to get Word to use color and differ- 
ent text modes (e.g., italic, bold, and un- 
derline). All these deficiencies are really 
minor whenyou put them up against what 
you do get. What is surprising is that this 
is not implemented as an Open Desktop 
application. Open Desktop is SCO's 
shrink-wrap Unix workstation software. 
It is basically an X Window System/Mo- 
tif environment with bundled applica- 
tions: networking, virtual MS-DOS ma- 
chine, and DBMS. 

What is lacking in Open Desktop is 
the rest of the office-automation soft- 



ware, primarily a word processor. What 
is lacking in Microsoft Word for Unix is 
a way to use the mouse and to display 
fonts, features that Open Desktop offers 
through Motif and X Window. 

Who Is It For? 

Microsoft Word for Unix is for those 386 
Unix users who want an easy-to-learn 
and feature-loaded word processor. 

I should add "easy to use" to the list. 
For instance, to save a file and quit with 
WordPerfect, you need to press F7 (bet- 
ter have your keyboard template or a 
good memory) and then a Y (for yes) to 
save the document. If the document al- 
ready exists, you need to confirm that 
you want to replace the existing file: an- 
other yes. This has only gotten you to the 
point of saving and closing that file. You 
still have to tell WordPerfect to go away: 
another yes. 

But with Microsoft Word, you press 
Escape (for the command menu) and Q 
(for quit). If you have unsaved changes, 
Word will ask ifyouwantto save them (Y 
for yes), but that is the only step that may 
come between you and returning to the 
Unix shell. Much simpler, and there is 
no magic key to remember. 

Now, compare Microsoft Word with 
the Unix vi editor. To cut and paste a 
block of text with vi, you must move to 
the top of the block and place a mark with 
a command like mt. You then move to the 
bottom of the block and yank the block to 
the unnamed buffer; the command is 
y ' t. Now move to the new position and 
"put" the buffer in with the command p . 
This amounts to six key presses for vi 



(not counting moving the cursor to the 
new point and problems with working 
with blocks that are only lines). 

With Microsoft Word, you position 
yourself at the beginning of the block and 
then hold the Shift key while you move to 
the end of the block. Having marked the 
block, you press either Escape and then 
C (for the command menu method for 
Copy— a two-key-press operation) or the 
Alt-F3 combination (P/2 keystrokes). 
Now you move to the new location and 
press the Insert key (one keystroke). 
Microsoft Word wins with 3Vi key- 
strokes; plus, you can see the block as 
you mark it. 

I prefer an emacs-style editor for my 
work at BYTE (I won't go into the riga- 
marole for copying blocks with emacs). 
My book publisher's editors, however, 
do all their editing with (you guessed it) 
Microsoft Word. So, for the sake of con- 
venience, I now use Word when I am 
writing for them. I don't have any com- 
plaints. In fact, I found Word much eas- 
ier to learn and use than WordPerfect 
(Word's biggest competitor). 

If you are already well established 
using Unix editors and formatting pro- 
grams, you probably won't be drawn to 
Word until it has better support for the 
Unix and/or X environment. But if you 
are running Unix on a 386 or 486 com- 
puter and want a real word processor, 
Microsoft Word is an excellent choice. ■ 

Ben Smith is a BYTE technical editor and 
author of Unix Step By Step (Howard 
Sams, 1990). He can be reached on BIX 
as "bensmith. " 





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210 BYTE* DECEMBER 1990 



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Circle 68 on Reader Service Card 



John Unger 



REVIEW 



Plug-and-Play Unix Machine 



The Dell Station 425E is a turnkey 
Unix system that Dell hopes will 
snare PC system users whoare mi- 
grating to Unix. Built around the com- 
pany's 486/25E Extended Industry Stan- 
dard Architecture (EISA) system, the 
Dell Station bundle includes Unix and 
applications software that together form 
a powerful integrated system. Dell clear- 
ly designed the 425E with first-time 
Unix users in mind, and the success of 
this design distinguishes the 425E from 
its competition. 

The Dell Station's $9687 base price 
looks steep until you consider what it 
buys. On the hardware end, the worksta- 
tion is a 25-MHz 486 EISA computer 
with 8 megabytes of RAM, a 5!4-inch 
1.2-MB or 3^-inch 1.4-MB floppy disk 
drive, a 15-millisecond, 100-MB Intelli- 
gent Drive Electronics (IDE) hard disk 
drive, and a 150-MB quarter-inch car- 
tridge tape drive. The system also in- 
cludes a Dell Super VGA color graphics 
adapter and an 800- by 600-pixel color 
monitor, a serial mouse, and an IBM En- 
hanced 101 -key keyboard. 

For software, the 425E includes a 
Dell-licensed version of Interactive Sys- 
tems' Unix System V 3.2, the X Window 
System, an easy-to-use X. Desktop iconic 
file manager environment, MS-DOS em- 
ulation, and a full suite of Uniplex Ad- 
vanced Office System applications run- 
ning in the X. Desktop environment. 
TCP/IP and Network File System soft- 
ware are optional. 

Dell installs the operating system and 
applications software on the hard disk 
drive, so all you have to do is connect the 
system components and turn on the pow- 
er. An easy-to-follow installation routine 
then takes you through the steps of set- 
ting the date and time, initializing user 
accounts, and making passwords for the 
administrative accounts. 

Inside the Station 

The Dell Station fits in a full-size IBM 
AT-type case. The components are laid 
out with three half-height bays on the 
right side, with two half-height bays be- 
side them. My review system had high- 
density 5*4 -inch and 3 ! /2-inch floppy 
disk drives in the top two right-hand bays 
and the tape drive in the bottom right- 
hand bay. Instead of the standard 100- 
MB IDE hard disk drive, the review sys- 
tem had an optional Micropolis 330-MB 
ESDI hard disk drive. The unit also in- 




The Dell Station 425E turnkey system smooths the road for new Unix users. 
Bundled software includes X. Desktop and the Uniplex II Plus Advanced Office 
System software. 



eluded an extra floppy disk drive, which 
brought the total price to $10,725. 

The computer has six EISA slots and 
two 16-bit ISA slots. The ESDI hard disk 
drive controller card and VGA color 
graphics adapter occupied the two 16-bit 
slots in my test machine, and two of the 
32-bit slots held 16-bit Ethernet and tape 
controller cards. The motherboard ac- 
cepts up to eight 1- or 2-MB single in- 
line memory modules, for a maximum of 
16 MB of 80-nanosecond RAM. 

The Super VGA graphics adapter and 
color monitor provide adequate detail for 
the icons and graphics on the X. Desktop 
interface, but Dell should have included 
a higher-resolution graphics option. The 
Interactive X port that Dell used as the 
basis for the operating system includes 
drivers for 8514 graphics as well as for 
hardware graphics accelerators. 

The motherboard integrates two serial 
ports and one parallel port. The Dell 
mouse (which is made by Logitech) 
plugs into one of the serial ports. For 
multiuser configurations, Dell furnishes 
serial port expansion boards to support 



up to 32 remote terminals over asynchro- 
nous lines. 

The Dell Station's cooling fan is one of 
the noisiest that I have come across in 
years. I had the system set up about 6 
inches from a wall, which may have en- 
hanced the sound, but you could tell 
when the computer was turned on from 
anywhere in the house. 

Big Software Bundle 

Dell Unix System V release 1.1 is a li- 
censed version of Interactive Systems' 
386/ix release 2.0.2, which is an imple- 
mentation of AT&T Unix System V 3.2. 
Dell has enhanced it to include new X 
drivers, an on-line manual, and several 
other features. The company has taken 
great pains to relieve the average user of 
ever having to deal with the nitty-gritty 
of Unix. 

The Dell Station 425E is designed to 
make it easy for non-Unix users to get 
started. You never have to learn the intri- 
cacies of grep, awk, or sed. The menu- 
driven sysadm program makes mundane 
system management relatively effortless. 

continued 
DECEMBER 1990 -BYTE 213 



Circle 205 on Reader Service Card (RESELLERS: 206) 



NO NOISE improves PC 
working environments. 

NO NOISE removes the constant humming 
noise which is a daily irritation to PC 
operators. 

It's not that the noise is high — it's more a 
matter of its constantly being there, from the 
moment you start up in the morning and until the 
office closes. 

Constantly — for hours on end — day in and 
day out. 

This noisecomesfrom the PC's cooling fan. 

The cooling fan is designed and constructed to 
function in air temperatures all the way up to 
110°-120° F. It always runs at maximum speed. 
This is where the constant noise arises. 
In our pad of the world, we no longer need to put 
up with this irritating noise — thanks to NO NOISE. 

How to stop the noise. 

NO NOISE gradually reduces the speed of the 
fan until it corresponds with the surrounding 
temperature and your PC's cooling requirement. 
The fan is practically soundless at temperatures 
from 70°-90° F. 




Built-in safety 

If a fault should occur, a built-in safety circuit in 
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NO NOISE suits all PC models. 

Thousands of units are already in use worldwide 
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NO NOISE is extremely simple to install; your 
customary PC dealer can provide you with further 
details and provide this service if required. NO 
NOISE comes with a five-year warranty and a 30- 
day trial. 

WHAT THE REVIEWS SAY 

"...it worked perfectly. ..noise level was 

dramatically reduced. " 

PERSONAL COMPUTER WORLD, U.K. 

"...NO NOISE worked exactly as advertised, 

reducing fan noise to nil. " 

BYTE, International Section, February 1990 

NO NOISE USA— NO NOISE UK— NO NOISE 
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(407) 220-0100. 

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Florida 34996. Tel: (407) 220-0100 Fax:(407)220-0101 

©NO NOISE 1990 



Plug-and-Play Unix Machine 




Dell Station 425E 

Company 

Dell Computer Corp. 
9505 Arboretum Blvd. 
Austin, TX 78759 
(800)274-3355 



Components (as reviewed) 

Processor: 25-MHz Intel i486; socket for 
Weitek 4167 math coprocessor 
Memory: 8 MB of SIMM RAM 
Mass storage: High-density 5 1 /4-inch 
and 3 1 /2-inch floppy disk drives; 330-MB 
ESDI hard disk drive; 150-MB internal 
cartridge tape drive 

Display: 14-inch Dell VGA color monitor; 
800- by 600-pixel Dell Super VGA adapter 
Keyboard: 101 -key IBM Enhanced layout 
I/O interfaces: Two serial ports; one 
parallel port; one thin Ethernet port 

Software 

Dell U nix System V 3.2 with the X Window 
System, X. Desktop interface, OSF/Motif 
window manager, VP/ix, Uniplex II Plus 
Advanced Office System version 7, Uniplex 
Advanced Graphics System, and Uniplex 
Windows 

Price 

$10,725 

Inquiry 1108. 



Another difficulty of making Unix a 
viable operating system for naive or inex- 
perienced users has been the absence of 
application programs that have a uniform 
interface. The Uniplex suite of business 
applications goes a long way toward over- 
coming this difficulty. Uniplex's soft- 
ware tools include a word processor, a 
spreadsheet, a database (Informix), 
presentation graphics, an appointment 
calendar, an E-mail system, and several 
other utility programs. All these pro- 
grams present you with the same general 
interface so that you have to learn only 
one basic set of keyboard and mouse 
actions. 

GUI and Text Interfaces 

The Dell Station offers two graphical 
user interfaces and a text-oriented user 
interface. When setting up a new user ac- 
count, the system administrator has the 
option of making that user's interface 
either a standard X GUI running an 
xterm window and xclock, or a special 
X environment with the OSF/Motif win- 
dow manager running X. Desktop and 
Uniplex. The latter is totally window- 
and icon-based and lets you perform nor- 



mal operations such as changing directo- 
ries, opening applications, viewing text 
files, and deleting files using the mouse. 
When you need to get into a Unix shell , 
you need only click on the desktop area 
to open a shell window. You can access 
three text-oriented, full-size Unix 
screens for use as standard log-in ses- 
sions. One of these screens is the logical 
Unix console that displays system mes- 
sages. 

The MS-DOS Connection 

Dell uses Interactive' s VP/ix to support 
MS-DOS applications. You can run DOS 
applications in two environments. While 
you're in the X. Desktop environment, 
you can open a monochrome, text-only 
DOS window, or switch to a different 
terminal session (by simultaneously 
holding down the Control, Alt, and Sysrq 
keys and pressing either Fl , F2, or F8) to 
use a full-screen window. After you log 
in, you can type run VP/ix to start a full- 
screen DOS window with complete en- 
hanced VGA support for graphics or text. 
You can switch back to the original X 
screen any time you like by simply hold- 
ing down Control, Alt, and Sysrq and 
then pressing F3. 

Running an MS-DOS session in a full- 
size VGA window offers excellent soft- 
ware compatibility. I ran Flight Simula- 
tor (to stress-test graphics compatibil- 
ity), WordPerfect 5.0, and Procomm, 
and I didn't experience any problems. 
You can run as many as three separate 
full-screen MS-DOS sessions and switch 
among them. 

The first DOS session that you start or 
DOS window that you open has control of 
the floppy disk drive (or drives). If you 
want to access the drive from another 
window or terminal, the original DOS 
session must release the device. 

MS-DOS can access and use Unix 
files, but DOS users must have at least 
Unix read access to those files. Unix 
filenames that are illegal under DOS are 
parsed to unique DOS filenames when 
listed with the DOS dir command. Also, 
the DOS copy command has switches to 
convert between Unix and DOS ASCII 
text files. (MS-DOS gives each line both 
carriage-return and linefeed characters; 
Unix, on the other hand, uses only a line- 
feed.) 

But Does It Perform? 

If you're accustomed to working on a 
computer with a windows-based inter- 
face, you'll be impressed with the Dell 
Station's performance. When you click 
on a window that's partially covered by 
other windows, it snaps to the top of the 



214 BYTE- DECEMBER 1990 



Is Windows 3.0 the 
end of DESQview? 

Not ifyou're still using 
DOS programs. 



Micros ott Project - Project! 



m 



■ File Edit View Table Filter Format Options 
Vyindow 



n r 




Lotus 1-2-3 Ret. 3 



Antocad 386 



I i tin: You have attempted to run a 
f .^. p role cted-m ode application in 386 enhanced 

I } mode. To run the application, exit and run 
9B tui— . — - using eithcr , he W}N /s or lhc van {f 



Error: You have attq — >*~^*-*- — — '^^■■nfl 
•|- protecfed-mode appi — ^^^^^^^^^^HiiialilUfiXflll^^^^^^^^^B 
I ) mode. To run the a 
■ Windows using eitH ,_^ Insufficient memory to run application; 

command. 1 

\ȣy close one or more applications to increase 
available memory and try again. 



I 



ill m ie| 

Aufa»aJ386lctuiV2-3Rel 3saFwd»«20 



iLili 



§ i m 

AUocad 386 DOS 



13 

iLohc.1 




Windows 3.0. The multitasking, windowing environment. 

Are you still using MS-DOS programs on your PC? 

You may want to use DESQview as your primary 
operating environment. 

The new DESQview 2.3 and DESQview 386 2.3 let you 
use your favorite DOS and DOS-extended programs in 
windows side-by-side on 80286, 80386 and i486 PCs. As 
you can see above, you can even run Windows programs 



DESQview 386 2.3. The multitasking, windowing environment. 

within DESQview 386. So the next time you get error 
messages like the ones at the left in Windows, remember 
how the same set of programs look running in DESQview. 

Whatever standard you use— DOS, extended DOS or 
Windows— DESQview is still the best way to get the most 
out of the hardware and software you own today 

DESQview. The obvious choice. 




Quarterdeck Office Systems, 150 Pico Boulevard, Santa Monica, CA 90405 (21 3) 392-9851 Fax: (213) 399-3802 

This comparison was made using a system like the one you might run: Both shots show an ALR FlexCachc 33/38h running DOS 3.3 with VGA display adaptor, 

Novell NetWare v3.01 Rev. A, with IPX/SPX v3.01 Rev A, Microsoft Mouse 7.00, and Microsoft SMARTDrive v3.03 disk cache. Buffers were set to 20. 

For the Windows screen, we ran Microsoft Windows 3 H1MEM.SYS and EMM386.SYS. For the DESQview screen, we ran QEMM 386 v5.I. 

TracLnuarks: Microsoft, Windows, MS-DO?, SD.TSb, i486, ALU, FlexCachc, Novell, NetWare. ©!*«) CJiurlmied ( tffice System* 

Circle 252 on Reader Service Card 



REVIEW 



Plug-and-Play Unix Machine 




UNIX BENCHMARKS 



< w<> 



PERFORMANCE SUMMARY 



Dell Station 425E 

AST Premium 486/33 
Tangent Model 425 
Everex Step 386/33 



0.9 


2.2 


1.4 


1.5 


1.1 


2.0 










































□. 



C Compiler L_J DC Arithmetic 



L_J Tower of Hanoi I I 



HIGH-LEVEL PERFORMANCE 



LOW-LEVEL PERFORMANCE 



Time Index 



C Compiler 
DC Arithmetic 

Tower of Hanoi 

(1 7-disk problem) 

System Loading 1 

1 concurrent background 
process 

2 concurrent background 
processes 

4 concurrent background 
processes 
' 8 concurrent background 
processes 



2.3 
0.3 
0.4 



0.9 
2.2 
1.4 



3.2 1.3 

4.2 1.4 

6.8 1.4 

11.6 1.5 



' Dhrystone 2 

(without registers; 
Dhry./sec.) 

Arithmetic 

(10,000 iterations) 
Arithmetic overhead 
Register 
Short 
Integer 
Long 
' Floating Point 
Double 



Time Index 



15625 1.1 



0.2 
3.1 
3.8 
3.1 
3.1 
6.1 
6.3 



3.6 
0.9 
0.9 
1.0 
1.0 
2.0 
2.1 



> 



9.0* 

10.1 

8.6 

6 



System Loading 



m 



Dhrystone 2 LE_J Floating Point 



Time Index 



Cumulative index is formed by summing the indexed performance results for C Compiler, DC Arithmetic, Tower of 
Hanoi, System Loading (with 8 concurrent background processes), Dhrystone 2. and Floating Point tests. 

System loading performed using Bourne shell scripts and Unix utilities. 

No.te: All times are in seconds unless otherwise specified. Figures were generated using the BYTE Unix benchmarks 
version 2.6. Indexes show relative performance; for all indexes, an Everex Step 386/33 running Xenix 2.3.1 = 1 . 
N/A = Not applicable. For a description of all the benchmarks, see "The BYTE Unix Benchmarks," March BYTE. 



Throughput 

System call overhead 
(5 x 4000 calls) 
Pipe throughput 
(read and write 2048- x 
(51 2-byte blocks) 
Pipe-based context switching 
(2 x 500 switches) 
Process creation (1 00 forks) 
Excel throughput (1 00 execs) 

Fllesystem throughput 

(1600 1024-byte blocks 
in Kbytes/sec.) 
Read 
Write 
Copy 



0.8 



0.8 

0.6 
0.5 
1.2 



1.4 



1.2 

1.0 
2.3 
2.8 



648 N/A 
364 N/A 
236 N/A 



stack instantly. When you drag or resize 
a window, it pops into its new size or lo- 
cation without hesitation. This instant 
visual feedback adds greatly to the qual- 
itative feeling of working with a high- 
performance computer. However, the 
speed is at least partially due to the fact 
that the Dell Station has to manage only a 
4-bit color plane with 800- by 600-pixel 
resolution. 

Overall, the Dell Station scored well 
against other i486-based machines that 
the BYTE Lab has tested. The Dell out- 
performed the Tangent Model 425 and 
Compaq Deskpro 486/25, and it ranked 
just behind the 33-MHz AST Research 
Premium 486/33 overall (for more on the 
comparison systems, see "486 EISA Ma- 
chines: A Slow Start in the Fast Lane," 
October BYTE, and "High-Performance 
486 ATs," November BYTE). The Dell 
Station's one weakpoint was its floating- 
point test scores, but it outperformed all 



three of its competitors on the Dhrystone 
2 tests. And none of the comparison ma- 
chines can compete in terms of price 
when you consider the Dell Station's 
bundled software. 

A PC in a Unix World 

In a world of RISC workstations, the 
Dell Station bucks the trend by combin- 
ing a state-of-the-art CISC-based hard- 
ware platform with its Unix. Dell has 
used this platform to run an X-based ver- 
sion of Unix that makes the system as 
user-friendly as possible. To that extent, 
Dell has succeeded, although some users 
may be disappointed with the graphics 
subsystem. 

Considering the wealth of software 
that the Dell Station includes, the price 
isn't bad. The new Sun SPARCstation 
IPC, which retails at just under $10,000, 
is a similar hardware package, but it 
lacks an OSF/Motif-type interface— at 



least until the next release of SunOS 
Unix— and it includes no applications 
software (BYTE will review the SPARC- 
station IPC in an upcoming issue). With 
the addition of the optional Dell Station 
Partner Kit ($399), you can use MS-DOS 
PCs as X terminals networked to the Dell 
Station, and the cost per user for this sys- 
tem drops rapidly. 

The Dell Station isn't going to convert 
any engineering workstation users, but if 
you're new to Unix or you're recom- 
mending a Unix system for the people in 
your office, the Dell Station requires a 
lot less hand-holding than other Unix al- 
ternatives. And that should make every- 
one happy. ■ 

John Unger is a scientist working for the 
U.S. government in the Washington, 
D. C. , area. He does most of his work on 
a Sun-3. You can reach him on BIX as 
"junger. " 



216 BYTE- DECEMBER 1990 




A Tote-able that Outperforms the Desktops... 



— PC MAGAZINE, Sept. 1990 



This new generation PC is 
remarkable for the perfor- 
mance and the practicality it 
provides. The Brick is 
powerful enough for the most 
demanding applications, 
while its elegance, quietness 
and size make traditional 
PCs seem downright 
obtrusive by comparison. 

More Practical 
Than a Portable 

For multisite computing, the 
Brick offers an alternative to 
the usual trade-offs of laptops 
or multiple PC's. Just keep 
your preferred keyboard and 
full size monitor, plus 
power supply at your 
regular destinations 
and carry only the 8 
lb. Brick in between. 

Bricks are 
available with 
16 or 20 MHz 
386SX, 1-8 
MB of RAM, 



TIME IN SECONDS 
40 80 120 



H'li'iliFl'liUp 

i[-ir>i;ri-intii 

m. , .i;M»i' 33Z M'H^aM. , ,i ! ni 



WIJiffliHTi 



'.HWUHZE 



HJKVfcVWM'WWaH'.i; 



* Brick with 8 MB RAM. 212 MB HD. 
The lower number is better. 

Time to complete PC Magazine's 
full benchmark test set. 





a fast 44, 104 or 212 MB Conner 
or Teac IDE hard disk, and a 
387 coprocessor socket. A 
2,400 bps Hayes compatible 
modem is standard. 

The fast VGA graphics 
features up to 1024 x 768 non 
interlaced resolution with a full 
1 MB of video memory. 

Blazingly Fast 

Compared to published 
reports of all 386SX machines 
tested to date by PC Magazine 
and Byte, the Brick offers 
superior performance on the 
aggregate of system, video 
and hard disk 
benchmarks. 



Surprisingly 
Expandable 

The Brick is only about 

the size of a ream of 

copier paper, yet you 

can still add up to two ISA 

half cards internally. A 

docking port allows easy 

connection to our Docking 
Terminal, which instantly hooks 
up all cables and provides 
another 16-bit slot. 

Satisfaction 
Guaranteed 

All Ergo products have a 30 day, 
money back guarantee, a One 
Year Warranty, unlimited 800 
toll free support, and advanced 
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our 32-page free catalog. 

m, video ^*r* 

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$2,495 

Includes 

A 16 MHz Intel 386SX 

▲ 1MB RAM, Exp. to 8 MB 

▲ 44 MB hard disk 

▲ 1024x768 VGA 
A 2,400 bps modem 
A 3.5" 1.44 MB floppy 

A 16-bit half card exp. slot 

A Freight included 

$2,695 

with 101 Keyboard & 
12" Mono VGA Monitor 

$2,995 

with 101 Keyboard & 
14" Color VGA Monitor 



\ 



One Intercontinental Way, Peabody, MA 01960 
Tel: (508J 535-7510 Fax: (508) 535-7512 



O 
CT> 
CM 

> 

CD 



/ 



Circle 105 on Reader Service Card 



The Joneses. 





Check out the benchmarks. When it 
comes to speed, pure and simple, main- 
frames are no longer the main attraction 
Introducing the Everex STEP 486/33 
and STEP 486/25. Along with the STEP 
486/5, they give you desktop perform- 
ance that was previously unheard of. 

There are two reasons. The first, of course, is 
the 486™chip.The other is AMMA T , M Everex's 
proprietary Advanced Memory Management 
Architecture. 



STEP 486/33 

CRAY-X- MP/48 

IBM 3083 


34,000 Dhrystones (19,4 MIPS) 


17.857 Dhryslones 




16,G66Dhrys10nes 







AMMA uses "write-back" cache technology 
instead of the "write-through" technologies used 
in most PC's. The write-back cache was developed 
for mainframes. Everex was the 
pioneer in developing it for the PC. 
And in doing so, opened a whole new 
dimension in desktop performance. 
With AMMA, you can write directly to the 
STEP 486's cache in nearly all cases. With write- 
through techniques, on the other hand, you lose 
most of the performance benefit of the cache. 



♦Inquiries from outside the U.S. call 415-498-1111. EVER for Excellence is a registered trademark and Everex, STEP, STEP 486/.?, AMMA and PDS are trademarks of Everex Systems, Inc. 486 is a trademark of Intel Corp. 



And how to keep up 
with them. 








» i » hi v» : , 



i :" I" r >r t|it^-- ' ' / V >" i-7) ' r FT] 



That 5 s because write-through forces you to write 
to main memory much more often. And main 
memory is slower than the cache. 

This is especially important in 486 computing, 
where the CPU performs as many as four times the 
write operations as in 386. Which makes AMMA's 
write-back architecture, combined with the 486's 
embedded cache, a powerful combination indeed. 

But the STEP 486 machines give you more 
than just speed. They come with Programmable 
Drive Select. If your drive isn't listed on the set- 



up table, PDS™lets you custom-configure the BIOS. 
It's good for virtually any hard drive. 

What's more, all STEP systems come with a one- 
year extendable warranty and a one year renewable 
on-site service contract that also covers all Everex 
peripherals in the system. 

To find out more, call 1-800-334-4552* for the 
name of your nearest Authorized Everex Reseller— 
every one a high performance expert. 

Then you can let the Joneses try keeping up 
for a change. 



EVER tor Excellence' 



©1990 Everex Systems, Inc. For more information on how the above benchmarks were derived, please write the Everex Performance Test Center, 48431 Milmont Drive, Fremont, CA 94538. 

Circle 352 on Reader Service Card 



.; 



*&: 



f mm 



r- g^ 



C Speed 
C Portability 
C Flexibility 



dEASE 
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Code Base 4.2 



The "C Ubiwy for 

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Conpatlble vAth the data. Index and 
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Compatible 

As you directly use the data, index and memo files 
of dBASE HI through IV or Clipper, you can use 
Code Base 4.2 with any dBASE compatible product. 

Easy 

Consult examples in the 280 page user's guide as 
you interactively execute Code Base 4.2 routines 
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Make stand alone executable files as small as 14K. 
Code Base 4.2 executables are h to h the size of 
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Sequiter Software Inc. • P.O. Box 5659, Station L, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6C 4G 1 
Circle 279 on Reader Service Card 



Jon Udell 



REVIEW 



LAN Manager 2.0: 

A Force to Be Reckoned With 



Everybody loves a good horse race. 
In the realm of PC networking, 
that's just how industry watchers 
like to portray the contest between No- 
vell and Microsoft. Novell's NetWare, 
eight lengths ahead, suddenly finds 
Microsoft's LAN Manager thundering in 
hot pursuit. 

The battle for mind- and market-share 
won't end in a photo finish under the 
wire. But it will increasingly clarify an 
evolving vision of advanced network 
computing. Here are the essential ingre- 
dients of that vision: A network operating 
system should be easy to use and admin- 
ister, work smoothly with other kinds of 
networks, support distributed (client/ 
server) applications, run with blazing 
speed, exploit advanced hardware, pro- 
tect its resources with a rock-solid secu- 
rity system, and scale up gracefully from 
small to very large installations. 

LAN Manager's latest version, 2.0, 
scores well on all these fronts. Some of 
its new features, notably local security at 
the server and disk fault tolerance, match 
long-standing NetWare capabilities. 
Other features, such as limited multipro- 
cessor support and domainwide user ac- 
counts, break new ground. 

Read the Books First 

Five well-written manuals document the 
system. The installation process, while 
dead simple, requires choices that you 
can't intelligently make until you read 
the books and know the big picture. And 
make no mistake, it is a big picture. You 
will likely be working >with both OS/2 
and DOS machines. On the OS/2 side, 
you've got to consider which file system 
to use: the DOS-style file allocation table 
(FAT) or OS/2's High Performance File 
System. 

Any OS/2 system benefits from the 
standard features of HPFS: banded allo- 
cation, caching, B-tree directory lookup, 
and long filenames. But a LAN Manager 
server gets extra mileage out of HPFS; 
drive mirroring and duplexing require it. 
On a 386 machine, an alternate install- 
able file system called HPFS386 runs in 
native 32-bit mode. (A dual-processor 
version that runs HPFS386 and the net- 
work I/O subsystem on a dedicated pro- 
cessor should be available by the time 
you read this.) HPFS386 can distribute 



permissions for files throughout the file 
system, storing them in HPFS extended 
attributes rather than in a separate data- 
base file. That is the basis of local secu- 
rity, which enables you to protect the 
server's entire file system, not just the 
resources it shares with the network. As 
with a Unix machine, you log on for local 
access. 

Although it is possible to run a LAN 
Manager server on a FAT partition, I 
can't think of any good reason for doing 
so. For OS/2 workstations, it's another 
matter. If you're going to dual-boot DOS 
and OS/2, you'll need a FAT partition. 
Even so, savvy users will dedicate most 
of the disk to the superior HPFS. 

Next you've got to choose whether to 
make an OS/2 machine a workstation, a 
peer server, or a full-blown server. As 
you'd expect, memory requirements in- 
crease as you move up the ladder, from 3 
to 3.5 to 6 megabytes, respectively. I 
knew I wanted to make a 12-MB Compaq 
Systempro a server, but I erred in install- 
ing my second OS/2 system, a Dell 386/ 
25, as a workstation. The extra half- 
megabyte required for a peer server buys 
you more than a limited ability to share 
disk, printer, and other resources. A 
peer server can also be a backup domain 
controller. That means it keeps an auto- 
matically updated copy of the primary 
server's user accounts database. When I 
learned that, I promoted the Dell 386/25 
to a peer server, which meant removing 
and reinstalling the workstation soft- 
ware. Like I said, read the books first. 

The DOS Connection 

Since DOS is a much less complex beast 
than OS/2, it recovers more easily from a 
wrong choice. LAN Manager comes in 
two flavors for DOS: basic (big) and en- 
hanced (bigger). The basic version, a 
minimal MS-Network work-alike, can 
use the high-memory area (HMA— the 
first 64K bytes of extended memory) to 
shrink its memory footprint. With HI- 
MEM. DOS, the version of the HI- 
MEM. SYS driver that comes with LAN 
Manager, the basic workstation software 
used 69K bytes on a Gateway 386SX run- 
ning DOS 4.01. 

The enhanced version adds all the 
beef: resource browsing, messaging, the 
named-pipes protocol (required to ac- 



cess, for example, SQL Server), and 
queue manipulation. It can also use the 
HMA (and, in certain circumstances, 
EMS as well); with HIMEM.DOS in 
place, the enhanced version ate up 120K 
bytes on an Arche Legacy 386/33. 

The enhanced workstation offers to in- 
stall a Windows 3.0 driver. Presumably, 
you could run the basic version under 
Windows, but without the network sup- 
port for browsing available servers and 
queues and for receiving messages, it 
wouldn't buy you much. The enhanced 
version, on the other hand, dovetails 
nicely with Windows. You can use the 
File Manager to browse network drives, 
the Control Panel to locate and connect 
to network printers, and the Print Man- 
ager to monitor and control print queues. 
A utility called WinPopup receives and 
displays messages. You can also send out 
messages from within Windows; that's a 
convenience that the NetWare driver for 
Windows doesn't currently offer. 

Plumbing the Physical Layer 

LAN Manager 2.0 and NetWare 386 
handle network infrastructure— adapter 
drivers and protocols— in a similar way. 
LAN Manager's NDIS (the Microsoft/ 
3Com network driver interface specifi- 
cation) and NetWare 386's ODI (for open 
data-link interface) both do the same job: 
They separate hardware drivers from 
transport protocols. Network drivers 
used to be "monolithic": Adapter manu- 
facturers had to incorporate transport 
protocols in their driver software. With 
NDIS or ODI, driver writers need only 
conform to a generic transport-protocol 
interface— a simpler (though hardly triv- 
ial) task. Moreover, both interfaces sup- 
port two kinds of multiplexing. Different 
protocols can share an adapter so that, 
for example, LAN Manager's NetBEUI 
(the NetBIOS extended user interface) 
and TCP/IP can coexist on the same 
physical network. 

It works the other way, too— multiple 
adapters can share a protocol. In that 
case, the protocol spans two physical net- 
works. Just for fun, I converted my test 
LAN Manager network from a single 
Ethernet segment to two, joined at the 
Systempro server. With only four ma- 
chines, there was no reason to divide the 
cabling. However, it's a strategy that 
comes into play when managing large, 
congested networks. It took me 10 min- 
utes to add a second network adapter to 
the Systempro and to rearrange the ca- 
bles, and another 5 minutes to tell LAN 
Manager to "bind" the NetBEUI proto- 
col to the second adapter. 

In the two-segment configuration, all 



DECEMBER 1990 • B Y T E 221 



REVIEW 



LAN Manager 2.0: A Force to Be reckoned With 




LAN Manager 2.0 

Company 

Microsoft Corp. 
1 Microsoft Way 
Redmond, WA 98052 
(800)426-9400 
(206) 882-8080 



Hardware Needed 

Server: 286, 386, or 486 system with 

6 MB of RAM 

OS/2 workstation: 286, 386, or 486 

system with 3 MB of RAM and OS/2 1 .1 or 

higher 

OS/2 workstation with peer service: 286, 

386, or 486 system with 3.5 MB 

of RAM 

DOS basic workstation: 8086 or higher 

system with 640K bytes of RAM 

DOS enhanced workstation: 8086 or 

higher system with 640K bytes of RAM; 

extended or expanded memory 

recommended 

Software Needed 

Server and workstation with peer service: 
OS/2 1 .2 Standard Edition (CSD XR04053) 
or higher 
DOS workstation: DOS 3.1 or higher 

Price 

Five-user license: $995 
Additional 10-user license: $995 

Inquiry 1065. 



workstations communicated with the 
common server and vice versa. But they 
couldn't all talk to each other. LAN 
Manager 2.0 doesn't permit a machine 
on one physical network to communicate 
directly with a machine on the other. 
That's something that third parties will 
have to provide. 

More interesting than multiple adapt- 
ers, though, is the notion of multiple pro- 
tocols. Users increasingly want Macs, 
PCs, Unix workstations, and Digital 
Equipment and IBM hosts to be plug- 
and-play. Each of these cultures relies on 
deeply entrenched network protocols. 
Microsoft's NDIS, like Novell's ODI, is 
an architecture that enables a network to 
participate in several cultures at once. 
However, the core LAN Manager 2.0 
doesn't capitalize on that opportunity. 
Just as NetWare 386 ships only with its 
native IPX protocol, LAN Manager 2.0 
ships only with its native NetBEUI. For 
now you'll have to look elsewhere— most 
likely to 3Com— for the extra pieces you 
need to connect a LAN Manager network 
to a Macintosh or Unix network. 

LAN Manager workstations, like 



servers, bind one or more protocols to 
one or more adapters at run time. That 
means a LAN Manager OS/2 or DOS 
(enhanced) client can fit cleanly into a 
heterogeneous environment. (Although 
NetWare 286 clients are monolithic, Net- 
Ware 386 clients can also multiplex pro- 
tocols by means of ODI.) 

In general, it's a snap to install and re- 
arrange NDIS drivers. My only gripe is 
that there's no sanity-check utility like 
Unix's ping or NetWare's comcheck. I 
always like to test out basic connections 
before layering on a lot of network soft- 
ware. But when I encountered a faulty 
adapter configuration, I didn't discover 
the problem until the domainwide secu- 
rity system failed to initialize. 

Locking the Gate 

Under LAN Manager 1.x, you could 
walk up to a server, toggle from the LAN 
Manager session to an OS/2 command 
window, and proceed to snoop around in 
the server's file system. People rightly 
complained about that, and version 2.0 
solves the problem— with a vengeance. 

When you install a 2.0 server on a 386 
system, you can opt for local security. I 
did that, and when the server booted, 
it prompted me for the administrator's 
name and password. I typed "admin" 
and "password" per the manual's direc- 
tions but failed to gain administrative 
privileges. 

As I later discovered, the first batch of 
LAN Manager 2.0 disks were shipped 
with a password expiration date (a policy 
that has since changed), and mine had 
expired. The result was a convincing 
demonstration of local security— I was 
simply locked out of the file system. I 
couldn't even edit CONFIG.SYS to pre- 
vent the server software from starting. 
Not that that would have helped, since 
local security is intrinsic to the file sys- 
tem and doesn't depend on the network 
software. It looked as though I'd have to 
wipe the disk and start over. Although 
there was a workaround— one that Mi- 
crosoft supplied and would probably pre- 
fer I keep to myself— it's clear that the 
new LAN Manager has really battened 
down the hatches. 

Local security applies only to the 
server's console. From the network per- 
spective, server security comes in two 
flavors: share-level and user-level. 
Share-level security mimics MS-Net- 
work and PC-LAN networks, which can 
password-protect shared resources but 
can't specify levels of access by user. 
User-level security enables much more 
precise control. You can specify how 
each user (or group) can access each 



shared file, directory, print or serial de- 
vice queue, or named pipe. (While Net- 
Ware 386 also supports file-level per- 
missions, NetWare 286 does not.) When 
a server runs user-level security, it can 
also audit who does what with its shared 
resources. While it's more powerful and 
generally more desirable than share-level 
security, user-level security demands 
more administrative effort. In most cases 
it'll be worth the trouble, but it's handy 
to have the simpler, more open share-ori- 
ented method available as an option. 

Domains and Log-on Security 

A domain can weld a group of servers 
and workstations into a single adminis- 
trative unit. It sounds simple, and in a 
way it is, but you've got to work with the 
domainwide log-on security system for 
a while to sort through all its implica- 
tions. Domain-based security is option- 
al. Nothing prevents you from setting up 
a network with one or more stand-alone 
servers, each (as with NetWare) respon- 
sible for its own user accounts. In that 
case, however, each server accessible to 
a workstation has to maintain privileges 
for that user. Conversely, the user must 
supply a password each time he or she 
tries to attach to a shared resource. 

To activate domain security, you first 
name a primary domain controller and 
one or more backup domain controllers, 
join the controllers to a special group 
(called "servers"), and then start the 
netlogon service on each participating 
server. This makes sense even on a sin- 
gle-server network. Once the server vali- 
dates your log-on request, you're in. For 
the rest of that session, you can use any 
resource your permissions entitle you to 
use, no questions asked. 

The real purpose of domainwide secu- 
rity, of course, is to simplify multi- 
server administration. Within a domain, 
all servers running the netlogon service 
share identical copies of the user ac- 
counts database. The primary domain 
controller owns the master copy, which 
replicates automatically to the backups. 
Any domain controller can validate a 
log-on request, and, in fact, Microsoft 
recommends that you configure worksta- 
tions to prefer different domain control- 
lers to spread out the burden of log-on 
processing. 

This arrangement simplifies the net- 
work administrator's life, because a sin- 
gle accounts database governs all access 
to a pool of servers. Conversely, for 
users it means that a single log-on request 
will grant access to the pool of servers. If 
the primary controller should ever fail, 
you can promote a backup controller to 



222 BYTE- DECEMBER 1990 



PC-MOS 

The Multiuser DOS Platform 

For The '90s 



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But when you take a closer look, only one solu- 
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A Network Enhancer 

For affordable network expansion, PC-MOS 
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LAN Manager 2.0: A Force to Be Reckoned With 



take its place. 

What confused me at first was the dis- 
tinction between domains and log-on se- 
curity. Domains exist whether or not you 
run log-on security. When you start a 
workstation, it comes up in a "worksta- 
tion domain" and can see only the serv- 
ers in that domain. You might want to 
partition a large multiserver network into 
several such domains. 

Within each domain there can be 
stand-alone servers and/or domain con- 
trollers. Moreover, a single server can be 
both a stand-alone controller and a do- 
main controller at the same time. That's 
what happened when I set up the Dell 
386/25 (a peer server) as a backup con- 
troller. I kept thinking that the permis- 
sions I assigned in the domainwide ac- 
counts database would apply to resources 
that the Dell shared. But they didn't; I 
couldn't access the Dell system from 
other workstations. Eventually it 
dawned on me that the Dell wasn't run- 
ning the netlogon service. Peer servers 
can't run netlogon; only full servers 
can. Despite the fact that it was acting as 
a backup domain controller, the Dell 
needed its own accounts database to sup- 
port its role as a peer server. Unix LAN 
administrators routinely deal with these 
kinds of subtleties. But if you are used to 
simpler PC networks, the full implica- 
tions of LAN Manager 2.0's distributed 
security may take a while to sink in. 

Printer and Communication Queues 

One of NetWare 286 's more annoying 
peculiarities is that you have to define all 
your printer queues during installation. 



But with LAN Manager 2.0, as with its 
predecessors, that's not the case. It treats 
disk, printer, and serial-device resources 
in pretty much the same manner. You 
pick a share-name, specify its resource 
type, and assign the necessary permis- 
sions. Of course, before you can share a 
printer with the network, the printer first 
has to be installed locally— that is, its 
driver must be registered with the OS/2 
Print Manager. 

Printer queues integrate well with the 
messaging service. LAN Manager keeps 
you posted when a print job holds, re- 
sumes, or finishes, and when the printer 
goes off-line (which is most helpful). 
However, DOS workstations running the 
basic client service can't receive these 
helpful messages. They must monitor 
queues manually by means of the net 
print command. 

Communication queues enable OS/2 
workstations to share modems, scan- 
ners, and fax machines. For example, I 
installed a modem in the Systempro and 
shared it as NETMODEM. Using Hil- 
graeve's Hyper Access/5 for OS/2 on the 
Dell, I connected to the remote modem 
and logged onto BIX. You can also pool 
modems. For example, the protocol to 
share a pair of modems would be 

net share netmodem=coml: ,com2: 

at the server, and then, at the work- 
station, 

net use coml \ \server\netmodem 

LAN Manager searches the list of mo- 



dems and connects the client to the first 
available one. 

Distributed Computing 

Two LAN Manager features— remote 
administration and the netrun facility- 
hint at the remote processing capabilities 
that underlie LAN Manager. To remote- 
ly administer a server, you run net ad- 
min and set the focus to the remote tar- 
get. For example, once I granted admin- 
istrative privileges on the Systempro to 
the Dell's account, I was able to run net 
admin on the Dell, switch to the System- 
pro, and remotely add to its list of shared 
resources. 

Behind the scenes, the two machines 
establish an RPC (remote procedure 
call) session. In fact, many of the LAN 
Manager application programming inter- 
face calls take a server-name parameter 
that governs whether the function exe- 
cutes locally or remotely. While remote 
administration is a nice touch, what this 
really means is that any developer of 
LAN Manager-aware distributed soft- 
ware has a huge head start. Tools for 
building client/server applications are 
part of the basic fabric of the network op- 
erating system. 

The netrun service executes entire 
programs on the server. A named pipe 
connects the client's standard input and 
output handles to a proxy that executes on 
the server. It's a tad awkward to set up. 
On the server side, you've got to specify 
a runpath that lists directories containing 
programs that the client can run. The cli- 
ent has to use a directory on the server 
and then make that its current directory. 

continued 



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LAN Manager 2.0: A Force to Be Reckoned With 



LAN MANAGER 2.0 VERSUS NETWARE 



LAN Manager 2.0 
NetWare 386 
NetWare 286 



T 



X 



T 



1 
10 15 20 25 30 

Time (seconds) 



35 



T 
40 



45 



□ 



NETFIO read 



m 



NETFIO write 



Di- 



MB copy 



NetWare 386 holds a slight edge over LAN Manager 2 . 0, which more than doubles 
the performance of NetWare 286. The NETFIO test opens multiple files and performs 
seeks, reads, and writes in a pattern designed to simulate a typical database 
application. LAN Manager and NetWare 386 were tested on a Compaq Systempro 
running 32-bit NE3200 Ethernet; NetWare 286 was tested on an 8-MHz NEC 
PowerMate 286 running 16-bit Inter LAN Ethernet. A Gateway 20-MHz 386SX 
running DOS 4. 01 was used as the client machine. 



Even then, with only standard input and 
output to work with, you're limited to 
TTY-style batch processing. The netrun 
service is a stone ax in comparison to 
Unix's elegant X Window System. What 
is it good for? You might want to index 
piles of text at the server without clog- 
ging the wire with packets. More gener- 
ally, it's another reminder that OS/2— 
and, thus, LAN Manager— has the basic 
interprocess communications mecha- 
nisms needed to support distributed 
computing. 



Days of Reckoning 

Network consultants around the world 
are now subjecting LAN Manager to 
close scrutiny. No one I've spoken to 
doubts that version 2.0 deserves to play 
in the major leagues. It has the requisite 
performance (see the figure), security, 
and scalable architecture, along with 
strong support for heterogeneous net- 
working and distributed computing. 

The question is not whether LAN 
Manager 2.0 will succeed, but to what 
extent. The answer depends on a host of 



variables, including price, third-party 
support, and the relative fortunes of 
DOS, Windows, OS/2, and NetWare. 
Although price may not be the major 
concern of large-scale network purchas- 
ers, NetWare 386' s $7995 price tag has 
caused considerable sticker shock among 
smaller fry. A 25-node LAN Manager 
2.0 installation costs less than $3000 yet 
delivers many comparable features. 

To date, more database servers sup- 
port LAN Manager than NetWare. But 
although LAN Manager 2.0 and Net- 
Ware 386 servers are roughly compara- 
ble, their strengths differ on the client 
side. LAN Manager favors the OS/2 
workstation; NetWare favors DOS. Since 
OS/2 has yet to displace DOS on many 
desktops, chalk up a serious advantage 
for NetWare. I'm perversely optimistic 
about OS/2's future— version 2.0 is tan- 
talizingly close to displacing Windows 
on my everyday machine— but you can't 
ignore basic 640K-byte DOS machines. 
While we're waiting for client/server 
software to materialize, we have to keep 
doing our jobs. 

Still, the events of the last year or so 
have proved, once again, that you should 
never say never. DOS was never going to 
bust out of 640K bytes. Windows was 
never going succeed. NetWare would 
never be easy to install. Unix could never 
look good. Macs would never be cheap. I 
think I'll wait and see what next year 
holds for OS/2 and LAN Manager. ■ 

Jon Udell is a BYTE senior editor at large 
and administrator of the editorial LAN. 
He can be reached on BIX as "judell. " 



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226 BYTE- DECEMBER 1990 



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REVIEW 



A Digital "Quill" 

for Mac Video Displays 




Working with live composite video 
on a Mac II-class computer has 
never been easier. Many new Nu- 
Bus boards now display live video in a 
Mac window and copy a freeze-frame 
digital video image to a disk file. Unfor- 
tunately, video-oriented software has 
been slow in coming. One of the first to 
arrive is Data Translation's VideoQuill, 
a $495 program that lets you combine 



VideoQuill 1.0 

Company 

Data Translation, Inc. 
100 Locke Dr. 
Marlborough, MA 01 752 
(508)481-3700 



Hardware Needed 

Mac II family or SE/30 computer; 2 
MB of RAM ; color display (1 6- or 24- 
bit color preferred); hard disk 
drive; for work with video, a 
videographics board and 
interlaced monitor are required 

Software Needed 

System 6.0.3 or higher with 32-Bit 
QuickDraw 

Price 

$495 

Inquiry 1224. 




VideoQuill 
operating on a 
Mac Ilfx using a 
ColorCapture 2. 
display board. 
Note the heavy 
lines in the title 
bars for the Tools, 
Palette, and 
document window. 
These lines are 
2 pixels wide to 
reduce flicker on 
an interlaced 
display. 



text, graphics, and video for impressive 
presentations. 

VideoQuill uses outline fonts and a va- 
riety of special effects to render high- 
quality text painted with 16- or 24-bit 
colors. The software's real strengths, 
however, lie in working with live or cap- 
tured video. You can display high-qual- 
ity text over live video (video titling), or 
you can merge text and graphics with 
video (live or captured) for multimedia 
presentations. (To use VideoQuill with 
live video, you'll need a videographics 
board, such as Data Translation's Color- 
Capture 2.0, and an extra monitor.) 

Full-Spectrum Text and Color 

You'll get your best results from Video- 
Quill on 16- and 24-bit color displays. 
While VideoQuill functions in 8 bits, it's 
difficult to gauge how your work will 
look without using deeper displays. 
When you first create a VideoQuill doc- 
ument, a dialog box prompts you for the 
document's pixel depth (either 16 or 24 
bits, which can be independent of the dis- 
play's depth that you're working on), 
window size (using either the current dis- 
play's size or values that you type in), 
and the window' s position on the display. 
Inside the document window you design 
a layout composed of rectangles or text; 
VideoQuill doesn't provide tools to let 
you draw arcs or circles. The package's 
text quality and fine color control par- 
tially compensate for this shortcoming. 



The software's own set of outline fonts 
draws high-resolution text in type sizes of 
from 5 to 2000 points. Eighteen default 
sizes (ranging from 12 to 800 points) re- 
side in the Text menu; in this menu, an 
Other selection lets you enter values out- 
side of these sizes. You can rotate text 
either by clicking on a rotate tool and 
dragging the text string or by typing a de- 
gree value for the rotation angle in a dia- 
log box. The latter is handy for precision 
work. You can modify the text's kerning, 
leading, and word spacing. Using other 
tools, you can color and position drop 
shadows along the text. VideoQuill uses 
its own antialiasing algorithm to prevent 
ragged text by blending the character's 
colors with the background colors. 

VideoQuill works with outlines sup- 
plied by URW, a German type foundry, 
not Adobe Type 1 fonts. These outlines 
exist as separate files that you copy into a 
VideoQuill Fonts folder. Nine type- 
faces arrive in the standard package; 47 
additional typefaces cost $495. 

You can select color ranges for the cur- 
rent object (either text or a rectangle), 
and the background from the Palette 
menu's color palette. An object can have 
a single (flat) color, or if you use a range, 
a smooth blend from the starting to the 
ending hue. You can adjust the object's 
color transparency, and instead of a 
color, you can import an image into the 
object. For example, you might type the 
text string "sunset," select Picture from 
the Color menu, and choose a file that 
contains a scanned sunset image. The 
sunset appears within the text's outline. 

You can paste the Clipboard's contents 
in front of or behind the current object, 
move the current object a layer forward 
or backward, or bring the current object 
to the front or the rear. Unfortunately, 
VideoQuill lacks a grouping operation 
that would let you combine and treat a 
collection of objects as a whole. 

VideoQuill imports graphics and 
images in TIFF, PICT, or MacPaint for- 
mats. You use the Picture Box tool to 
select a point in the window and drag out 
a box outline with the mouse. Next, a 
Standard File dialog box prompts you for 
the image's filename. The software 
pastes a full-size image into the newly 
drawn box. You can also use the Clip- 
board to import images, but the other 
method offers more precise control over 
where and how much of an imported 
image shows in the window. You can im- 
port all of an image (by not drawing the 
box) or use a Hand tool to move the 
image until the desired portion appears 
in the box. You can also scale the image 
to fit the box and adjust its transparency. 

continued 
DECEMBER 1990 • B Y T E 229 




cAMPA 



5 



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Your Left Brain Needs Clipper. 

Organization is everything in business. The 
left side of your brain knows this. It wants order. 
Economy. Precision. All reasons your left brain 
appreciates Clipper 5.0, the premier application 
development system for PCs. 

An open architecture programming system, 
Clipper provides a flexible environment for devel- 
oping precisely the application you need, not a 
messy approximation. Its user-definable commands 
and functions let you configure the Clipper language 
for your exact requirements. Its compiler generates 
.EXE files for rapid execution and cost-free distrib- 
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logo and Clipper are registered trademarks of Nantucket Corporation. Other brand and product names are us 
registered trademarks of their respective holders. Entire contents copyright • 1990 NantuckelCorporation. 


397-5469 TELEX 650-2574125. Nantucket, the Nantucket 
ed for identification purposes only and may be trademarks or 



REVIEW 



Trial Run 

For my evaluation, I used two systems: a 
Mac Ilci with 4 megabytes of RAM, a 
SuperMac Spectrum/24 Series III board, 
and a 19-inch display; and a Mac Ilfx 
with 8 MB of RAM, an Apple 8*24 dis- 
play board, and an AppleColor 13-inch 
monitor. Both of these systems ran Sys- 
tem 6.0.5 software and had 80-MB hard 
disk drives. I used a Data Translation 
ColorCapture 2.0 videographics board to 
provide live video and capture 16-bit 
images. A RasterOps 364 video board 
captured 24-bit video images and pre- 
viewed the video output from the Color- 
Capture board. I installed these boards 
in the Mac Ilfx. My video source was a 
Pioneer VP-1000 laser disk player. 

The application operates in a 3-MB 
MultiFinder partition. This leaves little 
room for running anything other than 
VideoQuill on the Ilci, but applications 
that handle 16- and 24-bit data routinely 
require lots of memory. I managed to 
shoehorn MindWrite in with VideoQuill 
to see how well the latter coped with low- 
memory situations (and to write this re- 
view). VideoQuill did quite well operat- 
ing in a less-than-optimal partition size, 
and it popped up alerts warning of low 
memory without crashing. The applica- 
tion worked without a hitch on the Ilfx. 

VideoQuill helps you produce impres- 
sive documents and snazzy slides suit- 
able for presentations. However, the soft- 
ware's real purpose is to work with 
video. The video capabilities of the ap- 
plication worked flawlessly. For exam- 
ple, video is one of the "colors" you can 
pick for objects. When you use Video- 
Quill with a videographics board, the 
software substitutes live video for this 
object's color. VideoQuill accomplishes 
this by modifying bits in the object's 
alpha channel. The alpha channel modi- 
fies or describes an object's characteris- 
tics; in this case, it handles video con- 
trol. The channel is a bit in size for 16-bit 
color and a whole byte for 24-bit color. 

This feature provides some unique ef- 
fects. Since the background is an object, 
you can let it pass video except where text 
is present. This makes VideoQuill useful 
for video titling, but its capabilities don't 
end there. For example, you could type 
"TV" and select video for the text's 
color. A videographics board driving an 
interlaced monitor would show a colored 
background, with live video filling the T 
and V characters on the screen. Or you 
could make a business chart and draw a 
box in the corner that would pass the 
video. You retain this alpha channel in- 
formation when you save the window as a 
VideoQuill document. VideoQuill can 



REVIEW 



also export documents as either TIFF or 
PICT files. 

On the interlaced monitor I connected 
to the ColorCapture 2.0 board, text looked 
fine at every point size, and color blend- 
ing was superb. VideoQuill readily ac- 
cepted images that were captured by the 
RasterOps 364. Trying to let video bleed 
through areas of a scanned image proved 
to be a bit tricky using VideoQuill itself. 
First, using an image-manipulation ap- 
plication, such as PhotoMac or Photo- 
shop, I selected a color in the image to 
pass video and had the application strip 
out regions with that color. Then, after 
selecting the transparent background 
color option, I pasted the image into the 
VideoQuill document. Finally, I set the 
background to the video color. 

I found it easier to use Data Transla- 
tion's ColorCapture application bundled 
with the ColorCapture board to select a 
range of colors in the image and set the 
alpha channel bit. ColorCapture saves 
the image as a PICT file, and VideoQuill 
recognizes the alpha channel informa- 
tion once you import the file. For exam- 
ple, using a scanned autumn scene with 
blue sky and red-orange trees, it was easy 
to use ColorCapture' s color controls to 
set the alpha channel bit to pass video for 
the sky tones. When I pasted the image 
into VideoQuill, the trees appeared su- 
perimposed over live video. 

You can print VideoQuill documents, 
but only at screen resolution (i.e. , 72 dots 
per inch). When I printed from Video- 
Quill to a 300-dpi Tektronix Phaser color 
printer using the 6.0 LaserWriter driver, 
the output looked dark and muddy. I got 
better results by saving the document as a 
TIFF file, importing it into Photoshop, 
and printing. 

More Tools 

VideoQuill has some shortcomings. Cir- 
cle and arc tools would make for better 
layouts, and the lack of a grouping tool 
makes complicated designs difficult. It 
would also be nice to incorporate some of 
ColorCapture 's color controls that oper- 
ate on the alpha channel into VideoQuill. 
Despite these flaws, VideoQuill does 
work, and the results with video can be 
quite spectacular. It provides features 
not found in some presentation packages, 
and it breaks new ground working with 
the video medium. For those who have to 
work with video now, VideoQuill can 
help you pen a solution. ■ 

Tom Thompson is a BYTE senior editor at 
large with a B.S.E.E. degree from Mem- 
phis State University. He can be reached 
on BIX as lt tom_thompson. " 




& ■ 



5fl 



Your Right Brain Wants It! 

While your left brain duly notes the benefits of 
Clipper programming, the right half is wild about how 
you get them! Imagine a programming environment 
with no limits! The language can be easily extended 
with your own routines and you can even integrate 
code from other languages, like C and Assembler. 
You're always free to configure Clipper to suit your 
own programming style. 

Hey, let's say you want to read and write data in 
some format other than the .dbf structure Clipper 
already supports. It's no problem since Clipper 5.0 
sports a replaceable database driver, even allowing 
multiple drivers to be used concurrently in the same 
application! There's no end to the possibilities you can 
pursue with Clipper! 

Clipper's open architecture system will fire your 
imagination with unparalleled freedom. It's spray 
paint for a developer's mind. So, if you want your 
imagination to inspire your applications, indulge 
yourself with Clipper 5.0. It has everything you need 
and anything you'd want. 

dinner 5 

The Application Development Standard 

?1.3/390-7923 

Ask For Department-A 



m Nantucket 



Circle 198 on Reader Service Card 



Nantucket Corporation, 12555 West Jefferson Boulevard. Los Angeles. CA 90066. 213/390-7923 FAX: 213/397-5469 TELEX: 650-2574125. Nantucket, the Nantucket 
logo and Clipper are registered trademarks of Nantucket Corporation Other brand and product names are used tor identification purposes only and may be trademarks or 
registered trademarks oflheir respective holders. Entirecontenlscopyrighl 1990 NantucketCorporation. 




The joy of C-scape 



The C-scape™ Interface 
Management System is a flexible 
library of C functions for data entry 
and validation, menus, text editing, 
context-sensitive help, and windowing. 
C-scape's powerful Look & Feel™ 
Screen Designer lets you create full- 
featured screens and automatically 
generates complete C source code. 

C-scape includes easily modifiable high- 
level functions as well as primitives to 
construct new functions. Its object- 
oriented design helps you build more 
functional, more flexible, more portable, 
and more unique applications — and 
you'll have more fun doing it. 

The industry standout. Many 

thousands of software developers world- 
wide have turned to the pleasure of 

C-scape. The press agrees: 
"C-scape is by far the best. 



y^ 



. . A joy to use," wrote 
IEEE Computer. Major 
companies have selected C-scape as a 
standard for software development. 

C-scape's open architecture lets you use 
it with data base, graphics, or other C 
and + libraries. C-scape runs in text or 
graphics mode, so you can display text 
and graphics simultaneously. To port 
from DOS or OS/2 to UNIX, AIX, QNX, or 
VMS, just recompile. C-scape also 



Elegant graphics and text 

Graphics. Run in color in text or graphics mode. 
Read images from PCX files. 

Object-oriented architecture. Add custom 
features and create reusable code modules. C ++ 
compatible. 

Mouse support. Fully-integrated mouse support for 
menu selections, data entry fields, and to move and 
resize windows. 

Portability. Hardware independent code. Supports 
DOS, OS/2, UNIX, AIX, VMS, others. Autodetects 
Hercules, CGA, EGA, VGA. Supports Phar Lap and 
Rational DOS extenders. 

Text editing. Text editors with word wrap, block 
commands, and search and replace. 

Field flexibility. Masked, protected, marked, 
required, no-echo, and named fields with complete 
data validation. Time, date, money, pop-up list, and 
many more higher-level functions; create your own. 

Windows. Pop-up, tiled, bordered and exploding 
windows; size and numbers limited only by RAM. 

Menus. Pop-up, pull-down, 123-style, or slug menus; 
create your own. 

Context-sensitive help. Link help messages to 
individual screens or fields. Cross reference messages 
to create hypertext-like help. 

Code generation. Build any type of screen or form 
with the Look & Feel™ Screen Designer, test it, then 
automatically convert it to C code. 

Screen flexibility. Call screens from files at run 
time or link them in. Automatic vertical/horizontal 
scrolling. 

International support. Offices in Berlin, Germany, 
with an international network of technical companies 
providing local training, support and consulting. 



supports Phar Lap and Rational DOS 
extenders. 

Trial with a smile, c-scape is 

poweif ul, flexible, portable, and easy to 
try. Test C-scape for 30 days. It offers a 
thorough manual and function reference, 
sample programs with source code, and 
an optional screen designer and source 
i^ code generator. Oakland 
_ I yy7 provides access to a 24- 
J\\J hour BBS, telephone sei-vi- 
f v^ ces, and an international 
network of companies providing in- 
country support. No royalties, runtime 
licenses, runtime modules. After you 
register, you get complete libraiy source 
code at no extra cost. 

Call 800-233-3733 (617-491 -7311 in 
Massachusetts, 206-746-8767 in Washing- 
ton; see below for International). After 
the joy of C-scape, programming will 
never be the same. 

DOS, OS/2 (Borland and Microsoft 
support): with Look & Feci, $499; library 
only, $399; UNIX, etc. start at $999; 
prices include library source. Training 
in Cambridge and Seattle each month. 
Mastercard and Visa accepted. 



OAKLAND 



BY1290 

Oakland Group, Inc. 675 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139 USA. FAX: 617 868-4440. Oakland Group, GmbH. Alt Moabit 91-B, D-1000 Berlin 21, F.R.G. 
(030) 391 5045, FAX: (030) 393 4398. Oakland International Technical Network (training, support, consulting): Australia Noble Systems (02) 564-1200; Benelux TM 
Data (02159) 46814; Denmark Ravenholm (042) 887249; Austria-Germany-Switzerland ESM 07127/5244; Norway Ravenholm (02) 448855; Sweden Linsoft (013) 111588; 
U.K. Systemstar (0992) 500919. Photo by Jessica A. Boyatt; Kanji by Kaji Aso. Picture shows a C-scape program combining data entry with video images loaded from PCX 
files. C-scape and Look & Feel are trademarks of Oakland Group, Inc.; other trademarks belong to their respective companies. Copyright © 1 990, by Oakland Group, Inc. 
Features, prices, and terms subject to change. 

Circle 216 on Reader Service Card 



Rick Far r is 



REVIEW 



Unix and 1-2-3 




Spreadsheets are no longer the do- 
main of single-user personal com- 
puters. As personal computers ap- 
proach the throughput of workstations, 
many users are abandoning DOS for 
more powerful multiuser operating sys- 
tems. Lotus Development has noted this, 
and Lotus 1-2-3 for Unix System V is its 
solution. 

Lotus 1-2-3 for Unix System V is es- 
sentially a port of Lotus 1-2-3 release 
3.0, dressed up to take advantage of the 
multitasking, multiuser environment of 
Unix System V/386. 
The package consists of a user's guide, 




Lotus 1-2-3 

for Unix System V 

Company 

Lotus Development Corp. 
55 Cambridge Pkwy. 
Cambridge, MA 02142 
(617)577-8500 



Hardware Needed 

Compaq, IBM, or compatible 386 PC with 
4 MB of RAM and 5 MB of free disk space 

Software Needed 

System V 3.2 from SCO, AT&T, or 
Interactive, or SCO Xenix 2.3 

Price 

Single-user: $695 

10 users: $1295 

Four additional users: $495 

Inquiry 1148. 



Lotus 1-2-3 for 
Unix System V 
sports multiple 
views and 
graphics support. 



a reference manual, and six 1.2-mega- 
byte floppy disks. The documentation 
has the qualities normally associated 
with Lotus: clear and to the point. 

Installation under SCO Unix System 
V took only 20 minutes. Lotus took ad- 
vantage of SCO's custom installation 
program, which handles all the file ex- 
traction, copying, and permission setting 
necessary to build the Lotus directory hi- 
erarchy in the location of your choice. 

Will You Recognize It? 

Running 1-2-3 on the console of a com- 
puter running Unix System V/386 is 
much like running 1-2-3 release 3.0 
under DOS. VGA and EGA are sup- 
ported, with a choice of text resolutions 
ranging from 25 rows by 80 columns to 
60 by 80. Graphs are displayed on sup- 
ported adapters. 

One enhancement added for Unix Sys- 
tem V is the ability to simultaneously 
display up to 26 worksheets in perspec- 
tive mode. The number of worksheets to 
be displayed must be selected on the 
command line, though, so if you have al- 
ready started work and decide that you 
need to display more than the three de- 
fault worksheets, you must save your 
work, exit the program, and restart 1-2-3 
to use this feature. 

The familiar 1-2-3 command keys, 
such as "/" to bring up the menu bar and 
arrow keys to select items, are used, but 
combinations that would normally use 
the Alt or Control keys are implemented 
in a more portable way. For instance, 
moving from one sheet to the one above it 
is invoked with Control-PageUp in DOS 



and Control-A PageUp in Unix. Like- 
wise, the Alt-function keys are invoked 
by typing Control-F and then pressing 
the function key. This lets the same key- 
strokes work from a variety of input 
devices. 

I didn't run any exhaustive perfor- 
mance tests, but a macro that took 13 
seconds to run under DOS (on a 25-MHz 
386, with no 80387) executed in 29 sec- 
onds on an identical Unix machine under 
a fairly heavy multiuser load. 

Running 1-2-3 from a remote com- 
puter is more of an adventure. Except in 
special circumstances (as with the Sun- 
River Fiber Optic Station), graphics are 
not supported; therefore, you cannot dis- 
play graphs. In addition, since terminal 
keyboards rarely match PC keyboards, 
an adjustment is necessary in the com- 
mand keys. For instance, the command 
to move to cell A 1 on the first spread- 
sheet is normally Control-Home; on a 
Wyse WY-50 terminal, the command se- 
quence is Control-A PF2 7 (7 is the PC 
numeric keypad key for Home). 

Working Together 

Lotus 1-2-3 for System V can retrieve 
any file on your Unix network that you 
normally have permission to access. 
Since worksheets can be saved in both 
.WK3 and .WK1 formats, it is possible 
to have a central repository of work- 
sheets for all the users on the network, 
both DOS and Unix. 

An important point, however, is that 
file locking is available only for files on 
the machine 1-2-3 is running on. File 
locking across the network is not sup- 
ported from within 1-2-3. It is a good 
idea to store worksheets on the 1-2-3 
server to avoid the loss of information 
caused by two users updating the same 
worksheet at the same time. 

Lotus 1-2-3 for System V is licensed 
for one CPU: This means that to access 
1-2-3, you must log onto the licensed 
computer. Note that this is distinctly dif- 
ferent from a file-server license, where 
the executable code is actually running 
on your local machine. 

Lotus 1-2-3 for Unix System V pro- 
vides the industry-standard spreadsheet 
to users of Unix System V for the PC. It 
extends the base 1-2-3 release 3.0 prod- 
uct with features suited to Unix-style net- 
working, and it can even be run from 
ASCII terminals. It tries hard to preserve 
the look and feel of the DOS version of 
1-2-3, and it largely succeeds. ■ 

Rick Farris is a principal at RF Engineer- 
ing, a custom software house. He can be 
reached on BlXc/o "editors. " 



DECEMBER 1990 • B Y T E 233 




makesrne 




The 4167's 10 MFLOPS performance delivers 3X the speed of the 486! 

The new Weitek 4167 coprocessor outperforms the 486 by 3 to 1 in numeric processing. Capable of 10 
MFLOPS, the 4167 has sockets in some of the most sophisticated 486 systems on the market, including 
Compaq, Intel, Hewlett-Packard, and Microway. The 4167 is object-code compatible with the WEITEK 3167 
FPU and Microway's mW3167-PS add-in card for the MicroChannel— offering easy access to a broad base of 
existing CAD/CAM, scientific and engineering applications like Mathematica, CADKEY, HOOPS and 
Microway's NDP compilers. And look for 4167 support on upcoming products from Autodesk! 




Number Smasher -486 converts 

your old AT or 386 into a powerful 486 
workstation. In a review of 25 MHz 486 
motherboards, Mike George of Personal 
Workstation magazine wrote, "Microway's 
Number Smasher-486 gives you top 486 
numeric performance for the best 
price...Number Smasher's numeric perfor- 
mance exceeds that of all 25 MHz 486 
systems we've tested to date." Running the 
Microway Benchmark Suite, the 
4167-equipped Number Smasher-486 achieves 
11.9 MegaWhetstones. The board features a 

Burst Bus™ memory interface that makes it stand out in numeric 
problems that involve large arrays. Burst cycle response in a 486 
system is much more important than second level caches, which 

are usually too small to be of any use on the 
r. *=-*-...__ J . megabyte arrays found in real world 

problems. 

The ideal solution for numerically or I/O 

intensive applications is Microway's new 
Number Smasher-486/33T workstation. Two 
configurations are available, each incor- 
porating state-of-the-art power and cooling 
with 300 to 600 megabyte drives. 




For more information, please call 508-746-7341. 



Microway 



® 



The World Leader in PC Numerics 

Circle 189 on Reader Service Card (RESELLERS: 190) 

Corporate Headquarters, Research Park, Box 79, Kingston, MA 02364 
TEL. 508-746-7341 • FAX 508-746-4678 

U.K. - 32 High St., Kingston-Upon-Thames, 081-541-5466 • Italy 02-74.90.749 
Holland 40 836455 • Norway 9 876656 • Japan 81 3 222 0544 



NDP Fortran-486, NDP 
0486 and NDP C++ are 

your keys to unlocking the power 
of the 4167. Each compiler 
generates globally optimized, main- 
frame quality code and has special 
features that take advantage of the 
4167, such as register caching, loop 
unrolling and automatic inlining of 
small procedures. These optimiza- 
tions are handed off to a code 
generator that is tuned for the 
4167, and takes advantage of its ad- 
vanced instructions like multiply 
accumulate. In addition, the 486 
versions of NDP Fortran, C++ and 
C properly sequence 486 and 4167 
instructions so that the 486's 
prefetch queue has time to 
"breathe." NDP compilers are also 
available for the 386SX, 386 and 
i860 under DOS, UNIX, XENIX 
and SunOS. Thousands of 
Microway's satisfied customers have 
discovered that you can't buy a bet- 
ter scientific Fortran or C compiler. 
And our technical support is the 
best in the industry. 



NDP C-486 



'Mm? 

NDP Fortran-486 VmCky 



I Micro 
Way 



HARDWARE 



Stan Miastkowski 



REVIEW 



A "More Filling" Generation 
of Tape Backup 

■ 




You've heard it all before: If you 
want to avoid despair, back up the 
data on your hard disk drive. How- 
ever, as standard hard disk drive capaci- 
ties break the 100-megabyte barrier, the 
backup process becomes more and more 
of a chore. Backup is especially painful 
if you're using floppy disks; soon you be- 
gin to feel like a high-tech short-order 
cook, flipping disks like so many thin 
black pancakes. 

A tape backup unit is the obvious 
answer. No disk flipping, no piles of ill- 
marked floppy disks. You can start the 
backup and partake of another cup of 
coffee, or schedule the backup to start 
automatically at a predetermined time. 
TBUs aren't exactly new, but in keeping 



Coretape Light 
(left) and the 
Jumbo 250 up the 
ante of tape 
capacity for 
today 's mega- 
megabyte hard 
disk drives. 



with hard disk trends, the latest genera- 
tion of QIC-80 (quarter-inch cartridge) 
TBUs offer higher capacities. I tested 
two of the new incarnation: the Jumbo 
250 from Colorado Memory Systems and 
Coretape Light from Core International. 
Both units use varying forms of data 
compression to pack lots of bits on a tiny 
tape. As its name implies, the Jumbo 250 
fits up to 250 MB of data on a DC-2120 
tape; Coretape Light fits up to 300 MB 
on the same cartridge size. (Without 
compression, DC-2120 tapes hold a max- 
imum of 120 MB.) 

QIC Developer 

Colorado Memory Systems isn't new to 
the backup game; nearly a decade ago, it 



Jumbo 250 

Company 

Colorado Memory Systems, Inc. 
800SouthTaftAve. 
Loveland, CO 80537 
(303) 669-8000 

Hardware Needed 

IBM AT, PS/2, or compatible 

Price 

$499; controller, $129.95; controller with 
hardware compression, $299.95; controller 
with hardware compression for Micro 
Channel systems, $399.95 

Inquiry 1105. 



Coretape Light 

Company 

Core International 
7171 North Federal Hwy. 
Boca Raton, FL 33487 
(407) 997-6055 

Hardware Needed 

IBM AT, PS/2, or compatible 

Price 

$545 

Inquiry 1106. 




was instrumental in developing the QIC 
standard that nearly all TBUs use. The 
Jumbo 250 ($499), like its predecessors, 
is a well-built unit that stands up to hard 
daily use. In its basic configuration, it 
mounts in a half-height drive bay and 
hooks up to your system's floppy disk 
drive controller as the second drive. But 
that limits you to the maximum 500,000- 
bps data transfer rate of an AT floppy 
disk (250,000 bps with a PC). 

An optional $129.95 add-in board 
boosts the data transfer rate to 1 megabit 
per second (500,000 bps on a PC). The 
controller also lets you use a second flop- 
py disk drive or mount the Jumbo 250 in 
an external enclosure that you can easily 
transport from system to system. 

More interesting is the top-of-the-line 
"jumperless" board that I tested with the 
Jumbo 250 (this board isn't available for 
XTs— only ATs, PS/2s, and compat- 
ibles). In addition to the high-speed con- 
troller, it includes hardware data com- 
pression using the proprietary STAC 
chip. At $299.95 ($399.95 for the Micro 
Channel version), it's not exactly a low- 
cost option, but it's a boon for the truly 
hurried. Without the add-in board, the 
Jumbo 250 still offers data compression, 
albeit in a software version, whose speed 
is highly dependent on the speed of your 
system' s processor. 

The Jumbo 250 is easy to install. I just 
slid it into a free drive bay, plugged in 
the 16-bit add-in compression board, 
connected power to both using an in- 
cluded Y-adapter, and hooked a cable 
between them. 

The automatic software installation is 
a revelation, especially when you're in- 
stalling one of the add-in boards. The 
utility checks your system and sets the 
jumperless board for interrupt, DMA 
channels (two are needed with the com- 
pression board), and I/O base address. It 
saves lots of hair-tearing, but it's not 
foolproof, nor did I expect it to be. 

After I installed the Jumbo 250 and at- 
tempted to start a backup, the software 
kept telling me that I didn't have a tape 
unit installed. I finally figured out that 
the culprit was my Microsoft Bus Mouse, 
which was using the same interrupt as 
the tape board. (Since the mouse wasn't 
moving, the automatic installation utility 
didn't "see" it.) I moved a jumper on the 
mouse board, and everything was fine. 

Trendy TBU 

I cringed slightly when I found that Core 
planted the Coretape Light moniker on its 
$545 TBU; it sounds just a tad too trendy 
for me. Coretape Light accommodates a 
slide-in mount in a free drive bay. Core 



DECEMBER 1990 -BYTE 235 



A "More Filling" Generation of Tape Backup 



Jumbo 250 

With optional controller, 
hardware compression on 

With optional controller, 
hardware compression off 

Without optional controller, 
software compression on 

Without optional controller, 
software compression off 

Coretape Light 

Full software compression 

No compression 



BACKUP AND RESTORE TIMES 



< Better 



RESTORE 



Worse ► 



I 



i 



~r 



5 10 15 

Time (minutes) 



1 1 

20 10 20 30 

Time (minutes) 



40 



The compression scheme used by the Jumbo 250 sped up most processes. All tests were run on a 20-MHz 386-based 
AT clone using a Quantum 1 7 OS SCSI hard disk drive hooked up to a DPT 4-Mbps SmartConnex controller. 
Logical drive D (containing 31.3 MB of data) was used in all cases. 



Harvard Graphics 

And The HP LaserJet III 




Very Exciting Presentation 



REVIEW 



A "More Filling" Generation of Tape Backup 



also offers an $89 controller (not re- 
viewed) that lets you run a second floppy 
disk drive or mount Coretape Light as an 
external drive. Even with the optional 
controller, Coretape Light is limited to 
the slower data transfer speed of the AT 
floppy disk drive controller. Coretape 
Light is even more of a snap than the 
Jumbo 250 to install. You slide it in, plug 
in power and the second floppy disk drive 
connector, and install the software. 

Both the Jumbo 250 and Coretape 
Light offer extensive software options. 
There are the usual options for format- 
ting blank tape (since it takes about an 
hour, most tapes come preformatted), 
verifying tape usability, and choosing 
full or partial backups. Coretape Light's 
software offers a few more choices, in- 
cluding an exhaustive test of a blank tape 
and a "Retension" procedure that re- 
adjusts the tension of a new cartridge or 
one that's been in storage for a long time. 

Both TBUs also have unattended back- 
up options— TSR programs that will per- 
form backups at the time you determine. 
It's a handy option that lets your com- 
puter (instead of you) work overtime to 
do the backup. I set my system to back up 



my new data daily at 2 a.m., with a full 
backup once a week. Unattended back- 
ups are a great way to make sure the job 
gets done (of course, you have to remem- 
ber to put the tape in the drive). 

I've always thought that comparing 
backup operation speeds isn't a valuable 
exercise since you "set and forget" it 
while you're away from your computer. 
A couple of minutes one way or the other 
really isn't a big deal. But for compari- 
son, I timed the backup and restore oper- 
ations of both drives with and without 
their various options (see the figure). As 
the results show, the Jumbo 250 with the 
hardware compression board (and com- 
pression on) actually speeds up the back- 
up process. Software compression is 
much slower, simply because it has to 
steal cycles from your system's proces- 
sor. But the Jumbo 250's software com- 
pression is still quite fast. 

No matter how you set things up, a re- 
store operation takes considerably longer 
than the backup. Coretape Light has a 
large edge in locating an individual file 
on a tape, using something called Rapid 
Random Restore. With the Jumbo 250, I 
restored a single file from the middle of a 



backup in 2 minutes, 25 seconds; Core- 
tape Light restored the same file in only 
24 seconds, or about five times faster. 

QIC Pick 

Both of the basic drive units are well con- 
structed, and the slightly higher price of 
Coretape Light reflects its ability to fit 
more bits on a tape. It also has a glass- 
ferrite record/read head that should hold 
up longer than the conventional head 
used in the Jumbo 250. For versatility, 
the Jumbo 250 is a better choice, espe- 
cially if you have a free slot that you can 
use to take advantage of the higher 
throughput and/or hardware compres- 
sion. 

In this world of gee-whiz computer 
technology, TBUs are often-neglected, 
albeit necessary, peripherals. To me, the 
ability to pack up to 300 MB on a tape 
that's smaller than a pack of playing 
cards is wondrous indeed. 

It's 2 a.m. Do you know where your 
data is? ■ 

Stan Miastkowski is the BYTE senior edi- 
tor for new products. He can be reached 
on BIX as "stanm." 







Harvard Graphics 2.3 from Software Publishing Corporation brings 

new dimensions to presentation graphics. The Hewlett-Packard LaserJet III printer 

writes a new chapter in printing history. 

Put them together and your presentation becomes a 

major event. 

Harvard Graphics is packed with easy-to-use new features 

that will dazzle your audience— like a gallery of pre-designed 

charts and DrawPartner™ an integrated advanced drawing package. 

The HP LaserJet III has raised the standard of printing excellence 

with HP's exclusive Resolution Enhancement technology. Your graphics will look unusually 

sharp— better than ever before. 

With Harvard Graphics and the HP LaserJet III, your next presentation is certain to be 

well attended. And well received. n . . ooxr D . c . n . 

Circle 286 on Reader Service Card 




Harvard Graphics 2.3 



- cV% 



El 



' AAV 



CDT^SOFTWARE 

OXV»PUBLISHING 



Harvard Graphics and DrawPartner are trademarks of Software Publishing Corporation. HP LaserJet III is a product of Hewlett-Packard. 
© 1990 Software Publishing Corporation, 190! Landings Drive. Mountain View, CA 94039-7210 



New From Northgate 

20 MHz Ib^red Up 



••• 




Colormonilorshounavailablc: 



yes, we're a bit late to the party 
with SX systems. How come? 
We just couldn't bring ourselves 
to market another ho-hum SX. 

So we put our research and 
development team on it. Boy, 

did they rise to the challenge! Now 
you can get an SX 16 or 20 MHz 
machine with the power to run 
Microsoft® Windows™ and other 32-bit 
software at flashing cache-enhanced 
speeds. And, they packaged all this 
power and performance into our 



exclusive space-saving case— a 
favorite of Northgate customers! 

The secret to SlimLine's 
space-saving design? A fully 
integrated motherboard designed and 
manufactured by Northgate! This 
design reduces bus load — makes 
the system faster and more reliable! 

Motherboard features include a 
built-in VGA adapter (with 256K 
video RAM), one parallel and two serial 
ports, fully integrated floppy disk 



controller and IDE hard drive 
controller. Motherboard integration 
also makes it easier to install 
modems and add-on cards. 

SlimLine's triple cache boosts 
performance to zero wait state! 

You get a built-in 64K memory 
SRAM cache to accelerate the 
execution of instructions; PLUS, 
hard drive caching to accelerate I/O 
transactions; and disk caching 
software to speed data to and from 
the CPU! 



238 BYTE- DECEMBER 1990 



Slimline 386SX 16 Or 
With64KCache! 

Plus! Northgate pumps up trial offer. . . now use 
SlimLine SX for 60-days RISK-FREE! 



*W Tnbeatable service! Your 
m I SlimLine 386SX is backed by 
\^s toll-free technical support, 
24 hours-a-day, 7 days-a-week. PLUS, 
FREE on-site service to most locations 
for one year if we can't solve your 
problems over the phone. And if you 
ever need a replacement part, we'll 
ship it overnight — at our expense — 
before you return your part. 



PC Magazine* says: 
". . . Northgate stops 
at nothing to please 
its customers " 



Of course, you also get Northgates 
full-year warranty on parts; five years 
on the OmniKey® keyboard. It's no 



SlimLine 386SX VGA Monochrome System Features: 






16or20MHzIntel®80386SX 
processor 

1Mb of 32-bit DRAM (expandable to 
8Mb on motherboard — 16Mb using 
1 6-bit memory boards) 

Down-scaled, U.S.-made motherboard 

40Mb IDE hard drive; AT bus 
interface; 1:1 interleave; DisCache: 
32K look ahead disk caching; 
19ms access 

64K SRAM memory cache; 
read/write-back caching 

High density 1.2Mb 5.25" and 1.44Mb 
3.5" floppy drives; also read/write low 
density disks 

Five open expansion slots; three full 
length 16-bit and two half length 8-bit 

16 or 20MHz 80387SX and Weitek 
coprocessor support 

One parallel and two serial ports 

Built-in 16-bit SVGA with up to 1024 x 
768 resolution; 256K video memory 



Clock/calendar chip rated at 5 years 

100 watt power supply 

Small footprint SlimLine case with 
room for two exposed and one internal 
half -height devices 

Front mounted system reset and 
high/low speed controls 

Exclusive Northgate OnmiKey keyboard 

12" VGA monochrome monitor 

MS-DOS 4.01 and GW-BASIC 
software installed 

On-line User's Guide to the system and 
MS-DOS 4.01 

QA Plus diagnostic and utility 
software 

Smartdrive disk caching software 

1 year warranty on system parts and 
labor; 5 years on keyboard 

FCC Class B Certified 

Other configurations available, just ask! 



wonder PC Magazitie reported: 
"If you're looking for the subjective 
winner for customer loyalty, 
Northgate takes first prize."* 

Now use SlimLine for 60-days — 
Risk Free! It wont take you 60 
days to recognize the excellent quality 
of SlimLine SX. But we don't want to 
rush you. Take your time putting 
SlimLine to the test. If you aren't 
completely satisfied after 60 days, you 
can return it. Northgate guarantees 
your satisfaction. Order Today! 



16 MHz 
System 



20 MHz 
System 



1999 
2199 



00 



00 



Delivered to your home or office. 

Call for other configurations and pricing. 



EASY FINANCING: Easy payment options. 
Use your Northgate Big 'NT, VISA, MasterCard ... 
or lease i t . U p t o five-year terms available. 

GALL TOLL-FREE 24 HOURS EVERY DAY 

800-548-1993 

New...FAX your OAA ^/YJ 71 00 
order toll-free! OUU" OLO'I lOL 

Notice to the Hearing Impaired: Northgate has 
TDD capability. Dial 800-535-0602. 

NORTHGATE 
COMPUTER 
SYSTEMS 

7075 Flying Cloud Drive, Eden Prairie, MN 55344 



/" 



' PC Afagazin cScpi. 25, 1990. ©Copyright Northgate Computer Systems, Inc. 1990. All rights reserved. Northgate, OmniKty and the Northgate 'NT logo are registered trademarks of Northgate Computer Systems. 80386 and 80486 are trademarks of Intel. 
All other products and brand names are trademarks and registered trademarks of their respective companies. Prices and specifications subject to change without notice. Northgate reserves the right to substitute components of equal or greater quality or 
performance. AD items subject to availability. We support the ethical use of software. To report software copyright violations, call the Snftware Publishers Association's Anti-Piracy Hotline at I-800-388-P1R8. 



Circle 208 on Reader Service Card 



DECEMBER 1990 -BYTE 239 



Northgate Announces... 



Slimline 386/33 

Plus! A new 60-day no-risk trial! 




I lirst time ever! Now you 

r\ can have Northgate Elegance™ 
JL power, speed and performance 
in our popular space-saving 
SlimLine case! Elegance 386 
computers shocked the industry 
with a #1 and #2 sweep of InjoWorlcFs 

1989 best product awards; AND 
three Editors' Choice awards from 
PC Magazine. 

Cache! Cache! Cache! Like 
our powerful Elegance systems, 
Slimline 386 features 64K SRAM 



cache to zip through the execution 
of instructions. For even more 
speed, we've added a hard drive 
cache that makes short work of I/O 
transactions. To top it off, SlimLine 
386 comes with Smartdrive DOS 
disk caching software that 
anticipates the information you'll 
need and brings it into the cache 
for fast access. 

Better features across the 
board! SlimLine's motherboard 
is fully integrated, allowing 



maximum system features in 
the smallest possible space. 
There's room for up to 16Mb of 
32-bit RAM, one parallel and two 
serial ports, a built-in floppy 
disk controller and IDE hard drive 
controller. Plus an integrated 
SVGA video with 5 12 K video 
RAM to speed bus throughput — 
makes the system faster and more 
reliable! And there's plenty more 
room for add-on peripherals — 
with SlimLine you get five open 
expansion slots. 



240 BYTE- DECEMBER 1990 



Cache System! 



/^limLine 386 comes with 
V Inters 386DX 33MHz 

ij processor. For faster 
math-based applications — budgets, 
forecasts, spreadsheets and data- 
bases — it features 80387 coprocessor 
support for adding floating point 
unit (FPU) speed enhancements. 

All purpose system! SlimLine 
Cache is the perfect network 
workstation or stand-alone system 
for business and home use. It also 
provides excellent support for 
advanced desktop publishing and 
graphics applications. 



the 
the 



our SlimLine 
SVGAColorSystem 

same great fa***« 
mono 



Or select 
386 



as 



i 200 Mb hard 



drive- 15ms access 



.14' 



SVGA 1024x768 color monitor 



FREE Performance Software 
Package with SVGA color 
system purchase! 

Limited time only! Select 
Northgate's SVGA color system 
and you'll get Samna® Ami™ 
Professional word processing and 
Informix® Wingz™ graphics 
spreadsheet — FREE! 

Industry's finest 24-hour 
toll-free technical support! Your 
SlimLine 386 Cache is backed 
by expert technical support any 
time you need it. Call toll-free, 
7 days a week, 24 hours a day. PLUS, 
free on-site next day service to 



most locations if we cant solve your 
problems over the phone. 

More great support! Your new 
SlimLine 386 Cache also comes 



SlimLine 386 Mono 
System Features: 

• 33M Hz Intel* 80386DXprocessor 

• 4Mb of 32-bit DRAM (expandable to 
16Mb on motherboard) 

• Down-scaled, U.S.-made motherboard 

• 40Mb fast access hard drive; AT bus 
interface; 1:1 interleave; 32K look 
ahead disk caching 

• 64K SRAM memory cache; read/ 
write-backcaching 

• High density 1.2Mb5.25"and 1.44Mb 
3.5"floppydrives; also read/write low- 
density disks 

• Fiveopen expansion slots; three 
full length 16-bitand 2 half 
length 8-bit 

• 25or33MHz80387orWeitek 
coprocessor support 

• One parallel and two serial ports 

• Built-in 16-bit SVGA with upto 
1024 x 768 resolution; 512K video 
memory 

• Clock/ calendar chip rated at 5 years 

• 100 watt power supply 

• Small footprint SlimLine case with 
room fortwoexposed and 1 internal 
half-height devices 

• Front mounted reset and high/ low 
speed controls 

• Exclusive Northgate Omni Key keyboard 

• 12" VGA monochrome monitor 

• Microsoft* Windows^. and mouse 

• MS-DOS 4.01 and GW-BASIC 
software installed 

• On-line User's Guide to the system and 
MS-DOS 4.01 

• QAPlus diagnostic and utility software 

• Smartdrive caching software 

• 1 year warranty on system parts and 
labor; 5 years on keyboard 

• FCC Class B Certified 



with a one year warranty on 
parts and labor; five years on the 
OmniKey keyboard. And, if a part 
fails, well ship a replacement to you 
overnight at our expense — before 
you return your part! 

Now use SlimLine for 60 
days — Risk Free! Were sure 
you'll want to keep your SlimLine 
Cache — so we wont rush you. 
Put it to the test in your office or 
home for a full 60 days. If it doesn't 
live up to everything we say, 
return it for a full refund — no 
questions asked. 

Order Today! Ask About 
Custom Configurations. 



oo 



Monochrome System 

$2999 

SVGA Color System 8 3999 00 
Delivered to your home or office 



EASY FINANCING: Easy payment options. 
Use your Northgate Big'N', VISA, MasterCard... 
or lease it. Up to five-year terms available. 



CALLT0LL-FREE 24 HOURS EVERY DAY 

800-54^1993 

New! Fax your QAA V)\ 1W) 
order toll free! OW'OUT I iOL 

Notice to the Hearing Impaired: Northgate has 
TDD capability. Dial 800-535-0602. 



NORTHGATE „ , 
7075 Flying Cloud Drive, Eden Prairie, MN 55344 



©Copyright Northman- Computer Systems, Inc. 1990. All rights reserved. Northgate. OmnrAW and the Northgate 'N' logo are registered trademarks of Nortligatc Computer Systems. 8038ft arid K(J4X6 arc trademarks of Intel. 

Ml other products and hrand names ;ire trademarks and registered trademarks <if theii respective companies. I'nccs and specifications subject m change mi: hour nor ice, Northgate reserves die right ro substitute components of equal or greater qualitv 

performance. All items subject to availability. We support the ethical use of software, 'lb report software copyright violations, call the Software Publishers Association's Anti-I'iracy I Iodine at l-KOO-.WH-l'IRK. 



Circle 209 on Reader Service Card 



DECEMBER 1990 -BYTE 241 



Northgate Elegance 386733 System... 

Now! Northgate Slashes Price... 
Doubles No-RiskTrialTo 60 Days! 




INFO 



WORLD 



1989 TOP 100 



Buy now. 

no payments 

for 90 days! 

When charged to 

your Big K card. 

See credit offer 

for details, 




NOVELL LABS 
AUTHORIZED 

TESTED and 
APPROVED 

NetWare Compatible 




Award winning 386 
performance! Sizzling 
Northgate Elegance 386/33 
and 386/25 systems won PCMagazitie 
Editors' Choice awards, were rated #1 
and #2 products (respectively) in 
InfoWorld AND received Computer 
Shopper "Best Buy" recognitions. No 
other company can make that claim! 
Here's how we did it! 

Elegance 386's high performance 
motherboard is designed and 
manufactured by Northgate. With a 
16Mb 32-bit DRAM capacity, it's 
consistently rated in the top 1 % of 
performance — at 25 and 33MHz, 
Elegance 386 is the fastest in its class! 



Tri-caching started here! Elegance 
was Northgate's first triple caching 
machine. It comes with 64K read 
write-back SRAM cache to accelerate 
the execution of instructions. 
(Northgate exclusive 256K system 
available.) A 32 K hard drive cache 
controller accelerates I/O transactions 
while Smartdrive DOS disk 
caching software increases overall 
system throughput. 

Zip through demanding programs. 

Multi-stage caching easily handles 
even a heavy overhead of video 
programs, 1/ O intensive tasks, network 
servers, large data bases and advanced 
desktop publishing programs. 



Desktop or tower. . .your choice! 

Elegance 386 comes standard in our 
elegant five bay desktop case. Our 
popular seven bay tower case is also 
available. Either way, you get plenty of 
room for all kinds of I/O boards, and 
internal /external peripherals. 

Start with our monochrome 
system! Northgate uses a modular 
approach that lets you add the 
components you need. Northgate's 
Elegance 386 mono system includes 
4Mb of RAM, a 40Mb fast access hard 
drive, 1.2Mb 5.25" and 1.44Mb 3.5" 
floppy drives, a 14" high resolution 
monochrome monitor and our exclusive 
Om/iiKey® keyboard. 



242 BYTE- DECEMBER 1990 



PC Magazine said: Elegance "combines top performance, good 
components and aggressive pricing...an excellent performer all around."' 



rell us what you need . . . 
we'll build your system! 
Performance options include: 
hard drives up to 1.2 gigabytes with 
15ms access; VGA and SVGA color 
cards and monitors; Intel and Weitek 
math coprocessors; CD ROM and 
optical drives; tape backups; printers 
and a host of others! 

Industry's finest 24-hour toll- 
free technical support! Your 
Elegance 386 is backed by expert 
technical support any time you 
need it. Call toll-free, 7 days a week, 



24 hours a day. PLUS, free on-site 
next day service to most locations 
if we can't solve your problems over 
the phone. 

Elegance 386 is backed by a one year 
warranty on parts and labor; five 
years on the OmniKey keyboard. If a 
part fails, we'll ship a replacement 
to you overnight at our expense — 
before you return your part! 

Now! Use Elegance 386/25 or 
33MHz RISK FREE for 60 days! 

If it fails to meet your expectations, 
return it. No questions asked. 



FREE PERFORMANCE 
Software Package with SVGA 
color system purchase! 

Limited time only! Select 
Northgates SVGA color system and 
you'll get Samna® Ami™ Professional 
word processing and Informix® 
Wingz™ graphics spreadsheet — FREE! 

ORDER TODAY! ASK ABOUT 
CUSTOM CONFIGURATION. 

25MHz Monochrome System 

$279900 

SVGAColorSystem s 3999 M 

33MHz Monochrome System 

$399900 

SVGA Color System H299 00 
Delivered to your home or office 

EASY FINANCING: Easy payment 
options. Use your Northgate Big N, VISA, 
MasterCard . . .or lease it. Up to five-year 
terms available. 

CALLTOLL-FREE24 HOURSEVERYDAY 

800-548-1993 

New.. .FAX your QAA W> 7100 
order toll-free! OUU" OLO'1 10£ 

Notice to the Hearing Impaired: Northgate has 
TDD capability. Dial 800-535-0602. 

7075 Flying Cloud Drive, Eden Prairie, MN 55344 

'PC Mogazinr. October 31. 1989 

©Copyright Northgate Computer Systems. Inc. 1990. All rights reserved. Northgate, OmniKey and the Northgate 'N'logoare registered trademarks of Northg3tc Computer Systems. 80386 and 80486 are trademarks of lmel. 

All other products and brand namesare trademarks and registered trademarks of their respective companies. Prices 3nd specifications subject to change without notice. Northg3te reserves the right to substitute components ofc<|ual or greater quality or 

performance. All items subject to availability. We support the ethical use of software. To report software copyright violations, call the Software Publishers Association's Anti-Piracy Hotline at 1-8O0-388-P1R8. 



Elegance 386 Monochrome System Features: 


• 25or33MHzIntel @ 80386DX 


• Desktop case with room for three 


processor 


exposed and 2 internal half -height 


• 4Mb of 32-bit RAM (expandable 
to 8Mb on motherboard; tocaJ 


devices; optional seven bay tower case 
has room for three exposed and four 


system RAM of 16Mb with optional 


internal half -height devices 


32-bit memory card) 


• Front mounted reset and high/ low 


• U.S.-made motherboard 


speed controls 


• 40Mb fast access hard drive; 16-bit 


• Exclusive Northgate OmniKey 


controller with 1:1 interleave; 32 K 


keyboard 


disk read-look-ahead cache buffer 






• 14" high resolution monochrome 


• 64K SRAM memory cache; read/ 


monitor 


write-back caching 






• Microsoft®Windo\vs™3.0and 


• High density 1.2Mb 5.25"and 


mouse 


1.44Mb 3 .5" floppy drives; also 




read/write low density disks 


• MS-DOS 4.01 and GW-BASIC 


• Eight expansion slots; one 32-bit slot; 


software installed 


six 16-bit and one 8-bitslot 


• On-line User's Guide to the system 


• Weitek math coprocessor support 


and MS-DOS 4.01 


• One parallel and two serial ports 


• QA Plus Diagnostic and Utility 


• Hercules compatible video adapter 


software 


• Clock/ calendar chip rated at 5 years 


• 1 year warranty on system parts and 




labor; 5 years on keyboard 


• 200 watt power supply (220 watt 




power supply in tower case 


• FCC Class B Certified 



Select our Elegance 386 SVGA 
Color System! We took our popular 
Mono System and added even more 
power-packed features! You get: 

• Super-fast 200Mb Maxtor hard drive 
with 15ms access 

• 14" SVGA 1024 x 768 color monitor 

• 16-bit SVGA adapter with 512K video 
memory 



Circle 210 on Reader Service Card 



DECEMBER 1990 • B Y T E 243 



New Northgate Elegance 486i™ System. 



"Editors' Choice" said PC Magazine? 

(Adding: "Northgate stops at nothing to please its 
customers...97 % would buy again!"**) 



InjbWorldhbs scored 
it 9.1-top rating ever! f 

Incredible power and unmatched 
performance at a price you'd 
expect to pay for a 386™! 



$ 



5199 



00 



Delivered to Your Home or Office 

TTThether 80286, 386 or 
1/1/ 486 technology, Northgate 
r F consistently brings you top rated 
systems. Our value and performance is 
unexcelled when you look at the experts' 
opinions. Northgate is a company in 
which you can place your trust — perhaps 
our most important advantage! 

In January, 1988, Northgate won its 
first Editors' Choice for the 286/12 
SuperMicro. Northgate leadership 
prevailed again when PC Magazine 
benched 386 systems. One couldn't do 
better. Three Editors' Choice — one for 
each speed in our Elegance line of 20, 25 
and 33MHz systems. Northgate is the 
only company who can make this claim! 

PC Magazine then called for 486 
ISA systems for review. Result: 
there was no question about it. "Only 
one machine stands out," they said, 
"you could pay less for a 486 system, 
butnotgetthebonuses that are offered 
with the Elegance."* 

Along the way, we added another Editors' 
Choice of our OmniKef keyboard. 
There you have it... 

A record five Editors' Choice 
Awards in one year's time! 




About the same time, the tough 
testers at InfoWorld 'were thoroughly and 
methodically examining Elegance 486i. 
They reported you could buy the next 
highest ranked system (scoring 8.2 vs. 
our 9.1) but you'd also pay three 
times as muchlt 

InfoWorld s editors concluded that 
Northgate's 486i "leads the pack by a 
comfortable margin. It offers impressive 
performance, exceptional expandability 
and it is tops in support and value."! 



InfoWorld showed Elegance 
486i leading the pack again as 
a network file server and 
stand-alone system as well. 

And, as if we had planned it, 

PC Magazine came along with its 
Service and Reliability issue in 
which Northgate's dedication to 




customer support was well evidenced. 
"As we learned more about its service 
policies, it became clear that Northgate 
stops at nothing to please its customers." 
No wonder "Northgate was the 
hands-down winner when it came to 
customer loyalty."** 

That's the story. Designed and built to 
perform. Proven by the industry's most 
demanding testing. Fairly priced. And 
backed by people with a passion to serve 
you with a support policy that inspired 

one magazine columnist 

to say: 

"What WordPerfect is to 
software support, Northgate is 
to hardware and there are even a 
few things that WordPerfect 
could learn from the folks in 
Minneapolis. Northgate is fast 
becoming the Nordstrom of the 
computer world."tt 



244 BYTE- DECEMBER 1990 



NOW! Northgate leads the pack again 
with a new 60-day no-risk trial! 



r M The secret to Northgates 
m state-of-the-art power! The 
X 486 processor combines the 
capabilities of an enhanced 386, an 
advanced internal cache controller and 
8K of supporting static cache memory. 
The chip also incorporates an enhanced 
387 FPU (Floating Point Unit). You 
get increased performance for the most 
demanding math-based applications. 

Northgate caching enhancements 
give you greater speed! We've 
added a 64K read write-back SRAM 
cache (Northgate exclusive 256K 
system available) to further accelerate 
the execution of instructions. I/O 
transactions are faster than ever thanks 
to a 32K hard drive cache controller. 
Finally, we armed Elegance 486/25 
with Smartdrive DOS disk caching 



software. Result? Processing speed 
you must see to believe! 

Elegance 486i ISA is the perfect 

high performance graphics/software 
workstation or network server. Its 
multi-stage caching is an excellent match 
for tough number-crunching operations. 

Look at everything you get! Elegance 
486i comes complete with the 
spectacular 100Mb super-fast hard 
drive! This hard drive operates so 
quietly only the flashing red light tells 
you its running. 

PLUS, you get 4Mb of RAM, 1.2Mb 
5.25" and 1.44Mb 3.5" floppies, 
desktop case, 14" SVGA color 
monitor with 1024 x 768 resolution, 
16-bit SVGA video adapter with 512 K 
memory and exclusive Omm Key® 



Elegance 486i SVGA Color System Features 


♦ 25MHz Intel® 80486 processor 


♦ Clock/calendar chip rated at 5 years 


♦ 4Mb of 32-bit RAM (expandable 


♦ 200 watt power supply (220 watt power 


to 8Mb on motherboard; total system 


supply in tower case) 


RAM of 16Mb with optional 32-bit 
memory card) 


♦ Desktop case with room for 3 exposed 


and 2 internal half-height devices 


♦ U.S.-made motherboard 




♦ 100Mb IDE hard drive; 16-bit controller 


♦ Front mounted reset and high/low 
speed controls 


with 1:1 interleave; 32K disk read-look- 


ahead cache buffer 


♦ Exclusive Northgate OmtiiKey 


♦ 64K SRAM memory cache; 


keyboard 


read/write-back caching 


♦ MS-DOS 4.01 and GW-BASIC software 


♦ High density 1.2Mb 5.25" and 1.44Mb 


installed 


3.5" floppy drives; also read/write low 


♦ On-line User's Guide to the system and 


density disks 


MS-DOS 4.01 


♦ Eight expansion slots; one 32-bit slot; 
six 16-bit and one 8-bit slot 


♦ QA Plus Diagnostic and Utility software 




♦ Microsoft Windows 3.0 and mouse 


♦ Weitek math coprocessor support 




♦ One parallel and two serial ports 


♦ 1 year warranty on system parts and 


♦ 14" SVGA color monitor with 1024 x 


labor; 5 years on keyboard 


768 resolution 


♦ Unlimited 24-hour toll-free technical 


♦ 16-bit SVGA adapter with 512 K video 


support 


memory 


♦ FCC Class B Certified 



Select the options you need ... 




let Northgate custom build them into your system today! 


♦ Hard drives up to 1.2 gigabytes 


♦ Laser quality and dot matrix 


♦ Tape back up devices 


printers 


♦ Floppy, CD ROM and optical drives 


♦ SVGA color monitors and cards 


♦ Modems 


♦ Weitek coprocessors 



keyboard. We've even included 
Microsoft® Windows™ 3.0 and a 
mouse! 

FREE Performance Software 
Package with SVGA color system 
purchase! 

Limited time only! Select Northgates 
SVGA color system and youll get 
Samna® Ami™ Professional word 
processing and Informix® Wingz™ 
graphics spreadsheet — FREE! 

Support power! Elegance 486i ISA 
is backed by expert toll-free technical 
support 24 hours a day, seven days a 
week. PLUS, free on-site next day 
service to most locations if we can't 
solve your problems over the phone 
AND a 1 year parts and labor warranty; 
5 years on OmtiiKey® keyboard. 

Northgate doubles no-risk trial 
offer! We re so sure you'll love 
Elegance 486 i, well let you use it 
RISK FREE for 60 days! If it fails to 
meet your expectations, return it for a 
full refund. No questions asked! 

ORDER TODAY! ASK ABOUT 
CUSTOM CONFIGURATIONS. 



Complete SVGA Color System 
ONLY Ul/7 

KASY FINANCING: Easy payment options. Use 
your Northgate Big TnT, VISA, MasterCard ... or lease 
it. Up to five-year terms available. 

CALL TOLL-FREE 
24 HOURS EVERY DAY 

800-548-1993 

New! Fax your OAA TM lift) 
order toll free! OUU'OlO"/ IOL 

Notice to the Hearing Impaired: Northgate has 
11)13 capability. Dial 800-535-0602. 



/" 



©Copyright Northgate Computer Systems. Inc. 19**0. Alt rights reserved. Northfi;itc, §mm'firy and the North&itc"N' logo arc registered trademarks of Norihgiuc Computer S 
trademarks and registered trademarks of their respective companies. Prices ami specifications subject to change without notice. Noi titrate reserves the right t* substitute (.' 
support the ethical use of software, lo report software copyright violations, call the Software Publishers Association's Ami-]'irm:y I luiline at 1-800- 388-HR8. 
' HI Maptzint, September II. 1990 " VC Magazine. September 25. 1990 
t/nfiMrM, July 30. 1990 \\Cmn(mta Cmnts, Aiirusi, W)0 



NORTHGATE 
COMPUTER 
f„ SYSTEMS 

7075 Flying Cloud Drive, Eden Prairie, MN 55344 

is. «0.>8o and 80186 are trademarks of Intel. Allother products and brand names are 
mews of equal or greater quality or performance. All items subject to availability. We 



Circle 211 on Reader Service Card 



DECEMBER 1990 -BYTE 245 



REVIEWER'S NOTEBOOK 



Reviewer's Notebook provides new information— including version updates, 
new test data, long-term usage reports, and reader feedback— on products 
previously reviewed in BYTE. 



A Colorful Luggable 




Although the 
DolchC-P.A.C. 
486-25 can 
produce only eight 
colors, the screen 
is bright and 
clear, and the 
colors are 
adequate for many 
CAD applications. 



High-powered portables are nothing 
new; luggable 386s have been 
around almost as long as their 
desktop-bound cousins. But while desk- 
top 386 and 486 systems have supported 
high-end color graphics from the start, 




Dolch C-P.A.C. 486-25 

Company 

Dolch Computer Systems 
2029 OToole Ave. 
San Jose, CA 95131 
(408) 435-8260 



Components (as tested) 

Processor: 25-MHz i486 CPU 

Memory: 8 MB of RAM 

Mass storage: 200-MB Intelligent Drive 

Electronics hard disk drive; 3 1 /2-inch 

1 .44-MB floppy disk drive 

Display: TFT color 

Keyboard: 84-key IBM AT-style with 12 

function keys 

I/O interfaces: One serial port; one 

parallel port 

Price 

Monochrome system: $12,995 
TFT color screen option: $3995 

Inquiry 1075. 



portables have generally been limited to 
low-contrast, 1-bit LCDs or gas-plasma 
displays. 

Dolch' s new C-P.A.C. color portable 
brings color to the high-end portable, 
and it does it brilliantly. I looked at the 
color display option on a P. A. C. 486-25 
(see "World's Fastest Lunchbox," May 
BYTE). Unfortunately, the price of the 
display is too high to make this— or any 
machine that uses the current generation 
of color LCDs— much more than a nov- 
elty. 

A Hitachi thin-film transistor LCD 
array forms the foundation for the Dolch 
display. The backlit TFT, or active-ma- 
trix, display, generates a bright, uni- 
formly high-contrast image at VGA reso- 
lutions. 

Each pixel is made up of three LCD 
elements that are sandwiched between 
two polarizing filters. Each element in 
the pixel group looks out through a dif- 
ferent color filter— one red, one blue, 
and one green. A fluorescent backlight 
shines white light through the pixel 
groups. 

When in the off state, the LCD ele- 
ments twist light that is polarized by the 
rear filter so that the light cannot pass 
through the forward filter. When you ap- 
ply a current to the LCD elements, they 
straighten out, and the light can pass 



through unimpeded. By turning differ- 
ent combinations of the red, green, and 
blue elements on and off, you can get 
eight colors. 

Active-matrix technology uses a tran- 
sistor for each element to switch current 
on and off and to maintain current while 
the LCD controller is addressing other 
elements. The result is a high-contrast, 
high-speed display: Dolch claims that 
the screen updates in 40 milliseconds, 
compared to 300 ms for passive-matrix 
designs. 

Although the C-P.A.C. provides only 
eight colors, it supports all the VGA 
modes except mode 19, which is 320 by 
200 pixels by 256 colors. The 16-color 
modes simply lose eight colors. The 
video circuitry "thresholds"— in other 
words, it decides whether, for example, 
the shade of green that the software 
wants to display is closer to bright green 
or to black, and then outputs the appro- 
priate color. 

This leads to weird effects in Win- 
dows, which uses a lot of grays in the de- 
fault palette. The C-P.A.C. sees most of 
Windows' grays as white, so grayed-out 
menu choices and icons can disappear 
into the background. 

Dolch is working on a driver that will 
limit Windows to the eight available 
colors. Meanwhile, the company sug- 
gests that current users simply modify 
the default palette. 

However, the Dolch C-P.A.C. will 
probably find its biggest market among 
CAD users, and for this application there 
should be no problems. AutoCAD ran 
fine, and the display is easily fast enough 
to display pointer movements without 
blurring. In addition, since most CAD 
drawings use only a few bold colors, the 
eight-color limitation is not a major 
drawback. 

At just under $4000, the portable color 
display is definitely only for applications 
for which color is essential. However, if 
LCD production yields improve, as many 
are predicting, the era of the personal, 
portable color computer may not be so 
very far off. The Dolch C-P.A.C. pro- 
vides a glimpse of a bright future for 
portables. 

—Steve Apiki 



246 BYTE- DECEMBER 1990 



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REVIEWER'S NOTEBOOK 



dBASE IV 1 .1 : Ashton-Tate Answers the Critics 





KyperHisk (TH) 8B3B6 Connand Processor Iters Ion 4. 88, 5/U/98 

by KyperUare, 14468 Sycanore flue., San Martin, Cft 95846. (488) 603-4911 

Copyright (C) 1987-38 by Roger Cross, fishton-Tate, dBASE IU License 




8B3B6 Extended Hemru Uersion 4.88, 5/11/98 — 81 ready Installed! 
17712 Bytes of Conventional Henory used (Kon-Re leasable). 








Cache Menory Size : 137 Caching Function : OK 
Buffers in Cache : 21 Floppy Caching i OFF 
Sectors/Buffer : 13 Disk Write Verify s OFF 
Idle Tine Belay : 8 Stage Hard Write : OH 
Media Check Tine s 3 Stage Floppy Write ; OFF 

Cache Read Kit : 29k 49 Alfred Hypothesized 1 

Background Update Tine : Inactive 

Advanced Update : H4F Bisk 58 Miriam Socketed 

Hard Sectors/Track ; 8:26 | 

Floppy Sectors/h 1 








1 _J 


wiand fCAdbasellNDBZ jj^c EOf/SB ||nie| j ___^__M 



It should have been a minor update, one 
of those software releases sent out to 
registered users without much fan- 
fare. But given Ashton-Tate' s problems 
with the initial release of its bread-and- 
butter product, I awaited dBASE I V 1 . 1 
with anticipation and skepticism. Would 
the new release fix the problems, and 




dBASE IV 1.1 

Company 

Ashton-Tate 
20101 Hamilton Ave. 
Torrance, CA 90509 
(213)329-8000 



Hardware Needed 

IBM PC, XT, AT, PS/2, or compatible with 
640K bytes of memory (450K bytes 
available) and 4 MB of disk space 

Software Needed 

MS-DOS 2.10 or higher 

Price 

dBASE IV 1.1: $795 
Developer's Edition: $1295 
LAN Pack: $995 
(Free to registered owners of 
dBASE IV 1.0) 



Inquiry 1077. 



dBASE IV Li's 

newDBCACHE 

dramatically 

improves the disk 

performance of 

dBASE 

applications. 



would it allow Ashton-Tate to rebound 
from its current slide? 

Certainly, dBASE IV 1 . 1 boasts some 
important improvements. The biggest of 
these is the revamped memory system. 
dBASE IV 1 .0 ate up so much RAM that 
it often required extra hardware to run 
over a network. In some situations, each 
of the workstations running dBASE re- 
quired an additional memory card. Ver- 
sion 1.1 has slimmed down, requiring a 
maximum of 450K bytes at run time (ver- 
sus 516K bytes for version 1.0). Ashton- 
Tate claims that the new dynamic Mem- 
ory Management System (dMMS) can 
swap program code overlays more effi- 
ciently. 

dBASE I V 1 . 1 also includes a DOS en- 
vironment variable (DBHEAP) that al- 
lows you to specify the amount of mem- 
ory allocated for application space. For 
large applications, you can set DBHEAP 
to a higher value, freeing up additional 
memory for the application. For basic 
dBASE Control Center operations and 
for programs with extensive menus or 
windows, a lower DBHEAP value deliv- 
ers additional memory for overlay swap- 
ping. 

The new swapping scheme should 
translate into improved performance. 
I ran BYTE's dBASE benchmark suite 
under both versions of dBASE. Version 
1.1 negotiated the delete/pack bench- 
mark and the sort benchmark signifi- 



cantly faster than version 1.0 did. The 
increased speed should be even more no- 
ticeable with large, menu-intensive ap- 
plications. 

When I enabled DBCACHE, the new 
disk cache bundled with each copy of 
version 1.1, performance improved dra- 
matically. Version 1 . 1 with DBCACHE 
halved the indexing time and the delete/ 
pack time, and the sort benchmark ran 
almost four times faster than under ver- 
sion 1.0. 

Ashton-Tate has also made some en- 
hancements to the dBASE language. The 
most significant of these is the SET DB- 
TRAP command. When you have DB- 
TRAP turned on, it prevents critical er- 
rors from occurring when a routine is 
interrupted. For instance, it will not 
allow you to start a second Edit session 
from within a current Edit session. 

The SET DBTRAP command can en- 
hance the utility of user-defined func- 
tions. The UDF or other interrupt rou- 
tine can change the dBASE environment, 
thus confusing the original interrupted 
program; DBTRAP can resolve such 
conflicts. And with DBTRAP off, ad- 
vanced programmers have virtually un- 
limited control over UDFs. 

The INDEX command now supports a 
FOR clause. The FOR clause limits the 
index to records meeting certain criteria. 
Searches are faster, and less disk space is 
consumed, because the index tracks only 
those records meeting the defined crite- 
ria. And you can now create or modify 
an index directly from a Browse or Edit 
screen. 

It looks like Ashton-Tate has resolved 
some of dBASE 1 .0's most glaring faults. 
The decreased RAM demand enhances 
network support and improves perfor- 
mance. More efficient overlay swapping 
translates into snappier operation, espe- 
cially with larger applications. And Ash- 
ton-Tate has apparently fixed the bug 
that caused incorrect results from certain 
Structured Query Language queries. It 
looks like a strong product— but will it 
rebuild Ashton-Tate's reputation as the 
premier manufacturer of PC databases? 
Only time and an extensive user commu- 
nity can tell. ■ 

—StanDiehl 



248 BYTE- DECEMBER 1990 



' : ;;r- 



iggg 






Name 



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I I Yrjb! Please send me 1 year 

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I... I. . I.. I, l.ul. III.,. I, I.., I. .III.. .1.1. ...II. I 






& ft 



% 






386SX under the hood. 
Light weight under your arm. 



In the computer world, power and speed translate 
into weight and bulk. That means if you're a person 
on the go, you'd have to play part-time weight lifter, 
or be willing to sacrifice megahertz and megabytes. 

But now those days are over. Because now there' s 
the Altima NSX notebook computer. It's light. It's 
sleek. And, oh my, is it powerful. 

The 80386SX, 32-bit microprocessor runs at 
16 MHz. Plus there are two megabytes of RAM that 
can expand all the way up to eight. The Altima NSX 
also has a built-in 1.44 megabyte floppy and a 20 
megabyte hard drive. 

What's more, all of this is packed 
into a handsome 9 lb. package 
that can easily fit inside most 
briefcases. 

So now you don't have 
to carry your attache in one 




hand, a portable computer in the other, and your 
airline tickets between your teeth. 

But the exciting part is when you begin working. 
You'll appreciate the exceptional resolution of the 
paper white LCD display. You'll admire the VGA 
screen with its 32-level gray scaling. And you'll be 
pleased knowing that the 2400 baud modem didn't 
cost you a penny extra. 

If all this isn't enough, how about being able 

to send a FAX? That's right-a FAX. Altima NSX 

features a send FAX mode capability that'll let any 

party with a FAX machine receive an 

actual paper document. 

It's obvious that Altima has 

thought of everything. But what's 

nicest of all is they thought of you 

when putting on the price tag. 



Altima Systems, Inc., 1390 Willow Pass RdL, Suite 1050, Concord, CA 94520 800/356-9990 



altima 



Circle 22 on Reader Service Card 



COVER STORY 



STATE OF THE ART 



Advanced 
Graphics 



253 Graphics Go 3-D 

by Steve Upstill 



263 Ray Tracing for Realism 

by AndrewS. Glassner 



21S Color WYSIWYG 
Comes of Age 

by Frank Vaughn 



281 True Color for Windows 

by Adam Bellin and 
Pier Del Frate 



289 Putting the Squeeze 
on Graphics 

by Nick Baran 



297 HDTV Sparks 

a Digital Revolution 

by Andrew lippman 



307 Graphics Engines 



Time was, the words computer 
graphics implied line graphs 
and bar charts. Now, graphics 
and photography seem to have 
merged— at least, that's what you'd think 
looking at the results. Today, advanced 
computer graphics can create and manip- 
ulate color images in three dimensions 
with photographic precision and photo- 
realism. 

When you want graphics to convey 
three dimensions instead of two, there's 
a lot more involved than just adding a 
coordinate. The world of three-dimen- 
sional images brings with it the added ex- 
pectation of realism: The images need to 
resemble real-world objects. In "Graph- 
ics Go 3-D," Steve Upstill discusses the 
challenges involved in creating photo- 
realistic 3-D images. 

One such challenge is ray tracing. Dif- 
ferent companies have different methods 
for handling the effects of light on a 
scene: shading, light reflection, and col- 
or modification. But for a scene or an ob- 
ject to approach the appearance of real- 
ism, you must deal, in one way or 
another, with ray tracing. In "Ray Trac- 
ing for Realism," Andrew S. Glassner 
discusses the concepts and techniques 
necessary to imitate the effects of vari- 
ous types of light rays on color in a 3-D 
image. 

Color in advanced graphics is another 
area where significant progress is being 
made. Putting great colors and a great 
many colors on the screen has been viable 
for some time now. In fact, some compa- 
nies offer more colors than I can even 
imagine trying to choose from. The 
chances of being able to match a specific 
color on the screen are extremely high. 
But what happens when you print it out? 
In "Color WYSIWYG Comes of Age," 
Frank Vaughn shows how to calibrate 



your display device so that the colors you 
see on your screen are exactly the same 
as the colors you get on your printer. 

All this wonderful color talk may 
seem like a moot point if you use a PC- 
compatible machine. Workstation-qual- 
ity graphics have moved to the Macin- 
tosh, but until recently, they hadn't made 
the trek into DOS land. Well, times have 
changed. Windows 3.0 provides the ca- 
pability for 24-bit graphics to migrate to 
PCs. In "True Color for Windows," 
Adam Bellin and Pier Del Frate show 
how you can obtain high-quality images 
in true color on a DOS machine. 

And what do you need when you have 
workstation-quality color graphics? You 
need tons of storage to hold an image- 
all that color and high resolution to boot 
can take literally megabytes for a single 
image— or some form of image compres- 
sion. In "Putting the Squeeze on Graph- 
ics," Nick Baran investigates the new 
compression standards that are taking 
hold for full-color graphics and full-mo- 
tion video. 

Where do graphics go from here? Pre- 
dictions are hinting loudly at TV, and the 
bridge between computers and TV is 
under construction. Have you noticed the 
number of new TVs touting digital capa- 
bilities? And only high-definition TV 
will meet the needs of high-end com- 
puter graphics. In "HDTV Sparks a Dig- 
ital Revolution," Andrew Lippman de- 
scribes HDTV and its impact on 
computer graphics and on the future. 

From bar charts to wire-frame models 
to photo-realism, from low-resolution 
monochrome monitors to high-resolution 
color monitors to HDTV— when you're 
speaking of the graphics world, one line 
says it all: You've come a long way, baby. 
—Jane Morrill Tazelaar 
Senior Editor, State of the Art 



250 BYTE* DECEMBER 1990 




ILLUSTRATION: SANDRA FILIPPUCCI © 1990 



DECEMBER 1990 -BYTE 251 







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Circle 121 on Reader Service Card 



STATE OF THE ART 
ADVANCED GRAPHICS 



COVER STORY 



Graphics Go 3-D 

Photo-realism demands that 3-D figures look exactly like 
real-world objects; that's the challenge 



Steve Upstill 



What's the big 
deal? 3-D isn't 
new. Maybe 
not, but three- 
dimensional computer-gener- 
ated photo-realism is. And 
the tools and techniques to 
bring this realism to the mi- 
crocomputer on your desk 
definitely are. 

Going to three dimensions 
isn't just a matter of incre- 
menting the dimension count 
by 1 . There are fundamental 
expectations that 3-D graph- 
ics must fulfill, because the 
world that we live in is a 3-D 
world. For 3-D images to ap- 
pear real, you must deal with 
all sorts of challenges that are 
entirely different from those 
faced in two dimensions. 

The Challenges of 3-D 

Inthemost formal terms, 3-D 
graphics programs manipu- 
late and create images of enti- 
ties that are described geometrically, as 
coordinates in 3-D space. This process 
becomes more difficult because the 3-D 
images must be represented on a two- 
dimensional surface. Any number of 
programs can put 2-D circles, squares, 
lines, curves, patterns, and other entities 
on a 2-D screen or page. 

In some sense, a 2-D graphic is com- 
plete by itself. You don't expect a busi- 

ILLUSTRATION: SANDRA FILIPPUCCI© 1990 




ness bar chart to resemble anything you 
would see on the street in real life. A rich 
graphical language for entities in the 2-D 
world exists (type is one), most business 
people know how to interpret them, and 
you don't expect them to be more than 
they are. On the other hand, 3-D figures 
only make sense to the extent that they 
resemble actual things in the real world. 
The corollary to this forms the second 



difference between two and 
three dimensions: The expec- 
tation of realism means that 
the surfaces of 3-D entities 
need correct optical proper- 
ties to be properly interpret- 
ed. In addition, the problem 
of creating shapes in three di- 
mensions is much more diffi- 
cult than that of creating 2-D 
shapes in two dimensions (see 
photo 1). 

While normally you don't 
need to represent the interiors 
of 3-D figures, describing the 
undulations of the surface it- 
self is by definition much 
harder than creating curves 
and regions in two dimen- 
sions. You're not just putting 
a curve into a higher dimen- 
sion, you're also squaring the 
amount of information in- 
volved. 

Furthermore, in three di- 
mensions, topology becomes 
a problem. While curves on a 
page can be connected arbitrarily, the 
connection of surfaces without erroneous 
discontinuities in three dimensions is at 
best difficult. 

Finally, working in three dimensions 
is tougher than working in two dimen- 
sions because you face the problem of 
manipulating a 3-D world on a 2-D sur- 
face. This is more than 50 percent more 
difficult than manipulating a 2-D entity 

DECEMBER 1990 'BYTE 253 



STATE OF THE ART 
GRAPHICS GO 3-D 



Photo 1: A series of steps 
involved in modeling and 
rendering a photo-realistic 
3-D image: (a) The wire- 
frame stage; (b) the 
polygon-fitting stage; 
(c) the polygon-smoothing 
result; 




(d) (e) 



(d), (e), and (f) show 
increasing realism due to 
advanced shading 
techniques. All these images